South Dakota Senate
The Senate is the upper house of the South Dakota State Legislature. It is made up of 35 members, one representing each legislative district, meets at the South Dakota State Capitol in Pierre. 92nd Legislature South Dakota House of Representatives Members of the South Dakota State Senate Project Vote Smart - State Senate of South Dakota South Dakota Senate Roster
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive
Battle of Chaffin's Farm
The Battle of Chaffin's Farm and New Market Heights known as Laurel Hill and combats at Forts Harrison and Gilmer, was fought in Virginia on September 29–30, 1864, as part of the Siege of Petersburg in the American Civil War. From the beginning of the war, Confederate engineers and slave laborers had constructed permanent defenses around Richmond. By 1864, they had created a system anchored south of the capital on the James River at Chaffin's Farm, a large open area at Chaffin's Bluff, both named for a local landowner; this outer line was supported by an intermediate and inner system of fortifications much closer to the capital. In July and August 1864, these lines were tested by Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in offensives designed to attack north and south of the James. On July 27–29, the Army of the Potomac's II Corps under Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock and cavalry under Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan attacked New Market Heights and Fussell's Mill in the First Battle of Deep Bottom; the attacks failed to break through to threaten Richmond or its railroads, but they did cause Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee to transfer men from the Petersburg fortifications in preparation for the Battle of the Crater on July 31.
The Second Battle of Deep Bottom was conducted by Hancock on August 14–20, attacking in the same areas once again to draw Confederate troops away from south of the James, where the Battle of Globe Tavern was an attempt to cut the railroad supply lines to Petersburg. The second battle was a Confederate victory, but it forced Lee to weaken his Petersburg defenses and abandon plans to reinforce his men in the Shenandoah Valley. In late September, Grant planned another dual offensive. Historians sometimes enumerate Grant's offensives during the Richmond–Petersburg Campaign. Richard J. Sommers, John Horn, Noah Andre Trudeau call these operations "Grant's Fifth Offensive". Grant's primary objective was to cut the railroad supply lines to the south of Petersburg, which would cause the fall of both Petersburg and Richmond, he planned to use a cavalry division under Brig. Gen. David McM. Gregg and four infantry divisions from the V and IX Corps of the Army of the Potomac to sever the South Side Railroad, an operation that would result in the Battle of Peebles' Farm from September 30 to October 2.
Once again hoping to distract Robert E. Lee and draw Confederate troops north of the river, Grant ordered the Army of the James under Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler to attack toward Richmond. Butler devised a plan that historian John Horn called his "best performance of the war." Rather than repeat the efforts of July and August to turn the Confederate left, Butler planned surprise attacks on the Confederate right and center. His XVIII Corps under Maj. Gen. Edward O. C. Ord, would cross the James River to Aiken's Landing by a newly constructed pontoon bridge. At the original Deep Bottom pontoon bridge, his X Corps under Maj. Gen. David B. Birney would cross, followed by his cavalry under Brig. Gen. August V. Kautz. In a two-pronged attack, the right wing would assault the Confederate lines at New Market Road and drive on to capture the artillery positions behind it on New Market Heights; this action would protect the flank of the left wing, which would attack Fort Harrison from the south-east, neutralizing the strongest point of the entire Confederate line.
The right wing would assist the left by attacking Fort Gregg and Fort Gilmer, both north of Fort Harrison. Kautz's cavalry would exploit Birney's capture of the New Market Road by driving for Richmond. Maj. Gen. David B. Birney moved the X Corps north from the Deep Bottom bridgehead toward the Confederate works atop New Market Heights manned by Brig. Gen. John Gregg. A brigade of U. S. Colored Troops was repulsed. In this attack, Christian Fleetwood's actions would earn him the Medal of Honor. Birney stormed the heights again. Alfred H. Terry's division managed to turn the Confederate left flank, thus turning the tide of the battle. Word of Union success against Fort Harrison reached Gregg, compelling him to pull Confederate troops back to Forts Gregg and Johnson. Confederate defenders at New Market Heights were Lee's "Grenadier Guards", the First and Fifth Texas and the Third Arkansas, numbering about 1,800 men, they inflicted 850 casualties on the attacking 13,000 Union troops while suffering only 50 casualties.
Once Birney's troops had taken New Market Heights, the X Corps turned to the north-west along the New Market Road and moved against a secondary line of works guarding Richmond north of Fort Harrison. Brig. Gen. Robert Sanford Foster's X Corps division assaulted a small salient known as Fort Gilmer. David Birney's brother, Brig. Gen. William Birney, led a brigade of U. S. Colored Troops against Fort Gregg south of Fort Gilmer; these attacks were marked by heroism among the Colored Troops but were repulsed. At about the same time Birney's first attack moved forward, the Union XVIII Corps under Major General Edward Ord, assaulted Fort Harrison to the west of New Market Heights. Ord's assault was led by a veteran of Gettysburg. Stannard's men rushed across an open field and took cover in a slight depression just in front of the fort and, after a moment's rest, took the fort; the Confederate defenders broke to the rear. Brig. Gen. Hiram Burnham was killed during the attack, the Union troops renamed the captured fort in his honor
Siege of Petersburg
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, fought from June 15, 1864, to April 2, 1865, during the American Civil War. Although it is more popularly known as the Siege of Petersburg, it was not a classic military siege, in which a city is surrounded and all supply lines are cut off, nor was it limited to actions against Petersburg; the campaign consisted of nine months of trench warfare in which Union forces commanded by Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant assaulted Petersburg unsuccessfully and constructed trench lines that extended over 30 miles from the eastern outskirts of Richmond, Virginia, to around the eastern and southern outskirts of Petersburg. Petersburg was crucial to the supply of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's army and the Confederate capital of Richmond. Numerous raids were conducted and battles fought in attempts to cut off the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad. Many of these battles caused the lengthening of the trench lines. Lee gave in to the pressure and abandoned both cities in April 1865, leading to his retreat and surrender at Appomattox Court House.
The Siege of Petersburg foreshadowed the trench warfare, common in World War I, earning it a prominent position in military history. It featured the war's largest concentration of African-American troops, who suffered heavy casualties at such engagements as the Battle of the Crater and Chaffin's Farm. In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to lieutenant general and was given command of the Union Army, he devised a coordinated strategy to apply pressure on the Confederacy from many points, something President Abraham Lincoln had urged his generals to do from the beginning of the war. Grant put Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman in immediate command of all forces in the West and moved his own headquarters to be with the Army of the Potomac in Virginia, where he intended to maneuver Lee's army to a decisive battle, his coordinated strategy called for Grant and Meade to attack Lee from the north, while Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler drove toward Richmond from the southeast. Gens. George Crook and William W. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia.
Banks to capture Alabama. Most of these initiatives failed because of the assignment of generals to Grant for political rather than military reasons. Butler's Army of the James bogged down against inferior forces under Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard before Richmond in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. Sigel was soundly defeated at the Battle of New Market in May and soon afterward he was replaced by Maj. Gen. David Hunter. Banks was failed to move on Mobile; however and Averell were able to cut the last railway linking Virginia and Tennessee, Sherman's Atlanta Campaign was a success, although it dragged on through the fall. On May 4, Grant and Meade's Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River and entered the area known as the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, beginning the six-week Overland Campaign. At the bloody but tactically inconclusive Battle of the Wilderness and Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Grant failed to destroy Lee's army but, unlike his predecessors, did not retreat after the battles. Grant spent the remainder of May maneuvering and fighting minor battles with the Confederate army as he attempted to turn Lee's flank and lure him into the open.
Grant knew that his larger army and base of manpower in the North could sustain a war of attrition better than Lee and the Confederacy could. This theory was tested at the Battle of Cold Harbor when Grant's army once again came into contact with Lee's near Mechanicsville, he chose to engage Lee's army directly, by ordering a frontal assault on the Confederate fortified positions on June 3. This attack was repulsed with heavy losses. Cold Harbor was a battle that Grant regretted more than any other and Northern newspapers thereafter referred to him as a "butcher". Although Grant suffered high losses during the campaign—approximately 50,000 casualties, or 41%—Lee lost higher percentages of his men—approximately 32,000, or 46%—losses that could not be replaced. On the night of June 12, Grant again advanced by his left flank, he planned to cross to the south bank of the river, bypassing Richmond, isolate Richmond by seizing the railroad junction of Petersburg to the south. While Lee remained unaware of Grant's intentions, the Union army constructed a pontoon bridge 2,100 feet long and crossed the James River on June 14–18.
What Lee had feared most of all—that Grant would force him into a siege of Richmond—was poised to occur. Petersburg, a prosperous city of 18,000, was a supply center for Richmond, given its strategic location just south of Richmond, its site on the Appomattox River that provided navigable access to the James River, its role as a major crossroads and junction for five railroads. Since Petersburg was the main supply base and rail depot for the entire region, including Richmond, the taking of Petersburg by Union forces would make it impossible for Lee to continue defending Richmond; this represented a change of strategy from that of the preceding Overland Campaign, in which confronting and defeating Lee's
A moulder is a shaper used to shape wood with profiled cutters. Most moulders require the cutters to be secured into a cutterhead that mounts on the shaft of the machine; the wood being fed into a moulder is referred to as either “stock” or “blanks”. Some wood moulders have multiple heads in both horizontal orientations. Many have the capacity to serve as a wood jointer as well, being known as planer/moulders.. A wood moulder differs from a spindle shaper, which has one vertical cutting head and none horizontal; the term "tooling" refers to a moulder's cutters, blades including planer blades, cutterheads. Before machines, men worked as "moulders" shaping wood by hand. Single head moulders: Single head moulders have a top head only. Single head moulders are more economical but they feed through slower than multi head moulders and, as the name implies, a *single head moulder will only cut one surface at a time. Multi Head Moulder: Standing from in front of the infeed side of the machine where the stock is fed into the machine.
A common cutter head configuration is. This is a common configuration. For instance. Machines with two or more right heads more common in the furniture industry to give the ability to run shorter stock and more detailed, deeper cuts on the edge of the stock. Tooling refers to cutters, blades, as well as planer blades, cutter heads. Most blades are made from carbide. Cutter heads are made from either steel or aluminum. High Speed Steel, carbide and steel for the cutter heads all come in a wide variety of grades. Welcome to the Architectural Woodwork Institute
Admission to the bar in the United States
Admission to the bar in the United States is the granting of permission by a particular court system to a lawyer to practice law in the jurisdiction and before those courts. Each U. S. state and similar jurisdiction has its own court system and sets its own rules for bar admission, which can lead to different admission standards among states. In most cases, a person is "admitted" or "called" to the bar of the highest court in the jurisdiction and is thereby authorized to practice law in the jurisdiction. In addition, Federal Courts of the United States, although overlapping in admission standards with states, set their own requirements for practice in each of those courts. In the typical process, lawyers seeking admission must earn a Juris Doctor degree from a law school approved by the jurisdiction, in the states pass an exam administered by the attorney regulating authority of that jurisdiction. There is a character and fitness evaluation, which includes a background check. However, there are exceptions to each of these requirements.
A lawyer, admitted in one state is not automatically allowed to practice in any other. Some states have reciprocal agreements that allow attorneys from other states to practice without sitting for another full bar exam; the use of the term "bar" to mean "the whole body of lawyers, the legal profession" comes from English custom. In the early 16th century, a railing divided the hall in the Inns of Court, with students occupying the body of the hall and readers or Benchers on the other side. Students who became lawyers were "called to the bar", crossing the symbolic physical barrier and thus "admitted to the bar"; this was popularly assumed to mean the wooden railing marking off the area around the judge's seat in a courtroom, where prisoners stood for arraignment and where a barrister stood to plead. In modern courtrooms, a railing may still be in place to enclose the space, occupied by legal counsel as well as the criminal defendants and civil litigants who have business pending before the court.
The first bar exam in what is now the United States was instituted by Delaware Colony in 1763, as an oral examination before a judge. The other American colonies soon followed suit. By the late 19th century, the examinations were administered by committees of attorneys, they changed from an oral examination to a written one. Today, each state has its own rules which are the ultimate authority concerning admission to its bar. Admission to a bar requires that the candidate do the following: In most situations, earn a Juris Doctor from a law school approved by that state; the first law school in colonial America was not established until 1773. Abraham Lincoln is an example of a lawyer who did not attend law school, did not read with anyone else, stating in his autobiography that he "studied with nobody". Another telling example is Levi Woodbury, the 30th person appointed to the US Supreme Court, yet the first to have attended law school. In all United States jurisdictions except Maryland, Puerto Rico, Wisconsin, pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination, an examination covering the professional responsibility rules governing lawyers.
This test is not administered at the same time as any U. S. bar exam. Most candidates sit for the MPRE while still in law school, right after studying professional responsibility, while the material is still fresh in their memory; some states require. Connecticut and New Jersey waive the MPRE for candidates who have received a grade of C or better in a law school professional ethics class. Pass a bar examination administered by the state bar association or under the authority of the supreme court of the particular state; as of June 2015, 16 jurisdictions have adopted the Uniform Bar Examination. Missouri and North Dakota were the first two states to administer the UBE, doing so in February 2011. Since Alabama, Arizona, Idaho, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Utah and Wyoming have adopted and administered the UBE. According to the National Conference of Bar Examiners, which prepares the UBE, it is intended to "test knowledge and skills that every lawyer should be able to demonstrate prior to becoming licensed to practice law", "is uniformly administered and scored by user jurisdictions and results in a portable score."
UBE jurisdictions are allowed to additionally test candidates' knowledge of state-specific law, through either a test or course. The UBE consists of three parts:The Multistate Bar Examination, a standardized test consisting of 200 multiple-choice questions covering seven key areas of law: Constitutional law, Criminal law and Procedure, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Federal Rules of Evidence, Real Property and Torts. Examinees have three hours to answer 100 questions in a morning session and the same for an afternoon session; the MBE is administered on the last Wednesday in July. The Multistate Essay Examination, a uniform though not standardized test that examines a candidate's ability to analyze legal i
Grand Army of the Republic
The Grand Army of the Republic was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army, Union Navy and the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service who served in the American Civil War. Founded in 1866 in Springfield and growing to include hundreds of posts across the nation, it was dissolved in 1956 at the death of its last member, Albert Woolson of Duluth, Minnesota. Linking men through their experience of the war, the G. A. R. became among the first organized advocacy groups in American politics, supporting voting rights for black veterans, promoting patriotic education, helping to make Memorial Day a national holiday, lobbying the United States Congress to establish regular veterans' pensions, supporting Republican political candidates. Its peak membership, at more than 490,000, was in 1890, a high point of various Civil War commemorative and monument dedication ceremonies, it was succeeded by the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War, composed of male descendants of Union Army and Union Navy veterans.
After the end of American Civil War, various state and local organizations were formed for veterans to network and maintain connections with each other. Many of the veterans used their shared experiences as a basis for fellowship. Groups of men began joining together, first for camaraderie and for political power. Emerging as most influential among the various organizations during the first post-war years was the Grand Army of the Republic, founded on April 6, 1866, on the principles of "Fraternity and Loyalty," in Springfield, Illinois, by Dr. Benjamin F. Stephenson and the first GAR Post was established in Decatur, Illinois; the GAR grew and prospered as a de facto political arm of the Republican Party during the heated political contests of the Reconstruction Era. The commemoration of Union Army and Navy veterans and white became entwined with partisan politics; the GAR promoted voting rights for Negro veterans, as many white veterans recognized their demonstrated patriotism and sacrifices, providing one of the first racially integrated social/fraternal organizations in America.
Black veterans, who enthusiastically embraced the message of equality, shunned black veterans' organizations in preference for racially inclusive and integrated groups. But when the Republican Party's commitment to reform in the South decreased, the GAR's mission became ill-defined and the organization floundered; the GAR disappeared in the early 1870s, many state-centered divisions, named "departments", local posts ceased to exist. In his General Order No. 11, dated May 5, 1868, first GAR Commander-in-Chief, General John A. Logan declared May 30 to be Memorial Day, calling upon the GAR membership to make the May 30 observance an annual occurrence. Although not the first time war graves had been decorated, Logan's order established "Memorial Day" as the day upon which Americans now pay tribute to all their war casualties, missing-in-action, deceased veterans; as decades passed inspired commemorations spread across the South as "Confederate Memorial Day" or "Confederate Decoration Day" in April, led by organizations of Southern soldiers in the parallel United Confederate Veterans.
In the 1880s, the Union veterans' organization revived under new leadership that provided a platform for renewed growth, by advocating Federal pensions for veterans. As the organization revived, black veterans joined in organized local posts; the national organization, failed to press the case for similar pensions for black soldiers. Most black troops never received any pension or remuneration for wounds incurred during their Civil War service; the GAR was organized into "Departments" at the state level and "Posts" at the community level, military-style uniforms were worn by its members. There were posts in every state in the U. S. and several posts overseas. The pattern of establishing departments and local posts was used by other American military veterans' organizations, such as the Veterans of Foreign Wars and the American Legion; the G. A. R.'s political power grew during the latter part of the 19th century, it helped elect several United States presidents, beginning with the 18th, Ulysses S. Grant, ending with the 25th, William McKinley.
Five Civil War veterans and members were elected President of the United States. For a time, candidates could not get Republican presidential or congressional nominations without the endorsement of the GAR veterans voting bloc. With membership limited to "veterans of the late unpleasantness," the GAR encouraged the formation of Allied Orders to aid them in various works. Numerous male organizations jousted for the backing of the GAR, the political battles became quite severe until the GAR endorsed the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War as its heir. Although an overwhelmingly male organization, the GAR is known to have had at least two women who were members; the first female known to be admitted to the GAR was Kady Brownell, who served in the Union Army with her husband Robert, a private in the 1st Rhode Island Infantry at the First Battle of Bull Run in Virginia and with the