Abbateggio is a comune and town in the province of Pescara in the Abruzzo region of Italy. The first documents about the village's existence date back to the 10th century; the economy of Abbateggio is based on mixed agriculture. Livestock are kept and crops including grain, olives and fruit trees are grown. Cheese and honey are produced; the Cusano district of the comune is home to the ruins of an ancient castle and other early medieval buildings. Festivals in the town include: San Lorenzo - Grain feast 7–9 September - Patron festival Last Sunday in July - Majella Park Literary Award. Photos and information on Abbateggio Matt Gross. "Mangia, Mangia!". The New York Times. — article about food in Abbateggio and nearby towns
Victoria Australian rules football team
The Victorian Australian rules football team known as the Big V, is the state representative side of Victoria, Australia, in the sport of Australian rules football. The Big V has a proud history, dominating the first 100 years of intercolonial-interstate football, being the most successful state in State of Origin. After the change to State of Origin rules the results with the other main Australian football states became more even. Victoria has a intense rivalry with South Australia and Western Australia; the Victorian and South Australian rivalry was characterised by the catchcry in South Australia called "Kick a Vic", fans would bring signs of the cry to the games. Some of the games between Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia in the 1980s and 1990s have been regarded as some of the greatest games in the history of Australian football. After State of Origin ended in 1999, Victoria last played in 2008 in the AFL Hall of Fame Tribute Match to celebrate 150 years of the sport; the game was a high scoring game with 39 goals scored, Victoria winning 21.11 to the Dream Team 18.12.
Victorian representative teams have participated in games against other Australian states since the 1870s. These games were played between teams representing the major leagues of each state. For Victoria this meant the Victorian Football League. Between 1977 and 1999 senior state football was played under State of Origin rules; the first intercolonial representative game of football was played between Victoria and South Australia in 1879 with teams made up of Victorian Football Association and South Australia Football Association players. Interstate matches came to be viewed as the highest tier of Australian football, with each state's ultimate goal being that of beating Victoria; the most important of these games were the Australian National Football Carnival games which were played intermittently between 1908 and 1993. Victoria has a dominant record in the carnivals, winning 17 and coming runner-up in another 6. Between 1950 and 1966, these carnivals were contested by separate teams representing the Victorian Football League and the Victorian Football Association.
The final senior level State of Origin game, participated in by AFL, players was played in 1999 with Victoria beating South Australia by 54 points. Since this game, all Victorian representative teams, except the team that participated in the 2008 AFL Hall of Fame Tribute Match, have consisted of a VFL Victorian team and other amateur state teams competing against other state league teams and amateur state teams. There is great pride in wearing the Victorian jumper. Ted Whitten, a former Victorian selector and coach, said that "the players would walk on broken glass to wear the Victorian jumper". Many players have spoken about the honour of playing for Victoria. Matthew Lloyd has said "immense pride - you feel like you walk a bit taller when you pull on the Big V". Paul Roos has stated "there seemed to be an aura about that navy blue jumper with the big white V". Gary Ablett Sr has said "I've always found it a tremendous honour to represent your state, in a State of Origin game." Garry Lyon has stated about playing for Victoria that he "loved it", has been quoted about captaining Victoria saying "it was a great honour".
Tony Lockett is known as a big supporter of Victoria, said after he won the E. J. Whitten Medal that "this will go down as one of the happiest days of my life, I'll treasure it forever". Brent Harvey, Gerald Healy, Greg Williams and Simon Madden are big supporters of Victoria; the Victorian State jumper design is navy blue with a large White "V" on the chest. The Victoria and South Australia rivalry was the strongest in interstate football. Although there is a bitter rivalry on both sides, the make up of the rivalry is different. Victoria being the most successful state in interstate football, meant protecting that reputation was of prominent importance. For South Australia, the rivalry stemmed from dislike, the feeling that Victoria don't give them the credit they derserve. In 1991 John Cahill the coach of South Australia commented on Victoria after they had some injuries saying, "they make excuses and they're quick to rubbish people", he claimed that the Victorians were "loud mouths and dishonest".
Before the game a newspaper in Adelaide had printed a headline "SA will smash these pansies". After Victoria won Ted Whitten a Victorian selector showed the paper to the camera. Garry Lyon has commented on games in South Australia versus Victoria, that fans in Adelaide loved those games, and the fans in attendance were "hostile and maniacal", "by the time the games came around they were whipped into a frenzy". Paul Roos has described the first state game he played in South Australia saying "when walking up the entrance and onto Football Park was an experience in itself. I realised how much hatered existed towards Victorians and their football; the 1989 Victoria versus South Australia game at the MCG, was the highest-attended interstate match, with 91,960 attending and 10,000 people turned away at the gate. After South Australia had won the last three encounters, including the final of the Interstate Carnival the year before, the game had the build up of a grand final, with high anticipation. After the game famous former Victorian player Bob Skilton said "Victoria can be proud it put football in this state back where it belongs".
Neil Kerley has stated. After stating that the interviewer said "you've got premierships as a player and coach", but Kerley followed up with "they were great" but continued to state it was the ultimate achievement. Neil K
Mark (Australian rules football)
A mark is a skill in Australian rules football where a player cleanly catches a kicked ball that has travelled more than 15 metres without anyone else touching it or the ball hitting the ground. Although catching the ball is found in other codes of football, along with kicking the ball, it is one of the most prevalent skills in Australian football. Marking can be one of the most spectacular and distinctive aspects of the game, the best mark of the AFL season is awarded with the Mark of the Year, with similar competitions running across smaller leagues; the top markers in the Australian Football League, like Jason Dunstall and Jonathan Brown took an average of over eight marks per game. An AFL match between St Kilda and Port Adelaide in 2006 set a record of 303 marks in a single game. Upon taking a mark, the umpire will blow the whistle to signify the mark and a player is entitled to an unimpeded kick of the ball, to advance their team towards their goalposts; the nearest opposition player stands on the spot where the player marked the ball, known as the mark, becomes the man on the mark.
When taking the set kick, the player must either kick the ball over the mark. The criterion for a mark is that it be caught cleanly, i.e. the player have complete control of the ball, for any length of time. As such, if the ball is caught in one grab, punched out from between the player's hands, a mark is paid if they have held it for only an instant. If a ball is controlled, dislodged by another player or the ground, the mark will still be paid. Although the rules make no provision for two players marking the ball by convention the umpire will award the mark to the man in front, i.e. the player who has the front position in the marking contest. The mark has been included in the compromise rules used in the International Rules Football series between teams from Australia and Ireland since 1984. Various forms of football descended from English public school football games of the 19th century have featured a fair catch or mark, it was abolished early in the development of soccer but still exists in rugby union and American football.
The mark has been one of the most distinctive features of Australian football since rules were drawn up in 1859. Some people claim that the origin of the term mark comes from the practice of a player who has just taken a mark physically marking the ground with his/her foot, or cap which formed part of the attire worn by players in the 19th century, to show where he took the fair catch. Others claim that the origin of the mark comes from the traditional Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, said to have influenced Tom Wills' writing of the laws of the game, it is claimed that in Marn Grook, jumping to catch the ball, called "mumarki", an Aboriginal word meaning "to catch", results in a free kick. Some counterclaim this theory as false etymology. In Australian football, marks are described in combination of the following ways. Overhead mark: catching the ball with hands extended above the head Contested mark: catching the ball against one or more opponents who are attempting to mark or spoil the player attempting the mark.
This skill is declining in the professional game due to coaches discouraging preferring to avoid contests. Pack mark: catching the ball against one or more opponents and/or teammates all close to the fall of the ball. High mark: catching the ball whilst jumping up in the air. Stewart "Buckets" Loewe, Matthew Richardson and Simon Madden are notable exponents of the high mark. Spectacular mark: sometimes nicknamed'specky','screamer' or'hanger', this term is most used when a mark taken whilst jumping in the air. Additional elevation is achieved by using the legs to spring off the back or shoulders of one or more opponents and/or teammates; the movement of other players beneath the player marking can cause them to lose balance in mid air and land or fall awkwardly, enhancing the spectacle of the mark. The name reflects its popularity among spectators. Chest mark: catching the ball and drawing it in to the chest; this is considered the easiest mark to take, is used in wet weather. At professional level this skill is discouraged by coaches due to it giving opponents a much better chance of intercepting the ball from most directions.
Out in front: catching the ball with arms extended forward from the body. This skill is difficult with the ball travelling low and at high speeds. At professional level this skill is preferred by coaches, as it gives opponents less chance of spoiling from behind, if the ball spills, it will be "front and centre" of the player, which makes it much easier for rovers to predict and to execute game strategy. One-handed mark: catching the ball with only one hand. Used in a contested situation where one player's arm is impeded by an opponent, or where the player uses upper body strength to physically fend off their opponent. While spectacular, this skill is discouraged by coaches due to a low percentage of success and is sometimes seen as "showing off" or "lairising". Diving mark: leaping horizontally to catch the ball before it hits the ground. With the flight of the ball: a mark taken running in the direction that the ball is travelling. In order to do this, the player must take their eyes off opposition players sometimes running at fast pace in the opposite direction.
This type of mark is branded "courageous", because in attempting the mark, the player must ignore the danger of a high
Laws of Australian rules football
The rules of Australian rules football were first formed by the Melbourne Football Club in 1859, been refined over the years as the game evolved into its modern form. The laws predate the advent of a governing body for the sport; the first national and international body, the Australasian Football Council, was formed in 1905 to govern Australian Football. Since 1994, the rules for the game known as Australian football have been governed by the AFL and the organisation's Laws of the Game committee. Australian rules football is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: including rules against running too far with the ball, throwing the ball and holding the ball.
Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement. If a player marks the ball, they are allowed a free kick; this encourages marking contests. 18 players are permitted to be on the field per team at any one time, with an additional 4 players on an interchange bench. The equipment needed to play the game is minimal; as in other kinds of football, players wear boots with stops in the soles, a thick, strong shirt or jumper known as a guernsey sleeveless, although long sleeve jumpers are sometimes worn in cold weather by some players. Protective gear is minimal. Most players wear a mouthguard but only a few wear a helmet a bicycle style helmet with a soft outer covering, only after medical advice, such as if they have been concussed numerous times; some players, predominantly ruckmen, wear shin guards.
All protective equipment must be approved by the umpires to ensure that it can not injure other players. The game is played on a grassed oval. Four posts, aligned in a straight line, 6.4 metres apart from each other, are erected at either end of the oval. The size of the ground is not fixed, but is between 135-185m long and 110-155m wide. Lines are drawn on the field to mark the boundary, a 50m-wide centre square a diamond shape, two concentric circles in the centre with diameters 3m and 10m, both bisected by one line, a 9×6.4m goal square at each end of the ground, a 15m-wide "interchange area" on one flank of the oval. A curved line at each end, 50 metres from the goal line Prior to a ground redevelopment at the Sydney Cricket Ground, the "Fifty Metre Lines" were replaced by 45m lines due to the ground's short length, to avoid overlapping with the centre square. In the 1980s, 25m lines were used in Western Australia; the game is a fast-paced combination of speed, athleticism and physical toughness.
Players are allowed to tackle the player with the ball and impede opposition players from tackling their teammates, but not to deliberately strike an opponent. Like most team sports, tactics are based around trying to get the ball – through a combination of running with the ball, hand-passing and kicking – to deliver it to a player, within range of goal; because taking a mark entitles the player to a free kick, a common tactic is to attempt to kick the ball on the full to a teammate, within kicking range of goal. In this situation, packs of players form around the goal square, the opportunity arises for spectacular marks in which players launch themselves off opponents' backs to mark the ball, high in the air; this particular skill is regarded as a spectacle, an annual "Mark of the Year" is awarded at the end of a season. There are no set positions in the rules of the game, but traditionally the field was divided into three major sections: the forward line, back line, midfield; the forward and back lines consisted of six players, arranged into two lines of three players each.
The midfield consists of the designated ruckman and players who either stay in the centre area of the ground or follow the ball and are not confined to a particular area. The modern game, has discarded positional play in favour of a free flowing running game and attempting to have loose men in various positions on the ground; the rise in popularity of the hand-pass since the 1970s has influenced this style of play, with players more willing to follow the ball and move it amongst themselves rather than kicking long to a one-on-one marking contest. In the late 1990s a tactic known as flooding was devised and shifted focus away from set positions; when a team "plays a flood", they direct two or more of their midfield or forward line players into their defence, thus out-numbering their opponent and making it difficult for any opposing forward to take an uncon
Kicking is a skill used in many types of football, including: Association football Australian rules football International rules football American football Canadian football Gaelic football Rugby league Rugby unionKicking is the act of propelling a ball by striking it with the foot or, depending upon the sport, the shin. Kicking is most common in Association Football, where only the two goalkeepers are allowed to use their hands, it is the primary method of transferring the ball in Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Whereas most sports allow points to be scored by methods other than kicking, in Australian rules football kicking for goal is the only method allowed to score a goal and get the maximum six point score. Kicking is used less in Rugby League, Rugby Union, American football, Canadian football, may be restricted to specialist positions, but it is still an important tactical skill in each sport; the range of kicking styles available is influenced by the shape of the ball and the rules.
Hawthorn Football Club
The Hawthorn Football Club, nicknamed the Hawks, is a professional Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League. The club, founded in 1902, is the youngest of the Victorian-based teams in the AFL and has won thirteen VFL/AFL premierships, it is renowned as the only club having won premierships in each decade of the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s and 2010s. The team play in gold vertically striped guernseys; the club's Latin motto is spectemur agendo, the English translation being "Let us be judged by our acts". The Hawks' origins are in the inner-eastern Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn and at Glenferrie Oval, the club's former administrative and training base and social club. Matches, have not been played there since 1973. In 2006, Hawthorn's training and administration facilities were relocated to Waverly Park, located 27.8 km from the CBD and in the middle of the club's major supporter base in Melbourne's outer-eastern region. The mascot of Hawthorn FC is a hawk. Since 2007 Hawthorn have played four games a year at their second ground of York Park in Launceston, with the remaining games played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the club's current playing home ground.
Hawthorn's current Victorian Football League affiliate team is the Box Hill Hawks Football Club. The official club history books and many supporters believe that the club's origins date back to its founding in 1873 at a meeting at the Hawthorne Hotel. Although a Hawthorn Football Club did indeed form at this time—and the region has since continuously been represented by a football team—it was not the Hawthorn which competes at AFL level today, it is that today's club is the third club to carry the name'Hawthorn Football Club'. In The Daily Telegraph of 12 May 1883 it is stated that "The Hawthorn Club having disbanded, all engagements for the ensuing season have been cancelled." In 1889 the Riversdale Football Club is reported to have changed its name to the Hawthorn Football Club. This club ceased in 1890. No Hawthorn club existed from 1890 to 1892. A new representative club, called the'Hawthorn Football Club', was formed in 1893, it competed in the Victorian Junior Football Association until 1898.
Without a ground to play on, the club was disbanded in 1899. In March 1902, Alf Kosky formed a club from the various district clubs under the banner of Hawthorn Football Club to compete in the Metropolitan Junior Football Association; the club merged with Boroondara in 1905 and adopted Boroondara's colours of a black guernsey with red sash but retained the name of Hawthorn. In 1906 Hawthorn merged with successful junior club the Hawthorn Rovers to form the Hawthorn City Football Club as a result of Glenferrie Oval opening; the club opted to change the gold guernsey with a blue V of the Hawthorn Rovers. The council applied to the Victorian Football Association for inclusion, granted in 1914 when Hawthorn replaced the disbanded Melbourne City club; the first task for the club was to decide on club colours, their jumper of blue and gold was taken by Williamstown so a change was required. At a Special General Meeting held on 17 February 1914, a Mr J. Brain proposed brown and gold as the new colours and the motion was carried.
The Mayblooms won three games and a draw in their first season in the VFA. The effect of World War I with players enlisting caused the club to finish last in 1915; the VFA went into recess in 1916 and 1917, Hawthorn did not compete when resumption occurred in 1918. Upon Hawthorn's resumption in 1919 it was more competitive winning eight games and finishing sixth out of ten teams. Hawthorn dropped to eighth in 1920 but in 1921 they won seven games and finished sixth. Bill Walton was appointed captain-coach of Hawthorn in 1922, he was, refused a clearance by Port Melbourne and as a result spent the season playing for them, while coaching Hawthorn during the week. Twice that season, he had the unusual situation of playing a VFA game against the club that he coached. In one of those matches a Port Melbourne teammate had to be restrained from striking Walton over Walton's vocal support for the player's opponent. In 1922 the club missed the finals by percentage and Hawthorn set a new record score in the VFA scoring 30.31.211 to Prahran 6.9.45.
In 1923 Walton was granted his clearance and the club made the finals finishing in fourth place and losing to Port Melbourne in the first semi-final. 1924 the club finished fifth. Since 1919 the VFL had nine clubs; the VFL was keen to do away with this bye via the admission of a tenth club. In 1924 a group calling itself the Hawthorn Citizens' League Campaign Committee began gathering support for the football club admittance to the VFL. Other representations came from Brighton, Footscray, North Melbourne, Prahran and Caulfield. On 9 January 1925 a committee meeting of the VFL, chaired by Reg Hunt of Carlton, examined the question of expanding the competition from nine clubs to twelve; the Mayblooms, as they were known became the perennial whipping boys of the competition. Hawthorn had an casual attitude towards playing football and, lying remote from major industrial areas and devoid of the business or political patrons available to Carlton and Collingwood, were not able to pay their players the match payment allowed by the Coulter Law.
Despite the presence of a number players of true class such as Bert Hyde, Bert Mills, Stan Spinks, Alec Albiston and Co
Australian Football Hall of Fame
The Australian Football Hall of Fame was established in 1996, the Centenary year of the Australian Football League, to help recognise the contributions made to the sport of Australian rules football by players, media personalities and administrators. It was established with 136 inductees; as of 2014, this figure has grown to 257, including 27 "Legends". While those involved in the game from its inception in 1858 are theoretically eligible few outside the major leagues – the Australian Football League, the Victorian Football League, the West Australian Football League and the South Australian National Football League – have been recognised to date. A committee considers candidates on the basis of their ability, integrity and character. While the number of games played, coached or umpired, or years of service in the case of administrators and media representatives, is a consideration, it alone does not determine eligibility. Players must be retired from the game for at least three years before they become eligible for induction, while coaches, umpires and media representatives are eligible upon retirement.
The committee considers candidates from all the states and territories of Australia and from all Australian Football competitions within Australia. The following excerpt from the official Hall of Fame website highlights the main criteria used by the committee in selecting inductees to the Hall of Fame: The Committee shall consider a candidate's outstanding service and overall contribution to the game of Australian Football in determining a candidate's eligibility for induction into the Hall of Fame. Without limiting clause 5.1, the Committee may consider a candidate's individual record, integrity and character. The number of football games played, coached or umpired or the years of service provided shall only be a consideration and shall not be determinative in assessing a candidate's eligibility. A player, umpire, administrator or media representative involved at any level of Australian Football may be eligible for induction into the Hall of Fame. Candidates shall be adjudged on the basis of their overall contribution to Australian Football, as opposed to one specific aspect.
In 2010, several amendments were made to the selection criteria: The key criteria changes include: The maximum number of inductees in any single year reduced from eight to six, to increase the emphasis and honour for those inducted. The requirement to induct a minimum of three retired players reduced to a minimum of two, to ensure older players deserving of induction are represented in proportion; the requirement to have one inductee from the grouping of categories umpire/administrator/media every year changed to a minimum of one from this category every two years. The Hall of Fame selection committee to be independent from the AFL Commission; the wording in the charter has been changed so that the selection committee recommends to the commission for “endorsement” rather than for “approval”. Selectors would be appointed for an initial term of three years, with two further opportunities to be appointed for subsequent three year terms. At least 25 per cent of the selection committee to reside outside of Victoria.
The Legends category is reserved for those who are deemed to have had a significant impact on the game of Australian rules football. All "Legends" enshrined to date represent former players of the VFL/AFL, with the exception of Barrie Robran who played the whole of his career in the SANFL. Being named as a "Legend" of the Australian Football Hall of Fame is the highest honour which can be bestowed onto an Australian footballer. In 2010, several amendments to the Legends category were made to ensure the exclusivity and prestige of the Hall of Fame. Among them were: The Legends category remains for recognition of the most significant playing and coaching records The number of Legends that can be part of the Hall of Fame remains at a maximum of 10 per cent of the total inductees Criteria for elevating an inductee to Legend status requires that only ‘playing and coaching’ records be taken into account and not a candidate’s overall contribution to the game outside of playing and coaching People inducted into the Australian Football Hall of Fame on their coaching records.
John Acraman Charles Kingston Richard Twopeny Every year there is a special Hall of Fame dinner to announce and welcome the new inductees to the Hall of Fame. The Hall of Fame inductions started in Melbourne in 1996 to celebrate the VFL-AFL centenary season. Ceremonies have only been held outside of Victoria twice, once at Canberra in 2013 and once at Adelaide in 2017; the Hall of Fame has been criticised by football writers and historians for being biased towards figures from Victoria. The initial selection committee was made up of 11 Victorians, one South Australian and one Western Australian, with the current selection committee being made up of six Victorians, two Western Australians and one South Australian. Of the 136 inaugural inductees into the Hall of Fame, 116 played substantial parts of their careers in Victoria, with eleven of the thirteen "Legends" from Victoria. Criticism has been slated at the under-representation of pioneers and other early stars of the game. Adam Cardosi wrote in 2014: If we take the HOF at face value, footy legends only started to appear in number from the 1930s, reached a high point in the 1960s and 1970s....
Thus, according to the HOF’s reckoning, the first sixty five years of the game is worth one legend, while the next sixty five years is worth 24 legends. In 2018 the same criticism was levelled by ABC sport reporter James Coventry who cr