The 2006–07 A-League was the 30th season of top-flight soccer in Australia, the second season of the A-League since its establishment the previous season. Football Federation Australia hoped to build on the success of the first season and on the interest generated by the Socceroos competing in the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Fox Sports had signed a A$120 million deal over 7 years for the exclusive broadcast rights of the A-League, AFC Champions League, national team matches; the television advertisement campaign used for the 2006–07 season was the same as the previous season, with different music. Scribe's song "Not Many" was replaced with Manuel Neztic's "Kickin Down"; the second season was marketed as "A-League: Version 2". The following do not fill a Visa position:1Those players who were born and started their professional career abroad but have since gained Australian Residency; the opening round was 15 July 2006. The competition featured a group stage, with three regular rounds and a bonus round, followed by a two-week finals playoff.
The bonus group round matched up teams against opponents from the other group, offered the incentive of "bonus points" based on goals scored. The Pre-Season Cup was used to enhance the A-League's profiles by playing pre-season games in regional centres including the Gold Coast, Sunshine Coast, Launceston, Wollongong, Port Macquarie and Tamworth; the pre-season cup was won by Adelaide United at the final on 19 August 2006. The league season took a triple round-robin format, took place over 21 rounds between 25 August 2006 and 21 January 2007; the Asian Football Confederation announced on 21 November 2006 that Adelaide United and Sydney FC would represent Australia in the 2007 AFC Champions League. Despite an appeal by the Football Federation Australia, it was determined that the 2005–06 A-League premiers and champions would qualify and not those from the current season; the AFC indicated that the qualification arrangements would not be reviewed prior to 2009. The FFA have indicated that the premiers and champions of A-League 2006–07 will qualify for the 2008 AFC Champions League – establishing a precedent of maintaining a one-year lag between qualification and participation.
55,436: Melbourne Victory vs Adelaide United, 18 February 2007 50,333: Melbourne Victory vs Sydney FC, 8 December 2006 47,413: Melbourne Victory vs Adelaide United, 4 February 2007 39,730: Melbourne Victory vs Sydney FC, 2 September 2006 32,371: Queensland Roar vs Sydney FC, 20 January 2007 The 2007 A-League Awards ceremony was held on 27 February 2007 at the Sydney Opera House. Johnny Warren Medal: Nick Carle Joe Marston Medal Archie Thompson Rising Star: Adrian Leijer Coach of the Year: Ernie Merrick Golden Boot Award: Danny Allsopp Fair Play Award: Perth Glory Referee of the Year: Mark Shield 2006–07 Adelaide United season 2006–07 Central Coast Mariners season 2006–07 Melbourne Victory season 2006–07 Newcastle Jets FC season 2006–07 New Zealand Knights season 2006–07 Perth Glory season 2006–07 Queensland Roar season 2006–07 Sydney FC season A-League official website, including fixtures Football Federation Australia SBS The World Game A-League section FOXSPORTS.com.au A-League section and Official A-League Fantasy competition
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Daniel Beltrame is a former Australian goalkeeper. His first senior semi-professional that he played for was Campbelltown City SC in the South Australia Super League until 1994. Beltrame relocated to New South Wales to play for Port Kembla in the Illawarra league before joining National Soccer League club Wollongong Wolves in 1997. In four seasons with the Wolves, Beltrame made just 16 starting appearances finding himself behind Grant Barlow, Dean Anastasiadis and Les Pogliacomi for the number one jersey as Wollongong won both the 1999–2000 and 2000–01 NSL titles; the Wolves subsequently won the 2000 -- 01 Oceania Club Championship. Beltrame was rotated with Barlow throughout the tournament, scoring a goal in Wollongong's 16–0 win over Lotoha'pai FC and starring in the 1–0 victory over Tafea FC which secured the title for Wollongong. Beltrame made the switch to Newcastle United at the end of the 2000–01 season, was regular goalkeeper for the team in 2001–02 as they became the most successful Newcastle team by finishing second on the ladder whilst conceding the fewest goals of any team for the year.
Beltrame was nominated for NSL Goalkeeper of the Year in 2002–03 despite missing several weeks due to a shoulder injury, before transferring to Parramatta Power for 2003–04. However, he suffered a major injury prior to the start of the season, was forced to sit out the year behind Clint Bolton as Parramatta finished as runners-up. With the end of the NSL, Beltrame played the 2004 season with the Corrimal Rangers in the Illawarra Conference League, before rejoining Wollongong to play in the New South Wales Premier League; the launch of the A-League gave Beltrame the opportunity to return to his home city, he signed with Adelaide United FC for two seasons. In the 2005–06 season, Beltrame played 14 of Adelaide's 24 matches as the team went on to win the inaugural A-League premiership. In the preliminary final against Newcastle Jets at Hindmarsh Stadium in February 2007 he saved 2 pens from Vaughan Coveny and Stuart Musialik to give Adelaide the victory. 1 – includes A-League final series statistics 2 – includes FIFA Club World Cup statistics.
Adelaide Raiders SC
Adelaide Croatia Raiders is a soccer club in Adelaide, South Australia, that plays in the National Premier Leagues South Australia. Its home ground is the Croatian Sports Centre in a northern suburb of Adelaide, it is a Croatian Australian-backed club and is known by the name "Adelaide Croatia". The Adelaide Croatia Soccer Club was founded in 1952 by a group of Croatian migrants who named the club after their homeland; the group included Fahrudin Cerić, the President, Cvjetko Milanović and Drago Pišpek. The club played in the metropolitan division for five years, its first game was against a team from the Philips factory at Hendon. Its first home ground was in the South Parklands on Greenhill Rd. In 1954 Branko Filipi, a significant leader in the club's early history, became the club president and remained so for the next 14 years. Along with his enthusiastic committee, Filipi began securing the services of a number of promising recruits. In 1958 Adelaide Croatia entered into the fourth division and narrowly missed being promoted into the third division.
That same year, the late Charles Perkins, more famous as an Aboriginal activist, joined the team. Perkins played as a captain/coach for two seasons. In his autobiography he reflected with fondness on his friendships with Adelaide Croats and other immigrants he met through the club. In 1959 the club convincingly won the second division championship and secured a place in the first division for the first time. Once in the first division, Adelaide Croatia's fixtures and results were listed in the international football pools. In 1960 the club moved to its new headquarters at Hanson Reserve, it remained there until 2000. The club's first major milestone was in 1961 when Croatia defeated Cumberland 4-nil to win the Ampol Cup; the Advertiser, in its report on the match, wrote that no team in the state could have beaten Croatia. The 1960s proved to be a successful decade for the club in the South Australian State League, finishing in third place in 1961, 1962 and 1963, while finishing Runner-Up in 1965 and 1969.
Despite these strong results it wasn't until 1980 that Croatia won the coveted first place in the South Australian State League. Since Croatia has won the league on another four occasions: in 1984, 1988, 1997 and 2002. In 1962 the club competed in the inaugural Australian Cup, the first nationwide club tournament held in Australia. Croatia Adelaide were one of 16 participants in the knock-out competition and were the first Croatian backed club to compete; the side lost its first round match, losing to Brunswick Juventus 3–1 at Melbourne's Olympic Park to see the club knocked out. The club would again compete in the Australian Cup twice more in 1963 and 1965; the year 1977 saw the formation of the National Soccer League. Following the failure of Melbourne Croatia and Sydney Croatia in their applications for the league, Adelaide Croatia led a move backed by the Croatian Soccer Association of Australia which saw a proposal put forward for a Croatian'super club' to enter the NSL; the submission failed.
A major highlight in the club's history came in 1985. Adelaide Croatia had a remarkable run defeating both of Adelaide's NSL sides, Adelaide City and West Adelaide, 1–0 in the opening two rounds; the club lost in the quarter-finals to Sunshine George Cross. It was a valiant display seeing Croatia go down 1–0 in a fought match. Midway through the 2010 season John Kosmina who managed Adelaide United and Sydney FC in the A-League was announced as the new coach for the Raiders. In 2013, the Raiders made the finals series of the FFSA Premier League following a fifth placed league finish; the finals run came to a quick end after going down to Campbelltown City on penalties at the first hurdle. The Raiders narrowly avoided relegation in the 2015 season, finishing above relegated sides Port Adelaide Lion and Modbury Jets on goal difference alone, with all three sides finishing the season with 27 points. In the post-season, former international striker Joel Porter was announced as the new head coach. Adelaide Raiders parted ways with senior head coach Porter nine rounds into the NPLSA season, with the club languishing in bottom place.
Porter was replaced by former Raiders player Robert Matosevic. In August 2016, Adelaide Raiders finished bottom of the league in the 2016 FFSA season and were relegated to the 2017 FFSA season. In 2018 Adelaide Croatia Raiders earned promotion back in to the NPL by reaching the 2nd division play off series final against the minor premiers Adelaide Blue Eagles. Adelaide Croatia Raiders earned their spot in the grand final after a resounding 5-0 on aggregate victory over Adelaide Blue Eagles. Goals to Scott Tunbridge, Yasmin Sudic and Michael Paleka in a 3-1 over Blue Eagles, gifted Adelaide Croatia Raiders the championship. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. South Australian Champions: 1980, 1984, 1988, 1997, 2002 South Australian Runner-Up: 1965, 1969, 1983, 1986, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2005, 2007 South Australian Minor-Premiers: 1997 South Australian Regular Season Runner-Up: 1992, 1995, 2005 Federation Cup Winners: 1960, 1962, 1974, 1977, 1982, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 2003 Federation Cup Runner-Up: 1959, 1998, 2005 Errea Cup: 2007 Coca-Cola Cup Winners: 1984 Ampol Cup Winners: 1961, 1989, 1990 South Australian Division One Champions: 1959, 1972, 1975, 2018 Australian Croatian Soccer Tournament: 1984, 1995, 1997, 2002, 2009 Sergio Melta Medal – South Aust
Gold Coast United FC
Gold Coast United FC is an association football club based on the Gold Coast, Australia. It was announced as a professional expansion team for the A-League's 2009–2010 season on 28 August 2008, it was the second bid accepted by the league, with an unrelated bid known as Gold Coast Galaxy FC preceding it. The club was owned by Clive Palmer, the wealthiest man in Queensland until the FFA took over the club's A-League licence in February 2012, folding on 25 March 2012 and its intellectual properties being surrendered to Football Federation Australia. In their first two A-League seasons, Gold Coast were one of the strongest clubs in the A-League, finishing in the top four on both occasions and making the finals series. Although in their third season, the teams form dropped due to off-field instability surrounding player contracts, coaching staff and community support. Since their inception, Gold Coast were criticised about their low attendance. In their first season, they averaged close to 5,500 people and in their second season, they averaged just under 3,300 people per game, making them the lowest attended team.
On 29 February 2012, the FFA revoked Palmer's Gold Coast United A-League licence. On August 3, 2017, it was announced that they would be joining the National Premier League Queensland to compete both Men's and Women's competitions. A consortium under the working title of "Gold Coast Galaxy FC", led by real estate magnate Fred Taplin was, along with North Queensland Thunder, was considered for admission for the 2008–2009 season but Football Federation Australia delayed expansion of the league until at least the 2009–2010 season; the Galaxy was expected to join in the 2008–2009 season along with North Queensland Thunder, expanding the league to ten teams. Although the Galaxy bid appeared to have good support, the Thunder bid appeared much less secure after a major financial backer pulled out of the franchise on 5 March 2008; the FFA determined on 11 March that neither team would be granted entry "in the best interests of the league," given that a nine team format was unfavoured. Clive Palmer, who owned the club sold a 10 percent share of Gold Coast to close friends who live in Melbourne at the start of 2007 when the club were not expected to be given a licence into the A-League.
During the off-season prior to the 2008–2009 season, a number of players were touted to join the club and it made some tentative signings, including former Queensland Roar manager Miron Bleiberg, goalkeeper Scott Higgins, former Wellington Phoenix Brazilian player Felipe. Without entry into 2008–2009 season, the players became free agents and could still sign for the 2009–2010 season depending on the terms of their next club contracts; the franchise was linked at times with signing Nwankwo Kanu as their "marquee" player. The name'Galaxy' was an interim name and it was always undetermined whether or not that name would be used by the club as a permanent name. Galaxy was said to have ties to American Major League Soccer club Los Angeles Galaxy, which would have meant pre-season warm-up matches and possible player sharing opportunities. Indeed, in February 2008 there was talk of David Beckham turning out for a pre-season match; the Galaxy consortium had planned to market the club deep into Northern New South Wales, down to Coffs Harbour.
Once the FFA had decided not to have new franchises in 2008–2009, the focus turned to 2009–2010. The club was 70 percent owned by Clive Palmer, the richest man in Queensland, the other 30 percent was owned by 3 unidentified men; the Galaxy consortium's chances of entering the A-League were dealt a severe blow in June 2008 when a rival consortium headed by real estate and mining businessman Clive Palmer entered talks with the FFA. On 3 June 2008, Fred Taplin announced that the Gold Coast Galaxy had dropped out of the race for the Gold Coast licence and a place in the A-League'in the interests of football'; the same day, FFA chief Ben Buckley confirmed that the Palmer consortium had succeeded in securing the franchise. On 6 June, Palmer signed a provisional agreement with the FFA to field a team in the 2009–2010 season; the press conference was held at Robina Stadium, further reinforcing the suggestion that the new franchise will play at the 27,000 capacity stadium. Palmer declared. On 9 April 2010 it was reported that Clive Palmer had ended his financial support of Gold Coast United, putting the club at risk of instant closure.
However, this did not happen, Palmer retained control of the club. Gold Coast United chief executive Clive Mensink denied the club would fold, but the club would be forced to change its ownership structure, and after crucial recruitings of Bruce Djite, Peter Perchtold and the re-signing of Shane Smeltz, the team would have the most dangerous attack in the whole of the A-League. The 2011–12 season began with several key players departing including Bruce Djite to Adelaide United and the loss of Shane Smeltz to Perth Glory. On 27 January 2012, Clive Palmer once again caused controversy by deciding to close all but the western grandstand of Skilled Park for the remainder of the A-League season; the action was a form of punishment to the club's fans for a flare, thrown during their derby against Brisbane Roar. Despite backlash from within the community, Palmer stuck with his word by permanently closing the northern and eastern stands along with the southern stand, closed. On 29 February 2012, the FFA revoked Clive Palmer's Gold Coast United's A-League licence, they were allowed to play the final four games of the season.
As a result, Palmer founded Football Australia – a competing organisation that operated without any intern
The A-League is a professional men's soccer league run by Football Federation Australia. At the top of the Australian league system, it is the country's primary competition for the sport; the A-League was established in 2004 as a successor to the National Soccer League and competition commenced in August 2005. The league is contested by ten teams, it is known as the Hyundai A-League through a sponsorship arrangement with the Hyundai Motor Company. Seasons run from October to May and include a 27-round regular season followed by a Finals Series playoff involving the highest-placed teams, culminating in a grand final match; the winner of the regular season tournament is dubbed the'premier' while the winner of the grand final is the season's'champion'. This differs from the other major football codes in Australia, where'premier' refers to the winner of the grand final and the winner of the regular season is the'minor premier'. Successful A-League clubs gain qualification into the continental competition, the Asian Football Confederation Champions League known as "AFC Champions League".
Similar to the United States and Canada's Major League Soccer, as well as other professional sports leagues in Australia, Australia's A-League does not practice promotion and relegation. Since the league's inaugural season, a total of six clubs have been crowned A-League Premiers and five clubs have been crowned A-League Champions; the current premier is Perth Glory. The current champions are Melbourne Victory, who won the 2018 A-League Grand Final, equaling the record of four domestic titles held by Marconi Stallions, South Melbourne, Sydney City; the A-League does not recognize the history of its predecessor, the National Soccer League, the nations premier football competition from 1977 to 2004. A national round-robin tournament existed in various forms prior to the formation of the A-League, with the most notable being the National Soccer League; the formation of the NSL came after Australia's qualification for the 1974 FIFA World Cup, which led to discussion of a national league, with 14 teams chosen to participate in the inaugural season of the NSL in 1977.
Under the guidance of the then-governing body, the Australian Soccer Federation, the NSL flourished through the 1980s and early 1990s but fell into decline with the increasing departure of Australian players to overseas leagues, a disastrous television deal with the Seven Network and the resulting lack of sponsorship. Few clubs continued to grow with Sydney Olympic, Perth Glory, the newly established Adelaide United the exception in a dying league. In April 2003, the Australian Federal Government initiated the Independent Soccer Review Committee to investigate the governance and management of the sport in Australia, including that of the NSL. In December 2003, the Crawford Report found that the NSL was financially unviable, in response the chairman of the sports new governing body, Frank Lowy of Football Federation Australia, announced that a task force would be formed to create a new national competition as a successor to the NSL which dissolved at the conclusion of the 2003–04 season after 27 years of operation.
The A-League was announced in April 2004, as a successor to the NSL. Eight teams would be part of the new national competition, with one team from each city of Sydney, Brisbane, Perth, plus a New Zealand team and one from a remaining expressions of interest from either Melbourne or Sydney; the competition start date was set for August 2005. By June 2004, 20 submissions had been received and a month 12 consortiums sent in their final bids for the eight spots. Three bids were received from Melbourne, two each from Sydney and Brisbane, one from each of the remaining preferred cities and a bid from the New South Wales Central Coast city of Gosford. Over the next three months, each bid was reviewed and on 1 November 2004, the eight successful bidders and the major sponsor were revealed, for what would be known as the Hyundai A-League, with the Hyundai Motor Company unveiled as the official naming rights sponsor for the league; the eight founding teams for the league were Adelaide United, Central Coast Mariners, Melbourne Victory, Newcastle Jets, New Zealand Knights, Perth Glory, Queensland Roar and Sydney FC, with three former NSL clubs taking part, those being Adelaide United, Newcastle Jets and Perth Glory, as well as Queensland Roar and New Zealand Knights who were formed from NSL clubs Brisbane Lions and New Zealand Football Kingz.
Each club was given a five-year exclusivity deal in its own market as part of the league's "one-city, one-team" policy. This was intended to allow clubs to grow and develop an identity in their respective region without local competition. On 26 August 2005, 16 months after the demise of the NSL, the inaugural season of the A-League began; the first season would see Adelaide United win the premier's plate by seven points over Sydney FC with Central Coast and Newcastle filling the final two spots in the final series. In the final series, it was Sydney that took out the title after they defeated Central Coast by a Steve Corica goal to claim the first title on 5 March 2006. On 20 March 2007, it was announced that Wellington Phoenix would replace New Zealand Knights from the start of the 2007–08 season. Both Gold Coast United and North Queensland Fury joined the league in the 2009–10 season. On 12 June 2009, Melbourne Heart was awarded a licence to join the 2010–11 season. On 1 March 2011 North Queensland Fury's A-League licence was revoked for financial reasons.
On 29 February 2012, Gold Coast United had its licence revoked. On 4 April 2012 it was announced that a new We
Goalkeeper (association football)
The goalkeeper shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport; the goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball; the special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates. The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers perform goal kicks, give commands to their defense during corner kicks and indirect free kicks, marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique perspective on play development.
The goalkeeper is the only required position of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper's place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper, sent off, a team substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper, they play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper, or they have used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player has to take the dismissed goalkeeper's place and wear the goalkeeper shirt; the squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99. Association football, like many sports, has experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different positions. Goalkeeper is the only position, certain to have existed since the codification of the sport. In the early days of organised football, when systems were limited or non-existent and the main idea was for all players to attack and defend, teams had a designated member to play as the goalkeeper.
The earliest account of football teams with player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581 and does not specify goalkeepers. The earliest specific reference to keeping goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. According to Carew: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foot asunder. One of these is appointed by lots, to the one side, the other to his adverse party. There is assigned for their guard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers". Other references to scoring goals begin in English literature in the early 16th century. In a 1613 poem, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe", it seems inevitable that wherever a game has evolved goals, some form of goalkeeping must be developed. David Wedderburn refers to what has been translated from Latin as to "keep goal" in 1633, though this does not imply a fixed goalkeeper position; the word "goal-keeper" is used in the novel Tom Brown's School Days. The author is here referring to an early form of rugby football: You will see in the first place, that the sixth-form boy, who has the charge of goal, has spread his force so as to occupy the whole space behind the goal-posts, at distances of about five yards apart.
The word "goal-keeper" appeared in the Sheffield Rules of 1867, but the term did not refer to a designated player, but rather to "that player on the defending side who for the time being is nearest to his own goal". The goal-keeper, thus defined, did not enjoy any special handling privileges; the FA's first Laws of the Game of 1863 did not make any special provision for a goalkeeper, with any player being allowed to catch or knock-on the ball. Handling the ball was forbidden in 1870; the next year, 1871, the laws were amended to introduce the goalkeeper and specify that the keeper was allowed to handle the ball "for the protection of his goal". The restrictions on the ability of the goalkeeper to handle the ball were changed several times in subsequent revisions of the laws: 1871: the keeper may handle the ball only "for the protection of his goal". 1873: the keeper may not "carry" the ball. 1883: the keeper may not carry the ball for more than two steps. 1887: the keeper may not handle the ball in the opposition's half.
1901: the keeper may handle the ball for any purpose. 1912: the keeper may handle the ball only in the penalty area. 1931: the keeper may take up to four steps while carrying the ball. 1992: the keeper may not handle the ball after it has been deliberately kicked to him/her by a team-mate. 1997: the keeper may not handle the ball for more than six seconds. Goalkeepers played between the goalposts and had limited mobility, except when trying to save opposition shots. Throughout the years, the role of the goalkeeper has evolved, due to the changes in systems of play, to become more active; the goalkeeper is the only player in association football allowed to use their han