The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
NATO Parliamentary Assembly
Founded in 1955, the NATO Parliamentary Assembly serves as the consultative interparliamentary organisation for the North Atlantic Alliance. Its current President is Madeleine Moon from the United Kingdom, elected in 2018, its current Secretary General is David Hobbs from the United Kingdom. The idea to engage Alliance Parliamentarians in collective deliberations on the problems confronting the transatlantic partnership first emerged in the early 1950s and took shape with the creation of an annual conference of NATO parliamentarians in 1955; the Assembly's creation reflected a desire on the part of legislators to give substance to the premise of the Washington Treaty of 1949 that NATO was the practical expression of a fundamentally political transatlantic alliance of democracies. The foundation for cooperation between NATO and the NATO-PA was strengthened in December 1967 when the North Atlantic Council authorized the NATO Secretary General to study how to achieve closer cooperation between the two bodies.
As a result of these deliberations over the following year, the NATO Secretary General, after consultation with the NAC, implemented several measures to enhance the working relationship between NATO and the Assembly. These measures included the Secretary General providing a response to all Assembly recommendations and resolutions adopted in its Plenary Sessions. In response to the fall of the Berlin Wall at the end of the 1980s, the NATO-PA broadened its mandate by developing close relations with political leaders in Central and East European countries; those ties, in turn facilitated the dialogue that NATO itself embarked upon with the region's governments. Bringing together legislators from all the member states of the Atlantic Alliance, the NATO PA provides a link between NATO and the parliaments of its member nations. At the same time, it facilitates parliamentary awareness and understanding of key security issues and contributes to a greater transparency of NATO policies. Crucially, it helps maintain and strengthen the transatlantic relationship, which underpins the Atlantic Alliance.
Since the end of the Cold War the Assembly has assumed a new role by integrating into its work parliamentarians from those countries in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond who seek a closer association with NATO. This integration has provided both political and practical assistance and has sought to contribute to the strengthening of parliamentary democracy throughout the Euro-Atlantic region, complement and reinforce NATO's own programme of partnership and co-operation; the Assembly was directly concerned with assisting in the process of ratification of the Protocols of Accession signed at the end of 1997, which culminated in the accession of the Czech Republic and Poland to the Alliance in March 1999. It played the same role with respect to the ratification process leading to the accession of Bulgaria, Latvia, Romania and Slovenia in March 2004; the NATO PA consists of 266 delegates from the 29 NATO member countries. Delegates from 12 associate countries. Delegates to the Assembly are nominated by their parliaments according to their national procedures, on the basis of party representation in the parliaments.
The Assembly therefore represents a broad spectrum of political opinion. The Assembly's governing body is the Standing Committee, composed of the Head of each member delegation, the President, the Vice-Presidents, the Treasurer and the Secretary General; the International Secretariat, under its Secretary General, is responsible for all administration and the bulk of research and analysis that supports the Assembly's Committees, Sub-Committees and other groups. The headquarters of the Assembly's 28-strong International Secretariat is located in central Brussels; the Assembly is directly funded by member parliaments and governments, is financially and administratively separate from NATO itself. Each country's contribution is based on the NATO Civil Budget formula; the five Committees are: Civil Dimension of Security. They are charged with examining all major contemporary issues in their fields; the Committees and Sub-Committees produce reports, which are discussed in draft form at the Assembly's Spring Session.
The reports are revised and up-dated for discussion and adoption at the Assembly's Annual Session in the Autumn. At the Annual Session, the Committees produce policy recommendations, which are voted on by the full Assembly and forwarded to the North Atlantic Council and the NATO Secretary General and posted on the Assembly's website; the NATO Secretary General responds in writing to the Assembly's recommendations. Members of the Assembly's Committees undertake regular visits and meetings where they receive briefings from leading government and parliamentary representatives, as well as senior academics and experts. NATO-PA Delegations undertake visits to NATO mission areas such as Afghanistan and the Balkans. Other Assembly bodies include the Mediterranean and Middle East Special Group to enhance parliamentary dialogue and understanding with countries of the Middle East and the North African region, the Ukraine-NATO Interparliamentary Council, the NATO-Georgia Interparliamentary Council; the NATO-Russia Parliamentary Committee was discontinued in April 2014 following Russia's military intervention in Ukraine and illegal annexation of Crimea.
The Rose-Roth Programme of partnership and co-
Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that comprises California's southernmost counties, is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Ventura; the more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, the Mojave Desert is located north on California's Nevada border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico–United States border. Southern California includes the built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego, inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley, it encompasses eight metropolitan areas, three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA.
These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire (, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area. In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, El Centro metropolitan areas. The Southern California Megaregion is larger still, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation; the counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside are the five most populous in the state, are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.
The motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros. and Sony run major record companies. Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, the U. S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California; the region is important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii.
The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California in 1974. Since southern California, San Diego in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing and culture. Southern California is home to many sports sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches; the inland desert city of Palm Springs is popular. Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose. When the state is divided into two areas, the term southern California refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state; this definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo and San Bernardino counties.
Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary. Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be a
California Board of Accountancy
The California Board of Accountancy, created by statute in 1901, is a semi-autonomous State of California agency under the California Department of Consumer Affairs whose purpose is to protect consumers by ensuring only qualified licensees practice public accountancy in accordance with established professional standards in California. The CBA regulates over 5,000 firms and nearly 81,000 Certified Public Accountant licensees, the largest group of licensed accounting professionals in the nation; the agency is unique in California in its authority to license and discipline not only individuals but firms including partnerships and corporations. Its mandate is to regulate the accounting profession for the protection of the public by establishing and maintaining standards of qualification and conduct within the profession, it fulfills this mandate through its authority to license. The California Board of Accountancy was established in 1901 in San Francisco. All the records were destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire, including all the documents of the first 65 licensees.
The secretary-treasurer of the CBA was able to reconstruct the records by corresponding with each of the licensees. In 1929, the CBA became part of the Department of Vocational Standards. In 1971 it was moved to the California Department of Consumer Affairs and subsequently moved to Sacramento; the CBA protects California consumers by performing several functions. First, it ensures candidates are qualified to take the Uniform Certified Public Accountant Examination. Once a candidate has passed the CPA Exam, completed any additional educational requirements, fulfilled certain experience requirements, the CBA will issue a CPA license; the CBA renews that license every two years provided the licensee has met specified continuing education requirements. The CBA registers CPA partnerships and corporations; the CBA ensures licensee compliance with the law through its Enforcement Division. It receives and investigates complaints and takes enforcement action against licensees for violation of CBA statutes and regulations.
The above functions are carried out by various units and divisions within the CBA. The Examination Unit ensures that only candidates who meet certain qualifications are able to take the Uniform CPA Examination; the Initial Licensing Unit ensures that only those who have passed the Uniform CPA Examination and meet the appropriate education and experience requirements are issued licenses to practice public accountancy in California. The Renewal and Continuing Competency Unit ensures that only licensees who have met specific continuing education requirements are allowed to continue practicing public accountancy in California; the Practice Privilege Unit ensures that the CBA is aware of out-of-state firms that are performing attest work in California. The Enforcement Division ensures that practicing licensees in California are held to the highest standards, both professional and ethical. On January 1, 2010, a new law, AB 138, took effect in California requiring all accounting firms providing accounting and auditing services to undergo a mandatory peer review.
A peer review is a study of a firm’s accounting and auditing work, performed by an unaffiliated CPA following professional standards. Tax practice is not required to be monitored by peer review; the CBA's peer review program is designed to equip firms to deliver high quality accounting and auditing services to consumers and assist in designing quality control systems to ensure that work products meet professional standards. Firms that fail their peer review are required to report that fact to the CBA; the 15-member board is composed of eight public members. The Governor appoints all seven of the licensees; the Senate Rules Committee and the Speaker of the Assembly each appoint two public members. In appointing the seven licensees, the Governor must appoint at least two licensee members who represent small accounting firms; each member of the CBA may only serve two consecutive terms. The CBA is made up of the following membership: Katrina Salazar, CPA, President Alicia Berhow, Vice President Michael M. Savoy, CPA, Secretary/Treasurer Jose A. Campos, CPA Herschel T. Elkins, Esq.
George Famalett Karriann Hinds Laurence Kaplan Kay Ko Leslie LaManna, CPA Xochitl A. León Jian Ou-Yang, CPA Deidre Robinson Mark J. Silverman, ESQ Kathleen K. Wright, JD, CPA, LLM, MBAThe CBA appointed Patti Bowers as its Executive Officer in October 2008. Official website State Board of Accountancy in the California Code of Regulations
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Riverside National Cemetery
Riverside National Cemetery is a cemetery located in Riverside, dedicated to the interment of United States military personnel. The cemetery covers 921 acres, making it the third-largest cemetery managed by the National Cemetery Administration, it has been the most active cemetery in the system since 2000, based on the number of interments. RNC was established in 1976 through the transfer of 740 acres from March Air Force Base, a section that during World War II was called Camp Haan; the site was selected in 1976 to provide full burial options for Southern California veterans and their families by President Ford’s Commission for National Cemeteries and Monuments. An additional 181 acres was transferred by the U. S. Air Force in 2003. With 15 Medal of Honor recipients in attendance and the Marine Corps’ greatest fighter ace Joe Foss as featured speaker, RNC was dedicated and opened for burials Veterans Day, November 11, 1978. RNC’s first burial was Army Staff Sgt. Ysmael Villegas, awarded the Medal of Honor for bravery at the cost of his own life at Villa Verde Trail on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, March 20, 1945.
Following the war he was buried at Olivewood Cemetery in Riverside. Prior to the opening of RNC, the Veterans Administration asked the Villegas family if he could be honored by re-burial in the new National Cemetery; the dramatic, meandering landscape features a central boulevard with memorial circles, indigenous-styled committal shelters, a memorial amphitheater. Military funeral honors are provided for eligible veterans by military honor guards from each branch of service, by the California National Guard, by several volunteer teams collectively known as the Memorial Honor Detail or MHD upon request of family members through their funeral home. Riverside National Cemetery is home of the Medal of Honor Memorial, one of four sites in the United States recognized by the U. S. Congress as a National Medal of Honor Memorial Site; the Medal of Honor Memorial, whose walls feature the names of all medal recipients, is located at the third traffic circle in the cemetery. It was dedicated at a ceremony attended by 85 Medal of Honor recipients November 5, 1999.
The statue "Veterans Memorial", created by Colorado sculptor A. Thomas Schomberg, in commemoration of the veterans, their comrades, their personal and emotional sacrifices and to acknowledge those Americans who have lost loved ones in the service of their country; the statue consists of a 12-foot pedestal, on top of which lies the lifeless body of a soldier covered with a poncho that hides the face. The unidentified soldier whether a man or woman, private or officer, will forever remain in silent tribute to every American who has given his or her life in combat; the statue was donated to the Riverside National Cemetery by Thomas F. and Judy Kane and was dedicated May 28, 2000. The Prisoner of War/Missing in Action Memorial was designated a National Memorial by the U. S. Congress and dedicated September 16, 2005. A bronze statue, sculpted by Vietnam veteran Lewis Lee Millett, Jr. is the image of an American serviceman on his knees and bound by his captors. The statue is surrounded by black marble pillars.
Staff Sergeant Ysmael R. Villegas, U. S. Army, Company F, 127th Infantry, 32nd Infantry Division. Villa Verde Trail, Philippine Islands, March 20, 1945 – Section 5, Site 1178. Commander John H. Balch, U. S. Navy, 6th Regiment, U. S. Marines. Vierzy & Somme-Py, July 19, 1918, October 5, 1918 – Section 2, Site 1925. Colonel Mitchell Paige, U. S. Marine Corps, 1st Marine Division, Solomon Islands, October 26, 1942 – Section 20A, Site 533. Colonel Lewis Millett, U. S. Army, February 7, 1951 – Section 2, Site 1910. 2d Lieutenant Walter D. Ehlers, U. S. Army, June 9, 1944 – June 10, 1944 – Section 20A, Site 644. Adelbert Waldron. U. S. Army sniper who served in the Vietnam War and was credited with the highest number of confirmed kills in U. S. history with 109. A two-time recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross for separate actions in 1969 – Section AB, Row B, Site 37. Staff Sargent Henry Elwood Brooks, U. S. Army, Company F, 127th Infantry, 32nd Infantry Division. Villa Verde Trail, Philippine Islands. Received the Distinguish Service Cross for actions in 1945, along with the Bronze Star Medal 1 olc, the Purple Heart 1 ofc.
He fought alongside and was close friends with Medal of Honor Recipient Ysmael R. Villegas on the Villa Verde Trail. - Section AI, G, 34. John Groff. United States Marine Corps Brigadier General and centenarian. Alexander Kreiser. USMC, China Marine, Naval Aviator, Brigadier General. Section 13A, Site 451 Chesley G. Peterson. United States Air Force Major General – Section 20B, Site 44. Several members of the legendary Tuskegee Airmen, America’s first aviators of African descent, who trained at Alabama’s Tuskegee University and flew for the United States Army Air Force, are buried at Riverside National Cemetery. 1st Lt. John L. Hamilton, USAAF – Section 6, Site 270. 1st Lt. Kenneth R. Hawkins, USAAF – Section 57A, Site 2204. Major Charles F. Jamerson, USAF – Section 56A, Site 668. Master Sergeant Charles William Ledbetter, USAF served during World War II, Korea and Vietnam Wars – Section 26, Site 1426. 1st Lt. Perry Willis Lindsey, USAF served during World War II and Korean War – Section 63A, Site 768.
Chief Warrant Officer John All
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC