Patrick James Smyth
Patrick James Smyth known as Nicaragua Smyth, was an Irish politician and journalist. He was M. P. for Westmeath from 1871–80 and for Tipperary from 1880 until his death. Smyth was born in Dublin in either 1823 or 1826, the son of James Smyth, of County Cavan, by Anne, daughter of Maurice Bruton of Portane, County Meath, his father was a tanner in Dublin, Smyth inherited considerable property. Smyth was educated at Clongowes Wood College where he became friends with Thomas Francis Meagher, with whom he joined the Repeal Association in 1844. Following his involvement in the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848, Smyth fled to America where he worked as a journalist and became involved in the New York Irish Directory. There he was persuaded to go to Van Diemen's Land in 1853 to facilitate the escape to America of John Mitchel, the Irish activist. Whilst there, he married a local girl Jeannie Regan. Smyth was nicknamed Nicaragua by Mitchel on account of the former's support for railway projects in that country.
On his return to Ireland, Smyth was elected a Home Rule Party Member of Parliament for Westmeath at a by-election on 17 June 1871, was reelected in 1874. At the 1880 general election, he did not seek re-election in Westmeath, but stood instead in Tipperary, where he was elected unopposed, he left the House of Commons at the end of 1884, when he was appointed as Secretary to the Irish Loan Fund Board. In 1871, Smyth was made chevalier of the Légion d'honneur. Michael Doheny, The Felon's Track. History of the Attempted Outbreak in Ireland, Embracing the Leading Events in the Irish Struggle From the Year 1843 to the Close of 1848 An Apology for the British Government in Ireland, John Mitchel, O'Donoghue & Company 1905, 96 pages Jail Journal: Commenced on Board the "Shearwater" Steamer, in Dublin Bay... John Mitchel, M. H. Gill & Sons, Ltd 1914, 463 pages Jail Journal: with continuation in New York & Paris, John Mitchel, M. H. Gill & Son, Ltd The Crusade of the Period, John Mitchel, Cole & Meehan 1873 History of Ireland, from the Treaty of Limerick to the Present Time, John Mitchel, Cameron & Ferguson History of Ireland, from the Treaty of Limerick to the Present Time, John Mitchel, James Duffy 1869 Life of Hugh O'Neil John Mitchel, P. M. Haverty 1868 The Last Conquest of Ireland, John Mitchel The Felon's Track, Michael Doheny, M. H. Gill & Sons, Ltd 1951 The Volunteers of 1782, Thomas Mac Nevin, James Duffy & Sons.
Centenary Edition Thomas Davis, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Kegan Paul, Trubner & Co, Ltd 1890 My Life In Two Hemispheres, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, T. Fisher Unwin. 1898 Young Ireland, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Petter, Galpin & Co 1880 Four Years of Irish History 1845–1849, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Petter, Galpin & Co. 1888 A Popular History of Ireland: From the Earliest Period to the Emancipation of the Catholics, Thomas D'Arcy McGee, Cameron & Ferguson The Patriot Parliament of 1689, Thomas Davis, T. Fisher Unwin, MDCCCXCIII Charles Gavan Duffy: Conversations with Carlyle Davis, Poem’s and Essays Complete, introduction by John Mitchel, P. M. Haverty, P. J. Kenedy, 9/5 Barclay St. New York, 1876. Additional readingThe Politics of Irish Literature: from Thomas Davis to W. B. Yeats, Malcolm Brown, Allen & Unwin, 1973. John Mitchel, A Cause Too Many, Aidan Hegarty, Camlane Press. Thomas Davis, The Thinker and Teacher, Arthur Griffith, M. H. Gill & Son 1922. Brigadier-General Thomas Francis Meagher His Political and Military Career,Capt.
W. F. Lyons, Burns Oates & Washbourne Limited 1869 Young Ireland and 1848, Dennis Gwynn, Cork University Press 1949. Daniel O'Connell The Irish Liberator, Dennis Gwynn, Hutchinson & Co, Ltd. O'Connell Davis and the Colleges Bill, Dennis Gwynn, Cork University Press 1948. Smith O’Brien And The "Secession", Dennis Gwynn,Cork University Press Meagher of The Sword, Edited By Arthur Griffith, M. H. Gill & Son, Ltd. 1916. Young Irelander Abroad The Diary of Charles Hart, Edited by Brendan O'Cathaoir, University Press. John Mitchel First Felon for Ireland, Edited By Brian O'Higgins, Brian O'Higgins 1947. Rossa's Recollections 1838 to 1898, Intro by Sean O'Luing, The Lyons Press 2004. Labour in Ireland, James Connolly, Fleet Street 1910; the Re-Conquest of Ireland, James Connolly, Fleet Street 1915. John Mitchel Noted Irish Lives, Louis J. Walsh, The Talbot Press Ltd 1934. Thomas Davis: Essays and Poems, Centenary Memoir, M. H Gill, M. H. Gill & Son, Ltd MCMXLV. Life of John Martin, P. A. Sillard, James Duffy & Co.
Ltd 1901. Life of John Mitchel, P. A. Sillard, James Duffy and Co. Ltd 1908. John Mitchel, P. S. O'Hegarty, Maunsel & Company, Ltd 1917; the Fenians in Context Irish Politics & Society 1848-82, R. V. Comerford, Wolfhound Press 1998 William Smith O'Brien and the Young Ireland Rebellion of 1848, Robert Sloan, Four Courts Press 2000 Irish Mitchel, Seamus MacCall, Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd 1938. Ireland Her Own, T. A. Jackson, Lawrence & Wishart Ltd 1976. Life and Times of Daniel O'Connell, T. C. Luby, Cameron & Ferguson. Young Ireland, T. F. O'Sullivan, The Kerryman Ltd. 1945. Irish Rebel John Devoy and America's Fight for Irish Freedom, Terry Golway, St. Martin's Griffin 1998. Paddy's Lament Ireland 1846-1847 Prelude to Hatred, Thomas Gallagher, Poolbeg 1994; the Great Shame, Thomas Keneally, Anchor Books 1999. James Fintan Lalor, Thomas, P. O'Neill, Golden Publications 2003. Charles Gavan Duffy: Conversations With Carlyle, with Introduction, Stray Thoughts On Young Ireland, by Brendan Clifford, Athol Books, Belfast, ISBN 0-85034-114-0.
Envoi, Taking Leave Of Roy Foster, by Bren
Young Ireland was a political and social movement of the mid-19th century. It began as a tendency within Daniel O'Connell's Repeal Association, associated with The Nation newspaper, but split to found the Irish Confederation in 1847. Young Ireland led changes in Irish nationalism, including an abortive rebellion known as the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848. Many of the rebellion's leaders were tried for sedition and sentenced to penal transportation to Van Diemen's Land. From its beginnings in the late 1830s, Young Ireland grew in influence and inspired following generations of Irish nationalists; some of the junior members of the movement went on to found the Irish Republican Brotherhood. The name Young Ireland was used in a disparaging way to describe the group of young Repeal Association members who were associated with The Nation newspaper. At the time, the Repeal Association was campaigning for the repeal of the Act of Union 1800 between the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland; the term was first coined by the "English" press, used by leader Daniel O'Connell in a vindictive attack at Conciliation Hall, home of the Repeal Association.
Young Ireland traced its origins to the new College Historical Society, founded on 29 March 1839, at a meeting at Francis Kearney's chambers, 27 College. Among the members of this new society were John Blake Dillon, Thomas MacNevin, William Eliot Hudson and Thomas Davis, elected its president in 1840. While still at Trinity College, Davis had addressed the Dublin Historical Society, which met at the Dorset Institute in Upper Sackville Street from 1836 to 1838. Davis gave two lectures. (Available from the National Library of Ireland, the lectures show that Davis had become a convinced Irish nationalist by this period. On 15 April 1840, Daniel O’Connell held the first meeting of his new Repeal Association, in the Corn Exchange, Dublin; the group was received with sneers, O’Connell's sincerity was questioned. In the General Election in 1832, O’Connell had made the same appeal for repeal. Although half the representatives chosen for Ireland were pledged Repealers, O’Connell dropped the demand. Several new members accepted appointments under the system.
Since that time, O’Connell had become a close ally of the Whigs. As they were expected to fall from power in 1840, activists' renewing the agitation for Repeal was suspected as a device to embarrass the new administration. Not one man of status, outside the members of the defunct Association, joined the ranks of the new one. With the new Association's mounting debts, the contributions from its members not sufficient to pay half its ordinary expenses, both Thomas Davis and John Blake Dillon, joined its ranks in April 1841, having in the process, to overcome their dislike of the abusive tone of O’Connell's agitation. O’Connell welcomed them and made them members of the General Committee, which controlled the organisation of the Association; the two men began their work in earnest. Davis thus could communicate with all the leading politicians of the Party, whenever he came across any with depth or ability. In the autumn of 1841, Dillon and Davis took over the roles of Editor and sub-Editor of the Morning Register, a Dublin daily paper belonging to Alderman Staunton, the organ of the Catholic Association, “was regarded among the mercenaries” of the Dublin Castle, according to Michael Doheny, to become one of Young Ireland's leading figures.
As editors they featured articles on such topics as Protestant nationality, historical parallels from classic and mediaeval history, agencies and conditions of guerrilla warfare. Michael Doheny suggests in his Felon’s Track that “all Dublin was startled by the originality and brilliancy of its articles”, it was at this time that they first came into contact with Charles Gavan Duffy. On Duffy's next visit to Dublin some six months he discovered that Davis and Dillon had abandoned their experiment with the Register. Davis had no way to reach a wider public with his contributions to the Dublin Monthly Magazine; the three decided to found a new national newspaper. Into this new venture, Dillon brought two young friends, the barrister John O'Hagan and law student John Edward Pigot. Davis brought some of his circle of young friends from the Historical Society, Duffy brought in the poet James Clarence Mangan. On 15 October 1842, the first number of The Nation was launched. “The appearance of The Nation and its immediate and phenomenal success was a reinforcement for which O’Connell had scarcely dared to hope”.
For the next three years, the newspaper was a major influence in nationalist thinking. O’Connell was aware of the significance of the support of the young men, but was wary of their professed freedom from the “gratitude of the past.” Davis was a skilful propagandist who exerted a singular influence. The success of the newspaper soon produced significant results. One of the most distinctive developments was the organisation of Repeal reading rooms all over the country which The Nation was soon addressed, they found this an effective method of spreading their propaganda. By the spring of 1843, when The Nation had been in existence for six months, agitation for Repeal was becoming formidable, the Government was beginning to consider the old problem of h
Kevin Izod O'Doherty
Kevin Izod O'Doherty was an Irish Australian politician. He was a Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. O'Doherty was born in Dublin on 7 September 1823, although other sources including the Dictionary of Australasian Biography indicate he was born in June 1824. Charles Gavan Duffy, in his My Life in Two Hemispheres, states that O'Doherty was still under age when he was arrested in July 1848. O'Doherty received a good education and studied medicine, but before he was qualified, joined the Young Ireland party and in June 1848, together with Richard D'Alton Williams, established the Irish Tribune. Only five editions were issued, the first being on 10 June 1848. On 10 July 1848, when the fifth edition was issued, O'Doherty was arrested and charged with treason-felony. At the first and second trials the juries disagreed, but at the third trial he was found guilty and sentenced to transportation for 10 years. O'Doherty arrived in Tasmania in November 1849, was at once released on parole to reside at Oatlands, his professional services were utilised at St. Mary's Hospital, Hobart.
The other Irish prisoners nicknamed him'St Kevin'.. In 1854 received a pardon with the condition that he must not reside in Great Britain or Ireland, he went to Paris and carried on his medical studies, making one secret visit to Ireland to marry Mary Eva Kelly, to whom he was affianced before leaving Ireland. He received an unconditional pardon in 1856, completed his studies in Dublin, graduating FRCS in 1857, he practised in Dublin and in 1862 went to Brisbane and became well known as one of its leading physicians. O'Doherty was elected a member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly in 1867, in 1872 was responsible for a health act being passed, was one of the early opponents of the traffic in kanakas. In 1877 he transferred to the Queensland Legislative Council, in 1885 resigned as he intended to settle in Europe. In Ireland O'Doherty was cordially welcomed, was returned unopposed as Irish Parliamentary Party MP for North Meath to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom in the November 1885 general election.
He attempted to take up his medical practice again but was not successful, he died in poor circumstances on 15 July 1905. His wife and a daughter survived him. A fund was raised by public subscription to provide for his widow, Mary Anne, a poet, who in her early days was well known as the author of Irish patriotic verse in The Nation under the soubriqet "Eva". In Australia she contributed to Queensland journals, one of her poems is included in A Book of Queensland Verse, she died at Brisbane on 21 May 1910. List of convicts transported to Australia An Apology for the British Government in Ireland, John Mitchel, O'Donoghue & Company 1905, 96 pages Jail Journal: Commenced on Board the "Shearwater" Steamer, in Dublin Bay... John Mitchel, M. H. Gill & Sons, Ltd 1914, 463 pages Jail Journal: with continuation in New York & Paris, John Mitchel, M. H. Gill & Son, Ltd The Crusade of the Period, John Mitchel, Cole & Meehan 1873 History of Ireland, from the Treaty of Limerick to the Present Time, John Mitchel, Cameron & Ferguson History of Ireland, from the Treaty of Limerick to the Present Time, John Mitchel, James Duffy 1869 Life of Hugh O'Neil John Mitchel, P. M. Haverty 1868 The Last Conquest of Ireland, John Mitchel The Felon's Track, Michael Doheny, M. H. Gill & Sons, Ltd 1951 The Volunteers of 1782, Thomas Mac Nevin, James Duffy & Sons.
Centenary Edition Thomas Davis, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Kegan Paul, Trubner & Co, Ltd 1890 My Life In Two Hemispheres, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, T. Fisher Unwin. 1898 Young Ireland, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Petter, Galpin & Co 1880 Four Years of Irish History 1845–1849, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Petter, Galpin & Co. 1888 A Popular History of Ireland: From the Earliest Period to the Emancipation of the Catholics, Thomas D'Arcy McGee, Cameron & Ferguson The Patriot Parliament of 1689, Thomas Davis, T. Fisher Unwin, MDCCCXCIII Charles Gavan Duffy: Conversations with Carlyle Davis, Poem’s and Essays Complete, introduction by John Mitchel, P. M. Haverty, P. J. Kenedy, 9/5 Barclay St. New York, 1876; the Politics of Irish Literature: from Thomas Davis to W. B. Yeats, Malcolm Brown, Allen & Unwin, 1973 John Mitchel, A Cause Too Many, Aidan Hegarty, Camlane Press. Thomas Davis, The Thinker and Teacher, Arthur Griffith, M. H. Gill & Sons Ltd. 1922. Brigadier-General Thomas Francis Meagher: His Political and Military Career, W. F. Lyons, Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd. 1869 Young Ireland and 1848, Denis Gwynn, Cork University Press, 1949'Repeal and Revolution.
1848 in Ireland', Christine Kinealy, Manchester, 2009 Daniel O'Connell – The Irish Liberator, Denis Gwynn, Hutchinson & Co, Ltd. O'Connell and the Colleges Bill, Denis Gwynn, Cork University Press, 1948 Smith O’Brien And The "Secession", Denis Gwynn, Cork University Press Meagher of The Sword, Edited By Arthur Griffith, M. H. Gill & Sons, Ltd. 1916 Young Irelander Abroad – The Diary of Charles Hart, Edited by Brendan O'Cathaoir, University Press. John Mitchel – First Felon for Ireland, Edited By Brian O'Higgins, 1947 Rossa's Recollections – 1838 to 1898, The Lyons Press, 2004 Labour in Ireland, James Connolly, Fleet Street, 1910 The Re-Conquest of Ireland, James Connolly, Fleet Street, 1915 John Mitchel –
Thomas D'Arcy McGee
Thomas D'Arcy Etienne Grace Hughes McGee, was an Irish-Canadian politician, Catholic spokesman, poet, a Father of Canadian Confederation. The young McGee was a Catholic Irishman who hated the British rule of Ireland, worked for a peasant revolution to overthrow British rule and secure Irish independence, he fled to the United States in 1848, where he reversed his political beliefs. He became disgusted with American republicanism and democracy, became intensely conservative in his politics and in his religious support for the Pope, he moved to Canada in 1857 and worked hard to convince the Irish Catholics to cooperate with the Protestant British in forming a Confederation that would make for a strong Canada in close alliance with Britain. His passion for Confederation garnered him the title:'Canada's first nationalist', he fought the Fenians in Canada, who were Irish Catholics that hated the British and resembled his younger self politically. McGee succeeded in helping create the Canadian Confederation in 1867, but was assassinated by Patrick J. Whelan in 1868.
Known as D'Arcy McGee, he was born on 13 April 1825 in Carlingford and raised as a Roman Catholic. From his mother, the daughter of a Dublin bookseller he learned the history of Ireland, which influenced his writing and political activity; when he was eight years old, his family moved to Wexford, where his father, James McGee, was employed by the coast guard. In Wexford he attended a local hedge school, where the teacher, Michael Donnelly, fed his hunger for knowledge and where he learned of the long history of British rule and Irish opposition, including the more recent uprising of 1798. In 1842 at age 17, McGee left Ireland with his sister due to a poor relationship with their stepmother, Margaret Dea, who had married his father in 1840 after the death of his mother 22 August 1833. In 1842 he sailed from Wexford harbour aboard the brig Leo, bound for the United States. On the Leo he wrote many of his early poems about Ireland, he soon found work as assistant editor of Patrick Donahoe's Boston Pilot, a Catholic newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts.
He specialized in articles expounding the movement for Irish self-determination led by Daniel O’Connell. He became the lead editor in 1844, While writing as well on Irish literature and politics, he advocated the union of Canada into the United States, saying, "Either by purchase, conquest, or stipulation, Canada must be yielded by Great Britain to this Republic."In 1845, he returned to Ireland where he became politically active and edited The Nation, the voice of the Young Ireland movement. In 1847, he married Mary Theresa Caffrey, his involvement in the Irish Confederation and Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 resulted in a warrant for his arrest. McGee escaped returned to the United States. In the United States, he achieved prominence in Irish American circles and founded and edited the New York Nation and the American Celt, he wrote a number of history books. He grew disillusioned with democracy and the United States. Historian David Gerber traces a dramatic transformation from the Young Ireland revolutionary who sought a peasant insurrection to expel the British from Ireland.
Gerber writes: After 1851, however, he veered toward the opposite pole, espousing an ultramontane conservatism.... Catholic dogma and triumphalism, anti-Protestantism, cultural nationalism, social conservatism were the framework of McGee's thought during the 1850s. McGee emigrated to Montreal in 1857, believing Canada was far more hospitable to the Catholic Irish than was the United States, he downplayed the importance of the Orange Order in Canada. He remained a persistent critic of American institutions, of the American way of life, he accused the Americans of hostile and expansionist motives toward Canada and of desiring to spread its republican ideas over all of North America. McGee worked energetically for continued Canadian devotion to the British Empire seeing in imperialism the protection Canada needed from all American ills. In 1857, he set up the publication of the New Era in Quebec. In his editorials and pamphlets he attacked the influence of the Orange Order and defended the Irish Catholic right to representation in the assembly.
In terms of economics he promoted modernisation, calling for extensive economic development by means of railway construction, the fostering of immigration, the application of a high protective tariff to encourage manufacturing. Politically active, he advocated a new nationality in Canada. In 1858, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada and worked for the creation of an independent Canada. By 1861, McGee had earned a law degree at McGill University. McGee became the minister of agriculture and statistics in the Conservative government, formed in 1863, he retained that office in the "Great Coalition", was a Canadian delegate to the Charlottetown and Quebec conferences of 1864. At Quebec, McGee introduced the resolution which called for a guarantee of the educational rights of religious minorities in the two Canadas. Moderating his radical Irish nationalist views, McGee denounced the Fenian Brotherhood in America that advocated a forcible takeover of Canada from Britain by the United States.
Following the Confederation of Canada, McGee was elected to the 1st Canadian Parliament in 1867 as a Liberal-Conservative representing the riding of Montreal West. However, he had lost much of his Irish Catholic support. On 5 November 1867 McGee delivered an oration titled "The Mental Outfit of the New Domin
Jane Francesca Agnes, Lady Wilde was an Irish poet under the pen name "Speranza" and supporter of the nationalist movement. Lady Wilde had a special interest in Irish folktales, she married Sir William Wilde, an eye and ear surgeon, on 12 November 1851 in St. Peter's church in Dublin, they had three children: William Charles Kingsbury Wilde, Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde, Isola Francesca Emily Wilde, her eldest son William Wilde became a journalist and poet, her younger son Oscar Wilde became a prolific and famous writer, her daughter Isola Wilde died in childhood. Jane was the last of the four children of Charles Elgee, a Wexford solicitor, his wife Sarah, her great-grandfather was an Italian. Lady Wilde, the niece of Charles Maturin, wrote for the Young Ireland movement of the 1840s, publishing poems in The Nation under the pseudonym of Speranza, her works included anti-British writing. Charles Gavan Duffy was the editor when "Speranza" wrote commentary calling for armed revolution in Ireland.
The authorities at Dublin Castle brought the editor to court. Duffy refused to name. "Speranza" claimed responsibility for the article. The confession was ignored by the authorities, but in any event the newspaper was permanently shut down by the authorities. She was an early advocate of women's rights, campaigned for better education for women, she invited the suffragist Millicent Fawcett to her home to speak on female liberty. She praised the passing of the Married Women's Property Act of 1883, preventing women from having to enter marriage'as a bond slave, disenfranchised of all rights over her fortune'. William Wilde was knighted in January 1864, but the family celebrations were short-lived, for in the same year Sir William and Lady Wilde were at the centre of a sensational Dublin court case regarding a young woman called Mary Travers, the daughter of a colleague of Sir William's, who claimed that he had seduced her and who brought an action against Lady Wilde for libel. Mary Travers won. In 1867, their daughter Isola died of fever at the age of nine.
In 1871 the two illegitimate daughters of Sir William burned to death in an accident and in 1876 Sir William himself died. The family discovered that he was bankrupt. Lady Wilde left Dublin for London in 1879, where she joined her two sons, Willie, a journalist, Oscar, making a name for himself in literary circles, she lived with her older son in poverty, supplementing their meagre income by writing for fashionable magazines and producing books based on the researches of her late husband into Irish folklore. Lady Wilde contracted bronchitis in January 1896 and, asked for permission to see Oscar, in prison, her request was refused. It was claimed that her "fetch" appeared in Oscar's prison cell as she died at her home, 146 Oakley Street, Chelsea, on 3 February 1896. Willie Wilde, her older son, was penniless, so Oscar paid for her funeral, held on 5 February at Kensal Green Cemetery in London. A headstone proved too expensive and she was buried anonymously in common ground. A monument to her, in the form of a Celtic cross, was erected at Kensal Green Cemetery by the Oscar Wilde Society in about 1999.
In 1911 the American-born writer Anna de Brémont, who claimed to have had a close friendship with Lady Wilde, published a memoir entitled Oscar Wilde and His Mother. Jane Wilde was the grandmother of Cyril and Vyvyan Holland, the sons of Oscar Wilde, of Dorothy Wilde, the daughter of'Willie'. Works by or about Jane Francesca Elgee at Internet Archive Works by or about Lady Wilde at Internet Archive Works by Jane Wilde at LibriVox Ancient Legends, Mystic Charms, Superstitions of Ireland by Lady Wilde Poems by "Speranza", 1864 – scan of a copy found in the Alumnae Library of Elms College Poems by Speranza, 2nd ed. – transcription at Victorian Women Writers Project Lady Wilde at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Lady Wilde at Library of Congress Authorities, with 26 catalogue records
William Smith O'Brien
William Smith O'Brien was an Irish nationalist Member of Parliament and leader of the Young Ireland movement. He encouraged the use of the Irish language, he was convicted of sedition for his part in the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848, but his sentence of death was commuted to deportation to Van Diemen's Land. In 1854, he was released on the condition of exile from Ireland, he lived in Brussels for two years. In 1856 O'Brien was pardoned and returned to Ireland. Born in Dromoland, Newmarket on Fergus, County Clare, he was the second son of Sir Edward O'Brien, 4th Baronet, of Dromoland Castle, his mother was Charlotte Smith. William took his mother's maiden name, upon inheriting the property, he lived at a mile from Ardagh, County Limerick. He was a descendant of Brian Boru, he received an upper-class English education at Trinity College, Cambridge. Subsequently, he studied law at Lincoln's Inn in London. From April 1828 to 1831 he was Conservative MP for Ennis, he became MP for Limerick County in 1835, holding his seat in the House of Commons until 1849.
Being found guilty of High Treason he forfeited his seat in the House of Commons. Although a Protestant country-gentleman, he supported Catholic Emancipation while remaining a supporter of British-Irish union. In 1843, in protest against the imprisonment of Daniel O'Connell, he joined O'Connell's anti-union Repeal Association. Three years O'Brien withdrew the Young Irelanders from the association. With Thomas Francis Meagher, in January 1847 he founded the Irish Confederation, although he continued to preach reconciliation until O'Connell's death in May 1847, he was active in seeking relief from the hardships of the famine. In March 1848, he tried to incite a national rebellion, he was not convicted. On 29 July 1848, O'Brien and other Young Irelanders led landlords and tenants in a rising in three counties, with an bloodless battle against police at Ballingarry, County Tipperary. In O'Brien's subsequent trial, the jury found him guilty of high treason, he was sentenced to be hanged and quartered.
Petitions for clemency were signed by 10,000 people in England. In Dublin on 5 June 1849, the sentences of O'Brien and other members of the Irish Confederation were commuted to transportation for life to Van Diemen's Land. O'Brien attempted to escape from Maria Island off Tasmania, but was betrayed by Ellis, captain of the schooner hired for the escape, he was sent to Port Arthur where he met up with John Mitchel, transported before the rebellion. The cottages which O'Brien lived in on Maria Island and Port Arthur have been preserved in their 19th century state as memorials. Having emigrated to the United States, Ellis was tried by another Young Irelanders leader, Terence MacManus, at a lynch court in San Francisco for the betrayal of O'Brien, he was freed for lack of evidence. In 1854, after five years in Tasmania, O'Brien was released on the condition he never return to the United Kingdom, he settled in Brussels. In May 1856, he was returned to Ireland that July, he contributed to the Nation newspaper, published the two-volume Principles of Government, or Meditations in Exile in 1856, but played no further part in politics.
In 1864 he visited England and Wales, with the view of rallying his failing health, but no improvement took place, he died at Bangor, in Wales on 16 June 1864. O'Brien was a founding member of the Ossianic Society, whose aim was further the interests of the Irish language and to publish and translate literature relating to the Fianna, he wrote to his son Edward from Van Diemen's Land. He himself studied the language and used an Irish-language Bible, presented to the Royal Irish Academy Irish-language manuscripts he had collected, he enjoyed the respect of Clare poets, in 1863, on his advice, Irish was introduced into a number of schools there. A statue of William Smith O'Brien stands in Dublin. Sculpted in Portland limestone, it was designed by Thomas Farrell and erected in D'Olier Street, Dublin, in 1870, it was moved to its present position in 1929. In the United States, O'Brien County, Iowa is named after him. While studying in London O'Brien met Mary Ann Wilton and fathered two children born to her.
In Autumn 1832 he married Lucy Caroline Gabbett of County Limerick. They had two girls; the children of William Smith O'Brien and Lucy O'Brien were Edward William, William Joseph, Lucy Josephine, Lucius Henry, Robert Donough, Charlotte Grace and Charles Murrough. The elder daughter Lucy Josephine O'Brien married Rev John Gwynn and their children included writer and MP Stephen Gwynn, Lucy Gwynn, the first woman registrar of Trinity College and Edward Gwynn, Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. O'Brien's younger daughter Charlotte Grace O'Brien was a campaigner for the better treatment of Irish emigrants. William Smith O'Brien's elder brother Lucius O'Brien was for some time member of parliament for County Clare. William Smith O'Brien's sister Harriet O'Brien was soon widowed; as Harriet Monsell, she founded the order of Anglican nuns, the Community of St John Baptist
Thomas Francis Meagher
Thomas Francis Meagher was an Irish nationalist and leader of the Young Irelanders in the Rebellion of 1848. After being convicted of sedition, he was first sentenced to death, but received transportation for life to Van Diemen's Land in Australia. In 1852, Meagher made his way to the United States, where he settled in New York City, he studied law, worked as a journalist, traveled to present lectures on the Irish cause. He married for a second time in New York. At the beginning of the American Civil War, Meagher joined the U. S. rose to the rank of brigadier general. He was most notable for recruiting and leading the Irish Brigade, encouraging support among Irish immigrants for the Union. By his first marriage in Ireland, he had one surviving son. Following the Civil War, Meagher was appointed Montana's Territorial Secretary of State by President Andrew Johnson. List of Governors of Montana Territory. In 1867, Meagher drowned in the swift-running Missouri River after falling from a steamboat at Fort Benton.
Timothy Egan, author of a 2016 biography on Meagher, suggested Meagher may have been murdered by Montana political opponents, a theory that has found little support. Thomas Francis Meagher was born on 3 August 1823 in Waterford City in what is now the Granville Hotel on the Quay. From the age of two he lived with The Mall, his father, Thomas Meagher, was a wealthy merchant. He was twice elected Mayor of the City, which he represented in Parliament from August 1847 to March 1857, he had lived in the city since he was a young man, having migrated from Newfoundland in present-day Canada. The senior Meagher was born in Newfoundland, his father named Thomas, had emigrated as a young man from County Tipperary just before the turn of the 18th century. Starting as a farmer, the grandfather Meagher became a trader, advanced to merchant, shipowner. Newfoundland was the only British colony; the senior Thomas Meagher married Mary Crotty. He established a prosperous trade between Waterford, Ireland; the grandfather placed his eldest son Thomas in Waterford to represent their business interests.
The son Thomas became a successful merchant in Waterford, whose economic success was followed by political office. Thomas Francis Meagher's mother, Alicia Quan, was the second eldest daughter of Thomas Quan and Alicia Forristall, her father was a partner in the trading and shipping firm known as Wye and Quan of Waterford. She died. Meagher had four siblings. Only he and his older sister Christine. Meagher was educated at Roman Catholic boarding schools; when Meagher was eleven, his family sent him to the Jesuits at Clongowes Wood College in County Kildare. It was at Clongowes that he developed his skill of oratory, becoming at age 15 the youngest medalist of the Debating Society; these oratory skills would distinguish Meagher during his years as a leading figure in Irish Nationalism. Although he gained a broad and deep education at Clongowes, as was typical, it did not include much about the history of his country or matters relating to Ireland. After six years, Meagher left Ireland for the first time, to study in Lancashire, England, at Stonyhurst College a Jesuit institution.
Meagher's father regarded Trinity College, the only university in Ireland, as being both anti-Irish and anti-Catholic. The younger Meagher established a reputation for developed scholarship and "rare talents." While Meagher was at Stonyhurst, his English professors struggled to overcome his "horrible Irish brogue". Despite his English accent and what some people perceived as a "somewhat affected manner", Meagher had so much eloquence as an orator as to lead his countrymen to forget his English idiosyncrasies, he became a popular speaker "who had no compare" in Conciliation Hall, the meeting place of the Irish Repeal Association. Meagher returned to Ireland in 1843, with undecided plans for a career in the Austrian army, a tradition among a number of Irish families. In 1844 he traveled to Dublin with the intention of studying for the bar, he became involved in the Repeal Association, which worked for repeal of the Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland. Meagher was influenced by fellow workers in the Repeal movement.
The movement became nationwide. At a Repeal meeting held in Waterford on 13 December, at which his father presided, Meagher acted as one of the Secretaries, he soon became popular on Burgh Quay, his eloquence at meetings making him a celebrated figure in the capital. Any announcement of Meagher's speaking would ensure a crowded hall. In June 1846, the administration of Sir Robert Peel’s Tory Ministry fell, the Liberals under Lord John Russell came to power. Daniel O'Connell tried to lead the Repeal movement to support both the Russell administration and English Liberalism. Repeal agitation was damped down in return for a distribution of generous patronage through Conciliation Hall. On 15 June 1846, Meagher denounced English Liberalism in Ireland, as he suspected the national cause of Repeal would be sacrificed to the Whig government, he felt the Irish would be "purchased back into factious vassalage." Meagher and the other "Young Irelanders" vehemently denounced any movement toward Eng