Fort Adams is a former United States Army post in Newport, Rhode Island, established on July 4, 1799 as a First System coastal fortification, named for President John Adams, in office at the time. Its first commander was Captain John Henry, instrumental in starting the War of 1812; the current Fort Adams was built 1824–57 under the Third System of coastal forts. The first Fort Adams was designed by Major Louis de Tousard of the Army Corps of Engineers as part of the first system of US fortifications. After some additions in 1809, this fort mounted 17 cannon and was garrisoned during the War of 1812 by Wood's State Corps of Rhode Island militiamen; the Secretary of War's report for December 1811 describes the fort as "an irregular star fort of masonry, with an irregular indented work of masonry adjoining it, mounting seventeen heavy guns.... The barracks are of wood and bricks, for one company". After the War of 1812, there was a thorough review of the nation's fortification needs and it was decided to replace the older Fort Adams with a newer and much larger fort.
This was part of. The new fort was designed by Brigadier General Simon Bernard, a Frenchman who had served as a military engineer under Napoleon. Bernard designed the new Fort Adams in the classic style and it became the most complex fortification in the Western Hemisphere, it included a tenaille and crownwork, a complex outer work on the southern side, designed to break up and channel an assault force. In the US, it is rivaled in size only by Fort Monroe in Hampton and Fort Jefferson on the Dry Tortugas in Florida. Construction of the new fort began in 1824 and continued at irregular intervals until 1857. From 1825 to 1838 construction was overseen by Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Gilbert Totten, the foremost American military engineer of his day. In 1838 Totten became Chief of Engineers and served until his death in 1864; the new Fort Adams was first garrisoned in August 1841, functioning as an active Army post until 1950. During this time the fort never fired a shot in anger. At the start of the Mexican–American War the post was commanded by Benjamin Kendrick Pierce, the brother of President Franklin Pierce.
The fort's redoubt, about 1/4 mile south of the main fort, was built during this war. From 1848 to 1853, Fort Adams was commanded by Colonel William Gates, a long serving veteran of both the War of 1812 and the Mexican War; the fort's garrison was ordered to California and many of the soldiers lost their lives when the steamer SS San Francisco was wrecked, but not sunk, in a North Atlantic storm on December 24, 1853. In a report of 1854 Fort Adams was armed with 100 32-pounder seacoast guns, 57 24-pounder seacoast guns, 43 24-pounder flank howitzers; the flank howitzers were short-barreled guns deployed in casemates in the tenaille to protect the fort against a landward assault. From 1859 to 1863 the fort was in the care of Ordnance Sergeant Mark Wentworth Smith, a Mexican–American War veteran, wounded at the Battle of Chapultepec. Sergeant Smith died in 1879 at the age of 76, the oldest active duty enlisted soldier in the history of the Army; the War Department was concerned about the political sympathies of residents in Maryland during the American Civil War, so the United States Naval Academy was moved in 1861 from Annapolis to Fort Adams.
In September 1861, the academy moved to the Atlantic House Hotel in Newport and remained there for the rest of the war. Among the midshipmen assigned to the Naval Academy while it was at Fort Adams was Robley D. Evans, wounded at Fort Fisher, North Carolina in 1865, commanded the battleship Iowa during the Spanish–American War, commanded the Great White Fleet on the first leg of its epic around the world voyage. Among Evans' classmates at Fort Adams were future Rear Admiral Charles Sigsbee, who commanded the battleship Maine, future Captain Charles Vernon Gridley who commanded the cruiser Olympia at the Battle of Manila Bay. In 1862 Fort Adams became the recruit depot for the 15th Infantry Regiment; this regiment, along with several others, was organized into a regiment of three eight-company battalions, with the 3rd Battalion formed at Fort Adams in March 1864. From August to October 1863, Fort Adams was commanded by Brigadier General Robert Anderson, who had commanded Fort Sumter when it was attacked by Confederate forces in April 1861.
As part of a major upgrade to US seacoast defenses, in the 1870s Fort Adams' armament was modernized with eleven 15-inch Rodman guns, thirteen 10-inch Rodman guns, four 6.4-inch Parrott rifles. Three new emplacements were built for the 15-inch guns. For mobile defense, four 4.5-inch siege rifles, four 3-inch Ordnance rifles, four 10-inch mortars were provided. In 1894, four 8-inch converted rifles were added in a new battery south of the fort; as time went by, the fort's armament was upgraded to keep up with technological innovations. Major kinds of ordnance used at the fort included muzzle-loading cannon in the 19th century, rifled breech-loading artillery pieces in the early 20th Century and anti-aircraft guns during and after World War II; the fort received significant armament, in the form of batteries to the south of the main fort, under the Endicott and Taft programs from 1896 through 1907. These were to defend the East Passage of Narragansett Bay in combination with the new Fort Wetherill in Jamestown, as part of the Coast Defenses of Narragansett Bay.
The Endicott and Taft period batteries at Fo
West Point Cemetery
West Point Cemetery is a historic cemetery in the eastern United States, on the grounds of the U. S. Military Academy in West Point, New York, it overlooks the Hudson River, served as a burial ground for Revolutionary War soldiers and early West Point inhabitants long before 1817, when it was designated as a military cemetery. Northwest of the cadet area, it was known as "German Flats" before its formal designation as the official cemetery in 1817; until that time several small burial plots scattered in mid-post served as places of interment. The graves from these plots and the remains subsequently found during building excavations were removed to the new site. An improved road to the cemetery was constructed in 1840, the caretaker's cottage was erected in 1872; the cemetery is home to several monuments, including the Dade Monument, Cadet Monument, Custer Monument, Wood's Monument, Margaret Corbin Monument. The cemetery includes interments of many notable people: Major General Robert Anderson, Union Army officer in command of Fort Sumter at start of the Civil War Earl "Red" Blaik, Army football head coach, member of the College Football Hall of Fame John Milton Brannan, Union army general Major General John Buford, Union cavalry commander who set the stage for the Battle of Gettysburg Major General Daniel Butterfield, composer of Taps General Lucius D. Clay, "Father of the Berlin Airlift" Margaret Corbin, Revolutionary War heroine.
Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Alonzo Cushing, Union artillery officer, killed during Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg. Brigadier General John Eisenhower, author, son of Dwight Eisenhower. Lieutenant General James Maurice Gavin, commander of the 82nd Airborne Division during World War II Major General George Washington Goethals, "Builder of the Panama Canal" Major General Frederick Dent Grant, son of President Ulysses S. Grant Lieutenant General Howard Dwayne Graves, United States Military Academy Major General William H. Hay, commander of the 28th Infantry Division in World War I Major General Ethan Allen Hitchcock, Mexican–American War veteran, special advisor to the president during the Civil War Brigadier General Ranald S. Mackenzie, Civil War veteran, commander of Buffalo Soldiers during the Indian Wars Master Sergeant Martin "Marty" Maher, Jr. athletic trainer and central character in the film The Long Gray Line Colonel David "Mickey" Marcus, Israel's first general, only American buried here who died fighting under a foreign flag Major General Wesley Merritt, Civil War veteran, Military Governor of the Philippines Major General Bryant Edward Moore, Korea IX corps, World War II 8th inf div "Timberwolves" and Pacific General Alexander M. Patch, commander of U.
S. Seventh Army 2nd Lieutenant Emily J. T. Perez, KIA IRAQ – 2006, NCAA Award of Valor – 2008. Lieutenant Colonel Henry A. Phillips, Sr. Soldier's Medal Recipient, 1960 Graduate Major General Thomas H. Ruger, Civil War veteran, United States Military Academy Superintendent Major General Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, the first superintendent of the New Jersey State Police. General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. commander of coalition forces in the Gulf War. Lieutenant General Winfield Scott, longest serving American general, commanded the U. S. Army from 1841 to 1861. Major General George Sykes, Civil War commander. Brigadier General Sylvanus Thayer, known as "The Father of the U. S. Military Academy" for the strict regimens implemented at his direction Brigadier General John T. Thompson, inventor of the Thompson submachine gun Ensign Dominick Trant, a native of Cork, Ireland and a soldier in the Ninth Massachusetts Regiment in the Continental Army, died at West Point in 1782, his grave is the oldest in the cemetery.
Colonel Theodore S. Westhusing, highest-ranking officer to die in Iraq War – 2005, "Multi-national Security Transition Command – Iraq". General William Westmoreland, Army Chief of Staff, Superintendent, U. S. Military Academy, Commander of Military Assistance Command, Vietnam from 1964–1968. Lieutenant Colonel Ed White, first American to make a spacewalk, killed in the Apollo 1 fire on 27 January 1967. Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Eleazer D. Wood, first West Point Graduate to die in battle. A monument. Military funeral Category:Burials at West Point Cemetery West Point Cadet Chapel West Point Cemetery Interment.net: West Point USMA Cemetery Find A Grave: United States Military Academy Post Cemetery Map of the West Point Cemetery
Winfield Scott was an American military commander and political candidate. He served as a general in the United States Army from 1814 to 1861, taking part in the War of 1812, the Mexican–American War, the early stages of the American Civil War, various conflicts with Native Americans. Scott was the Whig Party's presidential nominee in the 1852 presidential election, but was defeated by Democrat Franklin Pierce, he was known as Old Fuss and Feathers for his insistence on proper military etiquette, as the Grand Old Man of the Army for his many years of service. Scott was born near Petersburg, Virginia in 1786. After training as a lawyer, he joined the army in 1808 as a captain of the light artillery. In the War of 1812, Scott served on the Canadian front, taking part in the Battle of Queenston Heights and the Battle of Fort George, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in early 1814, he served with distinction in the Battle of Chippawa, but was badly wounded in the subsequent Battle of Lundy's Lane.
After the conclusion of the war, Scott was assigned to command army forces in a district containing much of the Northeastern United States, he and his family made their home near New York City. During the 1830s, Scott negotiated an end to the Black Hawk War, took part in the Second Seminole War and the Creek War of 1836, presided over the removal of the Cherokee. Scott helped to avert war with Britain, defusing tensions arising from the Patriot War and the Aroostook War. In 1841, Scott became the Commanding General of the United States Army, beating out his rival, Edmund P. Gaines, for the position. After the outbreak of the Mexican–American War in 1846, Scott served as an administrator, but in 1847 he led a campaign against the Mexican capital of Mexico City. After capturing the port city of Veracruz, he defeated Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna's armies at the Battle of Cerro Gordo, the Battle of Contreras, the Battle of Churubusco and captured Mexico City, he maintained order in the Mexican capital and indirectly helped envoy Nicholas Trist negotiate the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought an end to the war.
Scott was a candidate for the Whig presidential nomination in 1840, 1844, 1848, he won the Whig presidential nomination at the 1852 Whig National Convention. The Whigs were badly divided over the Compromise of 1850, Pierce won a decisive victory over his former commander. Nonetheless, Scott remained popular among the public, in 1855 he received a brevet promotion to the rank of lieutenant general, becoming the first U. S. Army officer to hold that rank since George Washington. Despite being a Virginia native, Scott stayed loyal to the Union and served as an important adviser to President Abraham Lincoln during the opening stages of the Civil War, he developed a strategy known as the Anaconda Plan, but retired in late 1861 after Lincoln relied on General George B. McClellan for military advice and leadership. Scott's military talent was regarded by contemporaries, historians consider him to be one of the most accomplished generals in U. S. history. Winfield Scott was born on June 13, 1786, to Ann Mason and her husband, William Scott, a farmer, veteran of the American Revolutionary War, officer in the Dinwiddie County militia.
At the time, the Scott family resided at a plantation near Petersburg, Virginia. Ann Mason Scott was the daughter of Daniel Mason and Elizabeth Winfield, it was Ann's mother's maiden name that William and Ann Scott selected for their son. Scott's paternal grandfather, James Scott, had migrated from Scotland after the defeat of Charles Edward Stuart's forces in the Battle of Culloden. Scott's father died. Although Scott's family held considerable wealth, most of the family fortune went to his older brother, James. In 1805, Scott began attending the College of William and Mary, but he soon left in order to study law in the office of attorney David Robinson, where his contemporaries included Thomas Ruffin. While apprenticing under Robinson, he attended the trial of Aaron Burr, accused of treason for his role in events now known as the Burr conspiracy. During the trial, Scott developed a negative opinion of the Senior Officer of the United States Army, General James Wilkinson, as the result of Wilkinson's obvious efforts to minimize his complicity in Burr's actions by providing forged evidence and false, self-serving testimony.
In 1807, Scott gained his initial military experience as a corporal of cavalry in the Virginia militia, serving in the midst of the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair. Scott led a detachment that captured eight British sailors who had attempted to land in order to purchase provisions. Virginia authorities did not approve of this action, fearing it might spark a wider conflict, they soon ordered the release of the prisoners; that year, Scott attempted to establish a legal practice in South Carolina, but was unable to obtain a law license due to failing to meet a state residency requirement. In early 1808, President Thomas Jefferson asked Congress to authorize an expansion of the United States Army after the British announced an escalation of their naval blockade of France, thereby threatening American shipping. Scott convinced an old friend, William Branch Giles, to help him obtain a commission in the newly-expanded army. In May 1808, shortly before his twenty-second birthday, Scott was commissioned as a captain in the light artillery.
Tasked with recruiting a company, he raised his troops from the Petersburg and Richmond areas, traveled with his unit to New Orleans to join his regiment. Scott was deeply
Chief Justice of the United States
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, as such the highest-ranking judge of the federal judiciary. Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution grants plenary power to the President of the United States to nominate, with the advice and consent of the United States Senate, appoint a chief justice, who serves until they resign, are impeached and convicted, retire, or die; the chief justice has significant influence in the selection of cases for review, presides when oral arguments are held, leads the discussion of cases among the justices. Additionally, when the Court renders an opinion, the chief justice, if in the majority, chooses who writes the Court's opinion; when deciding a case, the chief justice's vote counts no more than that of any associate justice. Article I, Section 3, Clause 6 of the Constitution designates the chief justice to preside during presidential impeachment trials in the Senate. While nowhere mandated, the presidential oath of office is administered by the Chief Justice.
Additionally, the chief justice serves as a spokesperson for the federal government's judicial branch and acts as a chief administrative officer for the federal courts. The Chief Justice presides over the Judicial Conference and, in that capacity, appoints the director and deputy director of the Administrative Office; the Chief Justice is an ex officio member of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution and, by custom, is elected chancellor of the board. Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, 17 people have served as chief justice; the first was John Jay. The current chief justice is John Roberts. John Rutledge, Edward Douglass White, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan Fiske Stone, William Rehnquist served as associate justice prior to becoming chief justice; the United States Constitution does not explicitly establish an office of Chief Justice, but presupposes its existence with a single reference in Article I, Section 3, Clause 6: "When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside."
Nothing more is said in the Constitution regarding the office. Article III, Section 1, which authorizes the establishment of the Supreme Court, refers to all members of the Court as "judges"; the Judiciary Act of 1789 created the distinctive titles of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1866, at the urging of Salmon P. Chase, Congress restyled the chief justice's title to the current Chief Justice of the United States; the first person whose Supreme Court commission contained the modified title was Melville Fuller in 1888. The associate justices' title was not altered in 1866, remains as created; the chief justice, like all federal judges, is nominated by the President and confirmed to office by the U. S. Senate. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution specifies that they "shall hold their Offices during good Behavior"; this language means that the appointments are for life, that, once in office, justices' tenure ends only when they die, resign, or are removed from office through the impeachment process.
Since 1789, 15 presidents have made a total of 22 official nominations to the position. The salary of the chief justice is set by Congress; the practice of appointing an individual to serve as chief justice is grounded in tradition. There is no specific constitutional prohibition against using another method to select the chief justice from among those justices properly appointed and confirmed to the Supreme Court. Constitutional law scholar Todd Pettys has proposed that presidential appointment of chief justices should be done away with, replaced by a process that permits the Justices to select their own chief justice. Three incumbent associate justices have been nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate as chief justice: Edward Douglass White in 1910, Harlan Fiske Stone in 1941, William Rehnquist in 1986. A fourth, Abe Fortas, was not confirmed; as an associate justice does not have to resign his or her seat on the Court in order to be nominated as chief justice, Fortas remained an associate justice.
When associate justice William Cushing was nominated and confirmed as chief justice in January 1796, but declined the office, he too remained on the Court. Two former associate justices subsequently returned to service on the Court as chief justice. John Rutledge was the first. President Washington gave him a recess appointment in 1795. However, his subsequent nomination to the office was not confirmed by the Senate, he left office and the Court. In 1933, former associate justice Charles Evans Hughes was confirmed as chief justice. Additionally, in December 1800, former chief justice John Jay was nominated and confirmed to the position a second time, but declined it, opening the way for the appointment of John Marshall. Along with his general responsibilities as a member of the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice has several unique duties to fulfill. Article I, section 3 of the U. S. Constitution stipulates that the Chief Justice shall preside over impeachment trials of the President of the United States in the U.
S. Senate. Two Chief Justices, Salmon P. Chase and William Rehnquist, have presided over the trial in the Senate that follows an impeachment of the president – Chase in 1868 over the proceedings against President Andrew Johnson and Rehnquist in
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
Jefferson Barracks Military Post
The Jefferson Barracks Military Post is located on the Mississippi River at Lemay, south of St. Louis, it was an important and active U. S. Army installation from 1826 through 1946, it is the oldest operating U. S. military installation west of the Mississippi River, it is now used as a base for the Army and Air National Guard. A Veterans Affairs healthcare system campus is located on the southern portion of the base and is the headquarters for the Veterans Canteen Service. In 1826 General Edmund P. Gaines, Brig. General Henry Atkinson, explorer William Clark, Missouri Governor John Miller spent several days searching the banks of the Mississippi River for the perfect location for a new post to replace Fort Bellefontaine. A site near the city of "Vide Poche" or Carondelet, ten miles south of St. Louis, was recommended and approved by Major General Jacob J. Brown, Commanding General of the Army. On July 10, 1826, two days after the deed to the land was signed, the first military troops—six officers and 245 enlisted men of Companies A, B, H and I of the 1st Infantry Regiment, commanded by Brevet Major Stephen Watts Kearny—arrived at the new post and started building temporary quarters that they named Cantonment Miller in honor of Governor Miller.
In 1827 the military post was formally named Jefferson Barracks in honor of Thomas Jefferson who had died the year before. William Clark's son, Meriwether Lewis Clark, Sr. would join the ranks of Jefferson Barracks. It was designated the first "Infantry School of Practice."The first conflict that the men of Jefferson Barracks were involved with was the Black Hawk War in 1832. Troops were deployed from Jefferson Barracks to push "hostile Indians" back into their village in present-day Iowa. Chief Black Hawk was captured and brought back to Jefferson Barracks. In 1832, the United States Regiment of Dragoons were stationed at Jefferson Baracks; the dragoons, trained to fight mounted or dismounted, were the first unit of permanent cavalry in the United States Army and were called the 1st U. S. Dragoons. Jefferson Barracks became a major military post during the Mexican–American War when it served as a rest and supply station for most U. S. troops deploying to Mexico. Jefferson Barracks was the recruiting center for outfitting and training most of the regiments organized for the Mexican War in 1846, upon the return of the triumphant U.
S. forces in 1848, many were deployed to Jefferson Barracks due to its strategic location and healthful situation. In 1853, newly elected President Franklin Pierce, who had served as a brigadier general during the Mexican War, appointed Jefferson Davis as his Secretary of War. At Jefferson Barracks, in 1855, Davis soon organized the First and Second Regiments of Cavalry, known derisively as "Jeff Davis's Pets," because the commissioned personnel assigned to them were the best in the Army. Albert Sidney Johnston served as colonel and Robert E. Lee as lieutenant colonel of the Second Regiment of Cavalry. A list of the officers of the Second Regiment of Cavalry includes some of the ablest commanders of the U. S. Civil War; the Second Regiment of Cavalry was redesignated as the Fifth Regiment of Cavalry in 1861. The 2d U. S. Dragoons were redesignated as the 2d Regiment of Cavalry in 1861 when the War Department discontinued the use of Dragoons as a unit designation. During the American Civil War, Jefferson Barracks served as a military hospital for both sides and a recruitment depot for the North.
In 1862 construction of the Western Sanitary Commission's hospital facilities began at Jefferson Barracks. By the time that the hospital complex was complete, it could hold 3,000 patients. By the end of the first year of the war, over 5,000 sick and wounded had been admitted and, by the end of the war, well over 18,000 soldiers had been treated at Jefferson Barracks Hospital. In 2002, The Missouri Civil War Museum was founded, still being restored today; the MCWM is being brought to life in the old 1905 Post Exchange Building. With the declaration of the Spanish–American War in 1898, many regular army and volunteer regiments were, once again and outfitted at Jefferson Barracks. Jefferson Barracks was permanently designated as a recruiting depot in 1906. On March 1, 1912 Jefferson Barracks became the main base for the first experiments in aviation parachuting. Albert Berry became the first person to parachute from an airplane, being flown by Anthony Jannus over the field. During World War I, Jefferson Barracks served as a training and recruitment station for soldiers heading to Europe.
During the 1930s, the Citizens Military Training Camp or CMTC was held at Jefferson Barracks. Young men could spend one month a year at the post being trained as a soldier, after three years they could enter the military. During that time the Works Progress Administration had camps at Jefferson Barracks. During World War II, Jefferson Barracks was a major reception center for U. S. troops being drafted into the military. It served as an important basic training site for the Army later was the first Army Air Corps Training Site. Elements of the Central Technical Training Command were stationed at the barracks. During World War II, Jefferson Barracks had a peak area of 1,518 acres, had billeting space for 16 officers and 1,500 enlisted persons. Jefferson Barracks was decommissioned as a military post in 1946 with the end of World War II. After Jefferson Barracks was decommissioned, portions of the grounds were sold off for construction of houses; some of the barracks were acquired by the St. Louis County Housing
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl