Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, to the current site nine years later, Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. The university has graduated many notable alumni, two U. S. Presidents,12 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princetons alumni body. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746 in order to train ministers, the college was the educational and religious capital of Scots-Irish America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governors interest, gov. Jonathan Belcher replied, What a name that would be.
In 1756, the moved to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England, following the untimely deaths of Princetons first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college, in 1812, the eighth president the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door. The plan to extend the theological curriculum met with approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey. Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include such as cross-registration. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the sole building.
The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17,1754, during the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the countrys capital for four months. The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, Nassau Halls bell rang after the halls construction, the fire of 1802 melted it. The bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855, James McCosh took office as the colleges president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. McCosh Hall is named in his honor, in 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides
American football positions
In American football, each team has 11 players on the field at one time. The specific role that a player takes on the field is called his position, under the modern rules of American football, teams are allowed unlimited substitutions, that is, teams may change any number of players after any play. This has resulted in the development of three platoons of players, the offense, the defense, and the special teams, within those platoons, various specific positions exist depending on what each players main job is. In American football, the offense is the side in which the players have possession of the ball and it is their job to advance the ball towards the opponents end zone to score points. The backs and receivers are known as skill position players or as eligible receivers. Offensive linemen are not usually eligible to advance the ball past the line of scrimmage during a play, the organization of the offense is strictly mandated by the rules, there must be at least seven players on the line of scrimmage and no more than four players behind it.
The only players eligible to handle the ball during a play are the backs. The remaining players are considered ineligible, and may only block, within these strictures, creative coaches have developed a wide array of offensive formations to take advantage of different player skills and game situations. The following positions are standard in every game, though different teams will use different arrangements of them. The offensive line is responsible for blocking. The offensive line consists of, Center The center is the player who begins the play from scrimmage by snapping the ball to the quarterback. As the name suggests, the center usually plays in the middle of the offensive line, like all offensive linemen, the center has the responsibility to block defensive players. The center often has the responsibility to call out blocking assignments, offensive guard Two guards line up directly on either side of the center. Like all interior linemen, their function is to block on both running and passing plays, in such cases, the guard is referred to as a pulling guard.
Guards are typically shorter builds than tackles but taller than centers, offensive tackle Two tackles play outside of the guards. Their role is primarily to block on both running and passing plays, the area from one tackle to the other is an area of close line play in which blocks from behind, which are prohibited elsewhere on the field, are allowed. For a right-handed quarterback, the tackle is charged with protecting the quarterback from being hit from behind. Like a guard, the tackle may have to pull, on a running play, the six backs and receivers are those that line up outside or behind the offensive line
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League is a professional sports league in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football and its nine teams, which are located in nine separate cities, are divided into two divisions, the East Division, with four teams, and the West Division with five teams. As of 2016, the features a 20-week regular season. The CFL was officially founded on January 19,1958, the league was formed from a merger between the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union founded in 1907 and the Western Interprovincial Football Union founded in 1936. Rugby football began to be played in Canada in the 1860s, the CRFU was reorganized as the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891, and served as an umbrella organization for several provincial and regional unions. The Grey Cup was donated by Governor General Earl Grey in 1909 to the winning the Senior Amateur Football Championship of Canada. By that time, the sport as played in Canada had diverged markedly from its rugby origins, in 1956, the IRFU and WIFU formed a new umbrella organization, the Canadian Football Council.
In 1958, the CFC left the CRU and became the Canadian Football League, as part of an agreement between the CRU and CFL, the CFL took possession of the Grey Cup, even though amateurs had not competed for it since 1954. The CRU remained the governing body for amateur play in Canada, the two unions remained autonomous, and there was no intersectional play between eastern and western teams except at the Grey Cup final. This situation was analogous to how the American baseball leagues operated for years. The IRFU was renamed the Eastern Football Conference in 1960, while the WIFU was renamed the Western Football Conference in 1961, in 1961, limited intersectional play was introduced. It was not until 1981 that the two agreed to a full merger, becoming the East and West Divisions of the CFL. With the merger came a full interlocking schedule of 16 games per season, Other team names had traditional origins. With rowing a national craze in the late 19th century, the Argonaut Rowing Club of Toronto formed a team for its members off-season participation.
The football team name Toronto Argonauts still remains though it. After World War II, the two teams in Hamilton—the Tigers and the Flying Wildcats—merged both their organizations into the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, after the 1981 season, the Alouettes folded and were replaced the next year by a new franchise named the Concordes. In 1986 the Concordes were renamed the Alouettes to attract more fan support, the demise of the Alouettes forced the League to move its easternmost Western team, into the East Division. In 1993, the league admitted its first United States-based franchise, after modest success, the league expanded further in the U. S. in 1994 with the Las Vegas Posse, Baltimore Stallions, and Shreveport Pirates
Canadian Football Hall of Fame
The Canadian Football Hall of Fame is a not-for-profit corporation, located in Hamilton, that celebrates great achievements in Canadian football. It is maintained by the Canadian Football League and it includes displays about the Canadian Football League, Canadian university football and Canadian junior football history. There were featured displays that highlight each Canadian Football League teams history, the CFHOF is currently changing to a de-centralized model, which does not included a main museum building. Once during every CFL season, the Hall sponsors the induction ceremony of former players, included in the Hall of Fame Weekend is a regular season game, usually affiliated with the Hamilton Tiger-Cats. Traditionally, the players will come to the Hall and make an acceptance speech in front of the building where their newly sculpted bust is unveiled. A player must be retired from the game for at least three years before being eligible for consideration, a Hall of Fame voting committee is composed of sports writers, selected CFL executives and inducted members.
The Canadian Hall of Fame officially opened on November 28,1972, the Canadian Hall of Fame was awarded to the City of Hamilton in June 1963 following the invitation of Mayor Lloyd Douglas Jackson. The Hamilton Parks Board offered a space near Civic Stadium, ivan Miller, former sports editor of The Spectator, was named the first curator. Soon after, the Board of Education purchased the land and building, the Hall moved to this location in 1972 and closed on September 19,2015. In 2015, responsibility for the museum moved from the City of Hamilton to the CFL, the old Canadian Hall of Fame building is easily identified by the slightly-larger-than-life metal sculpture Touchdown, featuring a successful receiver being tackled. As of the 2016 class, the Canadian Football Hall of Fame has honoured 283 players and builders, charter membership to the Hall began on June 19,1963. The Hall of Fame has a Football Reporters of Canada wing dedicated to reporters, the Canadian Football Hall of Fames old museum building is currently closed to the public as it transitions from a stand-alone facility.
A permanent display will be opened at Tim Hortons Field, accessible during Hamilton Tiger-Cats home games, the CFHOF is building travelling displays for different CFL team home fields, the Grey Cup, and other events. * denotes deceased Jack Abendschan – player,2012, bob Ackles – builder,2002. * Junior Ah You – player,1997. Tony Anselmo – builder,2009. * Ron Atchison – player,1978. * Len Back – builder,1971. * Byron Bailey – player,1975. * R. Harold Bailey – builder,1965. * Bill Baker – player,1994. Harold Ballard – builder,1987. * Donald Barker – builder,1999. * John Barrow – player,1976. * Danny Bass – player,2000, * Greg Battle – player,2007. Ormond Beach – player,1963. * Al Benecick – player,1996. * Paul Bennett – player,2002, sam Berger – builder,1993. * John Bonk – player,2008. Ab Box – player,1965. * David Braley – builder,2012, Joe Breen – player,1963, University of Western Ontario 1929–34 as coach. * Johnny Bright – player,1970. * Dieter Brock – player,1995
The Grey Cup is the name of both the championship game of the Canadian Football League and the trophy awarded to the victorious team playing Canadian football. It is contested between the winners of the CFLs East and West Divisional playoffs and is one of Canadian televisions largest annual sporting events, the Toronto Argonauts have 16 championships, more than any other team. The latest, the 104th Grey Cup, took place in Toronto, Ontario, on November 27,2016, the trophy was commissioned in 1909 by the Earl Grey, Canadas governor general, who originally hoped to donate it for the countrys senior amateur hockey championship. After the Allan Cup was donated for that purpose, Grey instead made his trophy available as the Canadian Dominion Football Championship of Canadian football. The trophy has a silver chalice attached to a base on which the names of all winning teams, players. The Grey Cup has been broken on several occasions, stolen twice and it survived a 1947 fire that destroyed numerous artifacts housed in the same building.
The Grey Cup was first won by the University of Toronto Varsity Blues, play was suspended from 1916 to 1918 due to the First World War and in 1919 due to a rules dispute. The game has typically been contested in an east versus west format since the 1920s, the Edmonton Eskimos formed the Grey Cups longest dynasty, winning five consecutive championships from 1978 to 1982. While the Stanley Cup was created in 1893 as the Canadian amateur hockey championship, Grey instead offered an award to the Dominion amateur rugby football championship beginning in 1909. He initially failed to follow through on his offer, the trophy was not ordered until two weeks prior to the first championship game. The first Grey Cup game was held on December 4,1909, the trophy was not ready for presentation following the game, and the Varsity Blues did not receive it until March 1910. They retained the trophy in the two years, defeating the Hamilton Tigers in 1910 and the Toronto Argonauts in 1911. The University of Toronto failed to reach the 1912 Grey Cup, the Varsity Blues refused to hand over the trophy on the belief they could keep it until they were defeated in a title game.
They kept the trophy until 1914 when they were defeated by the Argonauts, Canadas participation in the First World War resulted in the cancellation of the championship from 1916 to 1918, during which time the Cup was forgotten. Montreal Gazette writer Bob Dunn claimed that the trophy was rediscovered as one of the heirlooms of an employee of the Toronto trust company where it had been sent for storage. Competition finally resumed in 1920 with the 8th Grey Cup game and it was the University of Torontos fourth, and final, championship. Competition for the Grey Cup was limited to member unions of the CRU, the Western Canada Rugby Football Union joined in 1921, allowing the Edmonton Eskimos to challenge. Facing the Argonauts in the 9th Grey Cup, the Eskimos became the first western team –, the Argonauts entered the game with an undefeated record, having outscored their opposition 226 to 55 during the season
The Hamilton Spectator
The Hamilton Spectator, founded in 1846, is a newspaper published every day but Sunday in Hamilton, Canada. The Hamilton Spectator was first published July 15,1846, as The Hamilton Spectator, founded by Robert Smiley and a partner, the paper was sold in 1877 to William Southam, who founded the Southam newspaper chain and made the Spectator the first of the chain. The Southam chain was sold in 1998 to Conrad Black, who in turn sold off The Hamilton Spectator to Sun Media, in 1999 the Spectator was sold for a third time to Torstar Corporation. The Hamilton Spectator is currently published 6 days a week by Metroland Media Group, the Spectator serves Halton Region, as far east as Oakville. List of newspapers in Canada Hamilton Spectator official website Democracy at War, Canadian Newspapers and the Second World War - Canadian Museum of Civilization
The Sports Network
The Sports Network is a Canadian English language sports specialty service. Via a 20% share in the Bell Media subsidiary CTV Specialty Television, TSN is the largest specialty channel in Canada in terms of gross revenue, with a total of $400.4 million in revenue in 2013. TSNs networks focus on sports-related programming, including live and recorded event telecasts, sports talk shows, TSN holds regional television rights to three of the NHLs seven Canadian franchises. TSN receives an amount of programming through its minority partner. The TSN licence currently comprises five 24-hour programming services, from its launch until 2006, TSN operated as a single, national service. On August 25,2014, the primary TSN service was re-structured into four 24-hour feeds—TSN1, TSN3, TSN4, and TSN5—with each designated as the primary TSN network for each region of Canada. However, the task was complicated by claims by CBC that it owned the rights to the NHL. With the help of a Molson employee who was a friend of Gordon, in 1991, TSN acquired rights to the IIHF World U20 Championship, otherwise known as the World Juniors, which were previously broadcast by CBC. S.
College football bowl games, regarded as a sporting event of the holiday season in Canada. Due to CRTC regulations on the ownership of broadcasters, Labatt was forced to sell TSN. The Sports Network launched its website TSN. ca on October 1,1995, alternate programming could make up a maximum of 10% of the TSN schedule—an average of 2.4 hours a day. In 2000, after ESPN blocked two attempts by the Canadian partners to sell NetStar to Canwest, CTV Inc. acquired the Canadian partners shares, CTV Inc. was acquired by Bell Canada and The Woodbridge Company as part of the joint venture Bell Globemedia in 2001. As a result of its purchase of TSN, CTV would be forced to sell its sports network CTV Sportsnet. Following the acquisition, TSN would move its operations to CTVs Agincourt complex, Sportsnet would not move from Agincourt until 2008, which led to the now-competing networks sharing the same building as their headquarters. This oddity would become a joke between personalities on both networks, who commonly referred to jumping between the two networks as crossing the parking lot.
The CRTC, objected to plans to rename TSN as ESPN Canada, citing concerns that it would sound more like the channel was ESPNs Canadian affiliate, and that ESPN had de facto majority control. Beginning in 2006, the CRTC officially allowed TSN to operate national secondary digital feeds with limited amounts of alternative programming, following this development, TSN began to use such a feed to broadcast additional programming that could not be aired on TSN due to scheduling conflicts or other events. On August 29,2008, the feed evolved into a new 24-hour channel, similar to ESPN2, TSN was officially permitted to use these streamlined conditions of licence on February 1,2010
New England Patriots
The New England Patriots are a professional American football team based in the Greater Boston region. The Patriots compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues American Football Conference East division. The Patriots are headquartered at Gillette Stadium, an original member of the American Football League, the Patriots joined the NFL in the 1970 merger of the two leagues. The team changed its name from the original Boston Patriots after relocating to Foxborough in 1971, the Patriots played their home games at Foxboro Stadium from 1971 to 2001, moved to Gillette Stadium at the start of the 2002 season. The Patriots rivalry with the New York Jets is considered one of the most bitter rivalries in the NFL. The Patriots have appeared in the Super Bowl nine times in franchise history, the Patriots have since become one of the most successful teams in NFL history, winning 14 AFC East titles in 16 seasons since 2001, without a losing season in that period. The team owns the record for most Super Bowls reached and won by a head coach–quarterback tandem, the Patriots are tied with the 49ers and Cowboys for the second most Super Bowl wins with five.
The Steelers are in front with six, the Patriots are the only team to win five Super Bowls with the same coach and quarterback. On November 16,1959, Boston business executive Billy Sullivan was awarded the eighth, the following winter, locals were allowed to submit ideas for the Boston football teams official name. The most popular choice – and the one that Sullivan selected – was the Boston Patriots, immediately thereafter, artist Phil Bissell of The Boston Globe developed the Pat Patriot logo. The Patriots struggled for most of their years in the AFL, nickerson Field, Harvard Stadium, Fenway Park, and Alumni Stadium all served as home fields during their time in the American Football League. They played in only one AFL championship game, following the 1963 season and they did not appear again in an AFL or NFL post-season game for another 13 years. When the NFL and AFL merged in 1970, the Patriots were placed in the American Football Conference East division, the following year, the Patriots moved to a new stadium in Foxborough, which would serve as their home for the next 30 years.
As a result of the move, they announced they would change their name from the Boston Patriots to the Bay State Patriots, the name was rejected by the NFL and on March 22,1971, the team officially announced they would change its geographic name to New England. During the 1970s, the Patriots had some success, earning a berth to the playoffs in 1976—as a wild card team—and in 1978—as AFC East champions and they lost in the first round both times. In 1985, they returned to the playoffs, and made it all the way to Super Bowl XX, following their Super Bowl loss, they returned to the playoffs in 1986, but lost in the first round. The team would not make the playoffs again for eight more years, during the 1990 season, the Patriots went 1–15. They changed ownership three times in the ensuing 14 years, being purchased from the Sullivan family first by Victor Kiam in 1988, who sold the team to James Orthwein in 1992
It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football and it is in college football where a players performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as a free agent. Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained extremely popular throughout the U. S, in many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. This allows them to more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries, colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as football, by the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges, the first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9,1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock, a football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College, a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional mob football played in England.
The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football, Princeton University students played a game called ballown as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as Bloody Monday began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes, in 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a figure called Football Fightum. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called Old division football, the rules of which were first published in 1871, all of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities
David Braley is the owner of the BC Lions and former owner of the Toronto Argonauts and Hamilton Tiger-Cats, all of the Canadian Football League. On May 20,2010, he was appointed to the Canadian Senate as a Conservative, Braley was born in Montreal and raised in Hamilton, Ontario where he attended McMaster University. Braley began his business career with General Motors Acceptance Corporation in Hamilton, in 1969, he purchased William Orlick Limited, a leading auto parts manufacturer based in Stoney Creek and remains its owner and president. He currently lives in Burlington, Braley owned the Hamilton Tiger-Cats from 1987 until 1990 when the team returned to community ownership. He returned to the CFL with his purchase of the Lions in 1997 and he owned the Vancouver 86ers soccer club, the Vancouver Whitecaps, of the A-League, keeping professional soccer alive from 1997–2000. In early 2010, he became owner of the Argonauts. In an effort to minimize the ensuing controversy, the league has scheduled games between the Lions and Argonauts early in the season in order to avoid possible playoff implications.
He announced the sale of the Argonauts to Bell Media and Larry Tanenbaum on May 20,2015, Braley has served as the chair of the CFLs Board of Governors and was the CFLs interim commissioner from March 2002 to November 2002. Braley was chairman of the 2003 World Cycling Championships in Hamilton and he was a director of Ontarios successful bid to host the 2015 Pan Am Games and was subsequently a member of the board overseeing preparations for the games. Braley resigned upon his appointment to the Senate, as the bodys by-laws specifically bar elected officials, the David Braley Athletic Centre in Hamilton Ontario is named in his honor. In 2012, Braley was elected into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, a member of the Conservative Party of Canada caucus, Braley had made donations to the Conservative Party and Stephen Harper among others, totaling $86,500, prior to his appointment. Braley further stated that, due to his position as a team owner. Braley told the Hamilton Community News in September 2013 that There are four people who are causing the problems for the other 100 senators, David Braley – Parliament of Canada biography Senate biography
The Montreal Alouettes are a Canadian football team based in Montreal, Quebec. Founded in 1946, the team has folded and been revived twice, the Alouettes compete in the East Division of the Canadian Football League and last won the Grey Cup championship in 2010. Their home field is Percival Molson Memorial Stadium for the regular season, the original Alouettes team won four Grey Cups and were particularly dominant in the 1970s. After their collapse in 1982, they were immediately reconstituted under new ownership as the Montreal Concordes, after playing for four years as the Concordes, they revived the Alouettes name for the 1986 season. A second folding in 1987 led to a hiatus of CFL football in the city. The current Alouettes franchise was established in 1996 by the owners of the Baltimore Stallions, many players from the Stallions 1995 roster signed with the Alouettes and formed the core of the teams 1996 roster. The CFL considers all clubs that have played in Montreal as one franchise dating to 1946, the Alouettes had from 1996 to 2014 the CFLs longest active playoff streak, having missed the playoffs twice since returning to the league.
The streak came to an end in 2015 and they have hosted a playoff game every year except 2001,2007,2013,2015 and 2016 and have never finished with fewer than six wins. Their only four losing seasons came in 2007,2013 and 2015 and 2016,2015 and 2016 marked the first time the team missed the playoffs in consecutive years since their re-activation. Major stars of the recent era include Mike Pringle, the CFL career leader in rushing yards, and quarterback Anthony Calvillo, the Alouettes are owned by American investment banker Robert Wetenhall. It is currently the only CFL team to have non-Canadian ownership, Jim Popp served as the teams general manager, his tenure with the franchise, which extended back to the Baltimore era, ended on November 7,2016. Founded, The original Montreal club was founded on April 8,1872, the original club was renamed as the Montreal Alouettes in 1946. However, the original Alouettes club ceased operations following the 1981 season and was replaced by a new team, the Montreal Concordes, the Concordes were rechristened the new Alouettes for the 1986 season, but ceased operations the day before the 1987 season was due to start.
The current Montreal Alouettes franchise commenced play in 1996, uniform Colours, red, silver and black Home Stadium, The Alouettes play at Percival Molson Memorial Stadium for the regular season, while they play at Olympic Stadium for playoff games. The Alouettes were first formed in 1946 by CFL hall of famer Lew Hayman along with businessmen Eric Cradock and they named themselves after Alouette, a work song about plucking the feathers from a skylark, which had become a symbol of the Québécois. They won their first Grey Cup championship in 1949, beating Calgary 28–15 led by quarterback Frank Filchock, from 1954 to 1956, they reached the Grey Cup in three straight years, but questionable defensive units led the Alouettes to defeat against the Edmonton Eskimos all three times. The team was purchased in 1954 by Ted Workman – and while the team continued to enjoy success, that all changed at the end of the 1960 season. To be more specific, the team was shaken by an announcement on November 10 – namely the trade of Hal Patterson and Sam Etcheverry to the Hamilton Tiger-Cats for Bernie Faloney, Workman had concluded the deal without consulting with general manager Perry Moss