Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964, is the country's most circulated nationally distributed newspaper, available in each state and territory. It rivals with other nationally distributed newspapers like the business-focused Australian Financial Review and The Saturday Paper; the Australian is owned by News Corp Australia. The Australian is published by News Corp Australia, an asset of News Corp, which owns the sole daily newspapers in Brisbane, Adelaide and Darwin, the most circulated metropolitan daily newspapers in Sydney and Melbourne. News Corp's Chairman and Founder is Rupert Murdoch; the Australian integrates content from overseas newspapers owned by News Corp Australia's international parent News Corp, including The Wall Street Journal and The Times of London. The first edition of The Australian was published by Rupert Murdoch on 15 July 1964, becoming the third national newspaper in Australia following shipping newspaper Daily Commercial News and Australian Financial Review.
Unlike other original Murdoch newspapers, it is not a tabloid publication. At the time, a national paper was considered commercially unfeasible, as newspapers relied on local advertising for their revenue; the Australian was printed in Canberra plates flown to other cities for copying. From its inception the paper struggled for financial viability and ran at a loss for several decades; the Australian's first editor was Maxwell Newton, before leaving the newspaper within a year, was succeeded by Walter Kommer, by Adrian Deamer. Under his editorship The Australian encouraged female journalists, was the first mainstream daily newspaper to hire an Aboriginal reporter, John Newfong. During the 1975 election, campaigning against the Whitlam government by its owner led to the newspaper's journalists striking over editorial direction. Editor-in-chief Chris Mitchell was appointed in 2002 and retired on 11 December 2015. In May 2010, the newspaper launched. In October 2011 The Australian announced that it was planning to become the first general newspaper in Australia to introduce a paywall, with the introduction of a $2.95 per week charge for readers to view premium content on its website, mobile phone and tablet applications.
The paywall was launched on 24 October, with a free 3 month trial. In September 2017 The Australian launched their Chinese website. In October 2018 it was announced that Chris Dore, former editor of The Daily Telegraph, would be taking over as editor-in-chief. Daily sections include National News followed by Worldwide News and Business News. Contained within each issue is a prominent op/ed section, including regular columnists and non-regular contributors. Other regular sections include Technology, Features, Legal Affairs, Defence, Horse-Racing, The Arts, Health and Higher Education. A Travel & Indulgence section is included on Saturdays, along with The Inquirer, an in-depth analysis of major stories of the week, alongside much political commentary. Saturday lift-outs include Review, focusing on books, arts and television, The Weekend Australian Magazine, the only national weekly glossy insert magazine. A glossy magazine, Wish, is published on the first Friday of the month. "The Australian has long maintained a focus on issues relating to Aboriginal disadvantage."
It devotes attention to the information technology and mining industries, as well as the science and politics of climate change. It has published numerous "special reports" into Australian energy policy; the Australian Literary Review was a monthly supplement from September 2006 to October 2011. Former editor Paul Kelly stated in 1991 that "The Australian has established itself in the marketplace as a newspaper that supports economic libertarianism". Laurie Clancy asserted in 2004 that the newspaper "is conservative in tone and oriented toward business. Former editor-in-chief Chris Mitchell has said that the editorial and op-ed pages of the newspaper are centre-right. In 2007 Crikey described the newspaper as in support of the Liberal Party and the then-Coalition government, but has pragmatically supported Labor governments in the past as well. In 2007 The Australian announced their support for the Rudd Australian Labor Party in the Federal election; the Australian presents varying views on climate change, publishing articles by those who disagree with the scientific consensus such as Ian Plimer, authors who agree with the scientific consensus such as Tim Flannery and Bjørn Lomborg.
A 2011 study of the previous seven years of articles claimed that four out of every five articles were opposed to taking action on climate change. In 2010 the ABC's Media Watch presenter Paul Barry accused The Australian of waging a campaign against the Australian Greens, the Greens' federal leader Bob Brown wrote that The Australian has "stepped out of the fourth estate by seeing itself as a determinant of democracy in Australia." In response, The Australian opined that "Greens leader Bob Brown has accused The Australian of trying to wreck the alliance between the Greens and Labor. We wear Senator Brown's criticism with pride. We believe he and his Green colleagues are hypocrites.
Curtin University is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. It is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students. Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia and Mauritius, it has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres, it had a Sydney campus from 2005 to 2016. Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network, is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy and Communication, Health and Well-being and Changing Environments and Prosperity and Creative Writing, it is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.
Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business and research projects in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals and natural gas; the Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005. Curtin University was founded in 1966 as the Western Australian Institute of Technology, its nucleus comprised the tertiary programs of the Perth Technical College, which opened in 1900. Curtin University's current site in Bentley was selected in 1962, opened in 1966; the first students enrolled the following year. In 1969, three more institutions were merged with WAIT: the Western Australian School of Mines, the Muresk Agricultural College, the Schools of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy. Between 1966 and 1976 WAIT experienced an expansion from 2,000 to 10,000 students.
In December 1986 the Western Australian Institute of Technology was made a university, under provisions of the WA Institute of Technology Amendment Act 1986. Curtin University took its name from the former Prime Minister of John Curtin. Curtin accepted its first students as a university in 1987. In 2005, Curtin and Murdoch University were engaged in a feasibility study into the possibility of a merger. However, on 7 November 2005, both institutions announced. In 2009, Curtin became the first university in the Australian Technology Network to be listed on the Academic Ranking of World Universities of research universities. In 2010, Curtin dropped the "of Technology" suffix, from operating as "Curtin University"; the legal name remains Curtin University of Technology until the Act under which it operates is amended by the Western Australian parliament. Curtin has three smaller off-site campuses within the Perth metropolitan area; the Graduate School of Business building is located in the Perth Central Business District in the renovated former Government Printing Office and the law school is located on Murray Street in the old Public Health Department and Chief Secretary's building, a listed building on the State Register of Heritage Places.
Exploration Geophysics and Petroleum Engineering are located at the co-location research facilities of the Australian Resources Research Centre which houses offices of CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering and National Measurement Institute. The ARRC is located in the Technology Park Belmont, adjacent to the main Bentley campus; some University staff and students on practicum work in other locations such as the Oral Health Centre of WA in Nedlands and at Royal Perth Hospital, amongst other organisations. Curtin has campuses outside Perth, the largest being the Western Australian School of Mines at Kalgoorlie, a number of micro-campuses in locations such as Esperance, Margaret River and Geraldton. Nursing is the only course offered in Geraldton; the Muresk Institute at Northam left Curtin in 2012. In April 2017 Curtin University established its newest campus in Dubai at Dubai International Academic City. Australian Ambassador to the UAE HE Arthur Spyrou opened the campus on 10 September 2017.
Curtin University Dubai courses use the same structure and unit curriculum as those offered at the Bentley campus. Curtin University Dubai is accredited by the Knowledge and Human Development Authority-KHDA; the Academic qualifications granted by Curtin University is certified by KHDA and is recognised in the Emirate of Dubai by all public and private entities. The campus in Miri, Malaysia, is a significant development for the university and is Curtin's largest international campus. Curtin's operations in Miri began in February 1999. In 2002, a purpose-built campus was opened as Curtin's first offshore campus and the first foreign university campus in East Malaysia, it has around 4,000 students from over 45 countries, academics from more than 15 countries. Curtin Malaysia is the only approved CISCO Networking University in Brunei. Curtin University opened a Singapore-based campus on 23 November 2008. Curtin Singapore cour
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a