George Eastman Museum
The George Eastman Museum, the world's oldest museum dedicated to photography and one of the world's oldest film archives, opened to the public in 1949 in Rochester, New York. World-renowned for its collections in the fields of photography and cinema, the museum is a leader in film preservation and photograph conservation, educating archivists and conservators from around the world. Home to the 500-seat Dryden Theatre, the museum is located on the estate of entrepreneur and philanthropist George Eastman, the founder of Eastman Kodak Company; the estate was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966. The Rochester estate of George Eastman was bequeathed upon his death to the University of Rochester. University presidents occupied Eastman's mansion as a residence for ten years. In 1948, the university transferred the property to the museum and the Georgian Revival Style mansion was adapted to serve the museum's operations. George Eastman House was chartered as a museum in 1947. From the outset, the museum's mission has been to collect and present the history of photography and film.
The museum opened its doors on November 9, 1949, displaying its core collections in the former public rooms of Eastman's house. In October 2015, the museum changed its name from George Eastman House to the George Eastman Museum; the museum's original collections included the Medicus collection of Civil War photographs by Alexander Gardner, Eastman Kodak Company's historical collection, the massive Gabriel Cromer collection of nineteenth-century French photography. The Eastman Museum has received donations of entire archives and individual collections, the estates of leading photographers, as well as thousands of motion pictures and massive holdings of cinematic ephemera. By 1984, the museum's holdings were considered by many to be among the world's finest, but with the collections growing at a rapid pace, the museum was burdened by its own success. Additional space became critical to study the increasing number of collected objects; the museum's expansion facility opened to the public in January 1989.
In 1999, the George Eastman Museum launched the Mellon Advanced Residency Program in Photograph Conservation, made possible with grant support from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation; the program trained conservators from around the world. In 1996, the museum opened the Louis B. Mayer Conservation Center in New York. One of only four film conservation centers in the United States, the facility houses the museum's rare 35 mm prints made on cellulose nitrate; that same year, the Eastman House launched the first school of film preservation in the United States to teach restoration and archiving of motion pictures. The L. Jeffrey Selznick School of Film Preservation was founded with support from The Louis B. Mayer Foundation. George Eastman Museum has organized numerous groundbreaking exhibitions, including New Topographics: Photographs of a Man-Altered Landscape in 1975; the current director of the George Eastman Museum is Bruce Barnes, appointed in September 2012. The George Eastman Museum is headed by a board of trustees.
Kevin Gavagan is the current chair of board. The George Eastman Museum's annual budget is $10 million; as of December 2014, its endowment exceeded $35 million. The museum's holdings comprise more than 400,000 photographs and negatives dating from the invention of photography to the present day; the photography collection embraces numerous landmark processes, objects of great rarity, monuments of art history that trace the evolution of the medium as a technology, as a means of scientific and historical documentation, as one of the most potent and accessible means of personal expression of the modern era. More than 14,000 photographers are represented in the collection, including all the major figures in the history of the medium; the collection includes original vintage works produced by nearly every process and printing medium employed. Notable holdings include: One of the world's largest collection of daguerreotypes, including more than 1,000 by Southworth & Hawes A major collection of nineteenth-century photographs of the American West by photographers including Carleton Watkins, Eadweard Muybridge, Timothy H. O'Sullivan, William Henry Jackson A major collection of ca.
1890s–1910s glass negatives from French photojournalist Charles Chusseau-Flaviens The photographic estates of Lewis Hine, Edward Steichen, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Nickolas Muray and Victor Keppler A major collection of Ansel Adams’ early and vintage printsThe museum's collection includes works by leading contemporary artists, including Andy Warhol, Candida Höfer, David Levinthal, Cindy Sherman, Adam Fuss, Vik Muniz, Gillian Wearing, Ori Gersht, Mickalene Thomas, Chris McCaw, Matthew Brandt. The George Eastman Museum Motion Picture Collection is one of the major moving image archives in the United States, it was established in 1949 by the first curator of film, James Card who helped to build the George Eastman Museum as a leading force in the field with holdings of over 25,000 titles and a collection of stills and papers with over 3 millio
Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía
The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía is Spain's national museum of 20th-century art. The museum was inaugurated on September 10, 1992, is named for Queen Sofía, it is located in Madrid, near the Atocha train and metro stations, at the southern end of the so-called Golden Triangle of Art. The museum is dedicated to Spanish art. Highlights of the museum include excellent collections of Spain's two greatest 20th-century masters, Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dalí; the most famous masterpiece in the museum is Picasso's painting Guernica. Along with its extensive collection, the museum offers a mixture of national and international temporary exhibitions in its many galleries, making it one of the world's largest museums for modern and contemporary art, it hosts a free-access library specializing in art, with a collection of over 100,000 books, over 3,500 sound recordings, 1,000 videos. The museum is dedicated to Spanish art. Highlights of the museum include excellent collections of Spain's two greatest 20th-century masters, Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dalí.
The most famous masterpiece in the museum is Picasso's painting Guernica. The Reina Sofía collection has works by artists such as Joan Miró, Eduardo Chillida, Pablo Gargallo, Julio González, Luis Gordillo, Juan Gris, José Gutiérrez Solana, Lucio Muñoz, Jorge Oteiza, Julio Romero de Torres, Pablo Serrano, Antoni Tàpies. International art represented in the collection include works by Francis Bacon, Joseph Beuys, Pierre Bonnard, Georges Braque, Alexander Calder, Robert Delaunay, Max Ernst, Lucio Fontana, Sarah Grilo, Damien Hirst, Donald Judd, Vasily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Yves Klein, Fernand Léger, Jacques Lipchitz, René Magritte, Henry Moore, Bruce Nauman, Gabriel Orozco, Nam June Paik, Man Ray, Diego Rivera, Mark Rothko, Julian Schnabel, Richard Serra, Cindy Sherman, Clyfford Still, Yves Tanguy, Wolf Vostell; the building is on the site of the first General Hospital of Madrid. King Philip II centralised all the hospitals. In the eighteenth century, King Ferdinand VI decided to build a new hospital because the facilities at the time were insufficient for the city.
The building was designed by architect José de Hermosilla and his successor Francisco Sabatini who did the majority of the work. In 1805, after numerous work stoppages, the building was to assume its function that it had been built for, being a hospital, although only one-third of the proposed project by Sabatini was completed. Since it has undergone various modifications and additions until, in 1969, it was closed down as a hospital. Extensive modern renovations and additions to the old building were made starting in 1980; the central building of the museum was once an 18th-century hospital. The building functioned as the Centro del Arte from 1986 until established as the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in 1988. In 1988, portions of the new museum were opened to the public in temporary configurations, its architectural identity was radically changed in 1989 by Ian Ritchie with the addition of three glass circulation towers. An 8000 m2 expansion costing €92 million designed by French architect Jean Nouvel opened in October 2005.
The extension includes spaces for temporary exhibitions, an auditorium of 500 seats, a 200-seat auditorium, a bookshop and administration offices. Ducks scéno was consultant for scenographic equipment of auditoriums and Arau Acustica for acoustic studies. Guernica by Pablo Picasso The Great Masturbator by Salvador Dalí Equal-Parallel/Guernica-Bengasi by Richard Serra The museum features, as a major protagonist, in Jim Jarmusch's The Limits of Control. In the 2003 Spanish film Noviembre, the school entrance scenes and some performance scenes were shot in the square in front of the museum. List of most visited art museums Museo de Escultura al Aire Libre de Alcalá de Henares Official website
Camera Work was a quarterly photographic journal published by Alfred Stieglitz from 1903 to 1917. It is known for its many high-quality photogravures by some of the most important photographers in the world and its editorial purpose to establish photography as a fine art, it has been called "consummately intellectual", "by far the most beautiful of all photographic magazines", "a portrait of an age the artistic sensibility of the nineteenth century was transformed into the artistic awareness of the present day." At the start of the 20th century Alfred Stieglitz was the single most important figure in American photography. He had been working for many years to raise the status of photography as a fine art by writing numerous articles, creating exhibitions, exhibiting his own work and by trying to influence the artistic direction of the important Camera Club of New York, he was not successful in the latter, as a result by the spring of 1902 he was both frustrated and exhausted. He had spent the past five years as editor of the Camera Club's journal Camera Notes, where his efforts to promote photography as a fine art form were challenged by the older, more conservative members of the Club who thought photography was nothing more than a technical process.
Rather than continue to battle against these challenges, he resigned as editor of Camera Notes and spent the summer at his home in Lake George, New York, thinking about what he could do next. His close friends and fellow photographers, led by Joseph Keiley, encouraged him to carry out his dream and publish a new magazine, one that would be independent of any conservative influences, it did not take him long to come up with a new plan. In August, 1902, he printed a two-page prospectus "in response to the importunities of many serious workers in photographic fields that I should undertake the publication of an independent magazine devoted to the furtherance of modern photography." He said he would soon launch a new journal that would be "the best and most sumptuous of photographic publications" and that it would published by himself, "owing allegiance only to the interests of photography." He called the new journal Camera Work, a reference to the phrase in his prospectus statement in which he meant to distinguish artistic photographers like himself from the old-school technicians with whom he had fought for many years.
To emphasize the fact that this was an independent journal every cover would proclaim "Camera Work: A Photographic Quarterly and Published by Alfred Stieglitz, New York". Stieglitz was determined from the start, he asked Edward Steichen to design the cover, a simple gray-green background with the magazine's title, acknowledgement of Stieglitz's editorial control and issue number and date in an Art Nouveau-style typeface created by Steichen for the journal. The advertisements at the back of each issue were creatively designed and presented by Stieglitz himself. Eastman Kodak took the back cover of every issue, at Stieglitz's insistence they used the same typeface Steichen had designed for the cover. Gravures were produced from the photographers' original negatives whenever possible or from the original prints. If the gravure came from a negative this fact was noted in the accompanying text, these gravures were considered to be original prints. Stieglitz, always a perfectionist tipped in each of the photogravures in every issue, touching up dust spots or scratches when necessary.
This time-consuming and exhausting work assured only the highest standards in every copy but sometimes delayed the mailing of the issues since Stieglitz would not allow anyone else to do it. The visual quality of the gravures was so high that when a set of prints failed to arrive for a Photo-Secession exhibition in Brussels, a selection of gravures from the magazine was hung instead. Most viewers assumed. Before the first issue was printed, Stieglitz received 68 subscriptions for his new publication. With his typical extravagant aesthetic taste and unwillingness to compromise, Stieglitz insisted that 1000 copies of every issue be printed regardless of the number of subscriptions. Under financial duress he reduced the number to 500 for the final two issues; the annual subscription rate at the start was US$2 for single issues. The inaugural issue of Camera Work was dated January 1903, but was mailed on 15 December 1902. In it Stieglitz set forth the mission of the new journal: "Photography being in the main a process in monochrome, it is one subtle gradations of tone and value that its artistic beauty so depends.
It is therefore necessary that reproductions of photographic work must be made with exceptional care, discretion of the spirit of the original is to be retained, though no reproductions can do justice to the subtleties of some photographs. Such supervision will be given to the illustrations. Only examples of such works as gives evidence of individuality and artistic worth, regardless of school, or contains some exceptional feature of technical merit, or such as exemplifies some treatment worthy of consideration, will find recognition in these pages; the Pictorial will be the dominating feature of the magazine."In his first editorial Stieglitz expressed gratitude to a group photographers to whom he was indebted. He listed them in a specific order: Robert Demachy, Will Cadby, Edward Steichen, Gertrude Käsebier, Frank Eugene, J. Craig Annan, Clarence H. White, William Dyer, Eva Watson, Frances Benjamin Johnston, R. Child Baley. Over the next fourteen years he showed a decided bias by publishing many of their ph
Single-lens reflex camera
A single-lens reflex camera is a camera that uses a mirror and prism system that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see what will be captured. With twin lens reflex and rangefinder cameras, the viewed image could be different from the final image; when the shutter button is pressed on most SLRs, the mirror flips out of the light path, allowing light to pass through to the light receptor and the image to be captured. Prior to the development of SLR, all cameras with viewfinders had two optical light paths: one path through the lens to the film, another path positioned above or to the side; because the viewfinder and the film lens cannot share the same optical path, the viewing lens is aimed to intersect with the film lens at a fixed point somewhere in front of the camera. This is not problematic for pictures taken at a middle or longer distance, but parallax causes framing errors in close-up shots. Moreover, focusing the lens of a fast reflex camera when it is opened to wider apertures is not easy.
Most SLR cameras permit upright and laterally correct viewing through use of a roof pentaprism situated in the optical path between the reflex mirror and viewfinder. Light, which comes both horizontally and vertically inverted after passing through the lens, is reflected upwards by the reflex mirror, into the pentaprism where it is reflected several times to correct the inversions caused by the lens, align the image with the viewfinder; when the shutter is released, the mirror moves out of the light path, the light shines directly onto the film. The Canon Pellix, along with several special purpose high speed cameras, were an exception to the moving mirror system, wherein the mirror was a fixed beamsplitting pellicle. Focus can be adjusted manually automatically by an autofocus system; the viewfinder can include a matte focusing screen located just above the mirror system to diffuse the light. This permits accurate viewing and focusing useful with interchangeable lenses. Up until the 1990s, SLR was the most advanced photographic preview system available, but the recent development and refinement of digital imaging technology with an on-camera live LCD preview screen has overshadowed SLR's popularity.
Nearly all inexpensive compact digital cameras now include an LCD preview screen allowing the photographer to see what the CCD is capturing. However, SLR is still popular in high-end and professional cameras because they are system cameras with interchangeable parts, allowing customization, they have far less shutter lag, allowing photographs to be timed more precisely. The pixel resolution, contrast ratio, refresh rate, color gamut of an LCD preview screen cannot compete with the clarity and shadow detail of a direct-viewed optical SLR viewfinder. Large format SLR cameras were first marketed with the introduction of C. R. Smith's Monocular Duplex. SLRs for smaller exposure formats were launched in the 1920s by several camera makers; the first 35mm SLR available to the mass market, Leica's PLOOT reflex housing along with a 200mm f4.5 lens paired to a 35mm rangefinder camera body, debuted in 1935. The Soviet Спорт a 24mm by 36mm image size, was prototyped in 1934 and went to market in 1937. K. Nüchterlein's Kine Exakta was the first integrated 35mm SLR to enter the market.
Additional Exakta models, all with waist-level finders, were produced up to and during World War II. Another ancestor of the modern SLR camera was the Swiss-made Alpa, innovative, influenced the Japanese cameras; the first eye-level SLR viewfinder was patented in Hungary on August 23, 1943 by Jenő Dulovits, who designed the first 35 mm camera with one, the Duflex, which used a system of mirrors to provide a laterally correct, upright image in the eye-level viewfinder. The Duflex, which went into serial production in 1948, was the world's first SLR with an instant-return mirror; the first commercially produced SLR that employed a roof pentaprism was the Italian Rectaflex A.1000, shown in full working condition on Milan fair April 1948 and produced from September the same year, thus being on the market one year before the east German Zeiss Ikon VEB Contax S, announced on May 20, 1949, produced from September. The Japanese adopted and further developed the SLR. In 1952, Asahi developed the Asahiflex and in 1954, the Asahiflex IIB.
In 1957, the Asahi Pentax combined the right-hand thumb wind lever. Nikon and Yashica introduced their first SLRs in 1959; as a small matter of history, the first 35 mm camera to feature through the lens light metering may have been Nikon, with a prototype rangefinder camera, the SPX. According to the website below, the camera used Nikon'S' type rangefinder lenses. Through-the-lens light metering is known as "behind-the-lens metering". In the SLR design scheme, there were various placements made for the metering cells, all of which used CdS photocells; the cells were either located in the pentaprism housing, where they metered light transmitted through the focusing screen. Pentax was the first manufacturer to show an early prototype 35 mm behind-the-lens metering SLR camera, named the Pentax Spotmatic; the camera was shown at the 1960 photokina show. However, the first
Denver Art Museum
The Denver Art Museum — DAM is an art museum located in the Civic Center of Denver, Colorado. The museum is one of the largest art museums between the West Chicago, it is known for its collection of American Indian art, its other collections of more than 70,000 diverse works from across the centuries and world. The museum's origins can be traced back to the founding of the Denver Artists Club in 1893; the Club renamed itself the Denver Art Association in 1917 and opened its first galleries in the City and County building two years later. The museum opened galleries in the Chappell House in 1922; the house, located on Logan Street, was donated to the museum by Mrs. George Cranmer and Delos Chappell. In 1923, the Denver Art Association became the Denver Art Museum. In 1948, the DAM purchased a building on Acoma and 14th Avenue on the south side of Civic Center Park. Denver architect Burnham Hoyt renovated the building, which opened as the Schleier Memorial Gallery in 1949. While the Schleier Gallery was a significant addition, the DAM still sought to increase its space.
Additional pressure came from the Kress Foundation, who offered to donate three collections valued at over $2 million on the condition that DAM construct a new building to house the works. DAM sought help from the city and county of Denver to raise funds, however, in 1952 voters failed to approve a resolution bond. Despite this setback, the museum continued to raise funds and opened a new building, the South Wing, in 1954; this made it possible for DAM to receive the three Kress Foundation collections. The North Building, a seven-story 210,000-square-foot addition, opened in 1971, allowing the museum to display its collections under one roof; the building was designed by Italian modernist architect Gio Ponti, with local architects James Sudler Associates of Denver. Ponti said, “Art is a treasure, these thin but jealous walls defend it.” It is his only completed design built in the United States. Ponti wanted the DAM building, housing the important art within, to break from the traditional museum archetypes.
The two-towered "castle-like" façade has 24 sides, more than one million reflective glass tiles, designed by Dow Corning, cover the building's exterior. The Duncan Pavilion and the Frederic C. Hamilton Building were both added to the museum in 2006; the Duncan Pavilion, a 5,700-square-foot second story addition to the Bach Wing, came to receive the bridge traffic from the new Hamilton Building and the existing North Building. Duncan Pavilion was designed to be kid- and family-friendly while suitable for multi-use, it was intended to complement both buildings. The Hamilton Building was designed as a joint venture by Studio Daniel Libeskind and Denver firm Davis Partnership Architects; the new building opened on October 7, 2006, is clad in titanium and glass. The project was recognized by the American Institute of Architects as a successful Building Information Modeling project; the Duncan Pavilion is a second story addition to the Bach Wing of the Denver Art Museum and opened in February 2006. It is a link between the Daniel Libeskind-designed Hamilton Building and the 1971 Gio Ponti-designed North Building.
The project's intent included preserving the integrity of the oldest part of the museum, the Bach Wing built in 1954, while providing a significant mechanical upgrade for it. The Duncan Pavilion's open assembly area receives the pedestrian bridge from the Hamilton Building with a pedestrian elevator and glass staircase linking pedestrian traffic to the Signature Gallery on the first floor. An upgraded extension of the existing freight elevator creates the final link in the system facilitating artwork traffic between the existing and new buildings so the artwork can be received and serviced in the Hamilton Building and transported to and from the Ponti building's galleries without exiting the protective environment of the museum; the Frederic C. Hamilton Building, celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2016, holds the Modern and Contemporary art, African art and Oceanic art collections, along with part of the Western American art collection and special exhibition spaces; the building serves as the main entrance to the rest of the museum complex.
This project doubled the size of the museum. The complex deconstructivist geometric design of the Hamilton building consists 20 sloping planes, covered in 230,000 square feet of titanium panels; the angular design juts in many directions, supported by a 2,740-ton structure that contains more than 3,100 pieces of steel. One of the angled elements extends 167 feet over and 100 feet above the street below. None of the 20 planes is perpendicular to another; the design uses many extended angular planes to be reminiscent of the natural landscape. Similar to the many-peaked roof of the Denver International Airport, the Hamilton Building emulates the sharp angles of the nearby Rocky Mountains, as well as the geometric crystals found at the mountains' base near Denver. Architect Daniel Libeskind said, “I was inspired by the light and geology of the Rockies, but most of all by the wide-open faces of the people of Denver.” ContextRegarding the design concept, Libeskind commented, “The project is not designed as a standalone building but as part of a composition of public spaces and gateways in this developing part of the city, contributing to the synergy amongst neighbors large and intimate.”Libeskind designed a landscaped pedestrian plaza for the DAM complex, which displays significant works of outdoor sculpture.
The works include:'Scottish Angus Cow and Calf' by Dan Ostermiller,'Big Sweep' by
Yale University Art Gallery
The Yale University Art Gallery houses a significant and encyclopedic collection of art in several buildings on the campus of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Although it embraces all cultures and periods, the gallery emphasizes early Italian painting, African sculpture, modern art; the Yale University Art Gallery is the oldest university art museum in the western hemisphere. The gallery was founded in 1832, when patriot-artist, John Trumbull, donated more than 100 paintings of the American Revolution to Yale College and designed the original Picture Gallery; this building, on the university's Old Campus, was razed in 1901. The gallery's main building was built in 1953, was among the first designed by Louis Kahn, who taught architecture at Yale. A complete renovation, which returned many spaces to Kahn's original vision, was completed in December 2006, by Polshek Partnership Architects; the older Tuscan romanesque portion was built in 1928, was designed by Egerton Swartwout. The Gallery reopened on December 12, 2012, after a 14-year renovation and expansion project at a cost of $135 million.
The expanded space totals 69,975 sq ft. The museum is a member of the North American Reciprocal Museums program. On the second floor was a valuable collection of paintings by John Trumbull of historical events. Among them were his well-known paintings of the Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery before Quebec, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, Declaration of Independence, etc. Trumbull gave the paintings to Yale in consideration of an annuity of $1,000 and subject to the condition that he and his wife should be forever buried beneath the pictures; the Gallery's encyclopedic collections number more than 200,000 objects ranging in date from ancient times to the present day. The permanent collection includes: African Art: over 1000 objects in wood, metal and ceramic. American Decorative Arts: about 18,000 objects in silver, wood and textile with an emphasis on the colonial and early federal periods. American Paintings and Sculpture: over 2,500 paintings, 500 sculptures, 300 miniatures from before the mid-twentieth century including paintings by Benjamin West, John Singleton Copley, Albert Bierstadt, Frederic Church, Frederic Remington, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, George Bellows, John Singer Sargent, Edwin Austin Abbey, Arthur Dove, Elizabeth Goodridge, Edward Hopper, sculptures by Hezekiah Augur, Hiram Powers, Horatio Greenough, William Henry Rinehart, Chauncey Ives, Alexander Archipenko, Alexander Calder.
Ancient Art: over 13,000 objects from the Near East, Greece and Rome dating from the Neolithic to the early Byzantine. Art of the Ancient Americas: Mayan and Olmec figurines and sculptures. Asian Art Coins and Medals Early European Art Modern and Contemporary Art: including paintings and sculpture by Josef Albers, Edgar Degas, Marcel Duchamp, Alberto Giacometti, Jean Metzinger, Joan Miró, Piet Mondrian, Pablo Picasso, Mark Rothko, Roy Lichtenstein. Prints and PhotographsIn 2005, the museum announced that it had acquired 1,465 gelatin silver prints by the influential American landscape photographer, Robert Adams. In 2009, the museum mounted an exhibition of its extensive collection of Picasso paintings and drawings, in collaboration with the Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University. For the first time, portions of the Yale University Library's, Gertrude Stein writing archives were displayed next to relevant drawings from Picasso; as an affiliate of Yale University, the gallery maintains a robust roster of education programs for university students, New Haven schools, the general public.
One such program is the Gallery Guide program, founded in 1998, which trains undergraduate students to lead tours at the museum. The Yale Art Gallery charges no admission. Official website
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modernist art, is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, painting, photography, illustrated books and artist's books and electronic media; the MoMA Library includes 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups. The archives holds primary source material related to the history of contemporary art; the idea for the Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and two of her friends, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan, they became known variously as "the Ladies", "the daring ladies" and "the adamantine ladies". They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, it opened to the public on November 7, 1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash.
Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the former president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, to become president of the new museum. Abby became treasurer. At the time, it was America's premier museum devoted to modern art, the first of its kind in Manhattan to exhibit European modernism. One of Abby's early recruits for the museum staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami, who served the museum as its official documentary photographer from 1930 until 1968. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees. Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, Jr. a promising young protege. Under Barr's guidance, the museum's holdings expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing, its first successful loan exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne, Seurat.
First housed in six rooms of galleries and offices on the twelfth floor of Manhattan's Heckscher Building, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street, the museum moved into three more temporary locations within the next ten years. Abby's husband was adamantly opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture, which had to be obtained from other sources and resulted in the frequent shifts of location, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time, thus became in effect one of its greatest benefactors. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, such as the lone Vincent van Gogh exhibition on November 4, 1935. Containing an unprecedented sixty-six oils and fifty drawings from the Netherlands, as well as poignant excerpts from the artist's letters, it was a major public success due to Barr's arrangement of the exhibit, became "a precursor to the hold van Gogh has to this day on the contemporary imagination"; the museum gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago.
In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars and historians. This was wholly masterminded by Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, the exhibition lionized Picasso as the greatest artist of the time, setting the model for all the museum's retrospectives that were to follow. Boy Leading a Horse was contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the ground-breaking exhibition, Indian Art of the United States, that changed the way American Indian arts were viewed by the public and exhibited in art museums; when Abby Rockefeller's son Nelson was selected by the board of trustees to become its flamboyant president in 1939, at the age of thirty, he became the prime instigator and funder of its publicity and subsequent expansion into new headquarters on 53rd Street. His brother, David Rockefeller joined the museum's board of trustees in 1948 and took over the presidency when Nelson was elected Governor of New York in 1958.
David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the museum garden and name it in honor of his mother, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden. He and the Rockefeller family in general have retained a close association with the museum throughout its history, with the Rockefeller Brothers Fund funding the institution since 1947. Both David Rockefeller, Jr. and Sharon Percy Rockefeller sit on the board of trustees. In 1937, MoMA had shifted to offices and basement galleries in the Time-Life Building in Rockefeller Center, its permanent and current home, now renovated, designed in the International Style by the modernist architects Philip L. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone, opened to the public on May 10, 1939, attended by an illustrious company of 6,000 people, with an opening address via radio from the White House by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On April 15, 1958, a fire on the second floor destroyed an 18 foot long Monet Water Lilies painting (the current Mone