The Unification movement known as the Unification Church, is a worldwide new religious movement whose members are sometimes colloquially called "Moonies". It was founded in 1954 under the name Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity in Seoul, South Korea by Sun Myung Moon, a Korean religious leader known for his business ventures and engagement in social and political causes. In 1994 the HSA-UWC was replaced by Moon with a new organization, the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification; the movement is spiritually-based and includes a number of independent organizations, including business, educational and other types of organizations. The beliefs of the Unification movement are based on Moon's book Divine Principle, which differs from the teachings of Nicene Christianity on its view of Jesus and its introduction of the concept of "indemnity"; the best-known ceremonies of the movement are its unique funerals and mass weddings. The Unification movement has received strong criticism and has attracted numerous controversies, including that of being a dangerous cult.
Its involvement in politics, including anti-communism and support for Korean reunification, has been criticized. Its beliefs have been criticized by both Christian scholars. Moon and his wife, Hak Ja Han, were banned from entry into Germany and the other 14 Schengen treaty countries, on the grounds that they are leaders of a sect that endangered the personal and social development of young people. Moonie is a colloquial term sometimes used to refer to members of the Unification movement; this is derived from the name of its founder Sun Myung Moon, was first used in 1974 by the American media. Unification movement members have used the word Moonie, including Moon himself, the president of the Unification Theological Seminary David Kim, Bo Hi Pak, Moon's aide and president of Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea. In the 1980s and 1990s the Unification Church of the United States undertook an extensive public relations campaign against the use of the word by the news media. In 1989 the Chicago Tribune was picketed after referring to members as "Moonies".
Minister and civil rights leader James Bevel handed out fliers at the protest which said: "Are the Moonies our new niggers?" On an October 6, 1994 broadcast of Nightline, host Ted Koppel stated: "On last night's program... I used the term'Moonies'; this is a label which members of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church find demeaning and offensive, I'd like to apologize for its use." In other contexts it is still sometimes used and not always considered pejorative. On February 25, 1920, Sun Myung Moon was born Mun Yong-myeong in modern-day Sangsa-ri, Deogun-myon, Jeongju-gun, North P'yŏng'an Province, at a time when Korea was under Japanese rule. Moon's birthday was recorded as January 6 by the traditional lunar calendar. Around 1930 Moon's family, who followed traditional Confucianist beliefs, converted to Christianity and joined the Presbyterian Church, where he taught Sunday school. Unification Church members believe that Jesus appeared to Mun Yong-myong on Easter Day in 1936, asked him to accomplish the work left unfinished after his crucifixion.
After a period of prayer and consideration, Moon accepted the mission changing his name to Mun Son-myong. In November 1943, Moon married Sun Kil Choi. In 1943, Hak Ja Han, Moon's future wife, was born in North Korea. After World War II and the Japanese occupation ended in 1945, Moon began preaching his message. In 1946, Moon traveled alone to Pyongyang in Communist-ruled North Korea. Moon was arrested on allegations of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp. In 1950, after serving 34 months of his sentence, Moon was released from North Korea during the Korean War when United Nations troops advanced on the camp and the guards fled. In 1953, Moon divorced Choi, it is reported that he had a child with a different woman in 1954. Moon's teachings, called the Divine Principle, were first published as Wonli Wonbon in 1945; the earliest manuscript was lost in North Korea during the Korean War. A second, expanded version, Wonli Hesol, or Explanation of the Divine Principle, was published in 1957.
Its most propagated text, Exposition of the Divine Principle, was published in 1966. Moon built his first church as a refugee in Pusan. Moon founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity in Seoul on May 1, 1954, it expanded in South Korea and by the end of 1955 had 30 centers throughout the nation. The HSA-UWC expanded throughout the world with most members living in South Korea, the Philippines, other nations in East Asia. In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, in 1959, to America. Missionary work took place in Washington, DC, New York, California, it found success in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the HSA-UWC expanded in Oakland and San Francisco. By 1971, the HSA-UWC in the US had about 500 members. By 1973, it had some presence in all a few thousand members. In the 1970s, American HSA-UWC members were noted for their enthusiasm and dedication, which included raising money for UC projects on so-called "mobile fundraising teams"; the HSA-UWC sent missionaries to Europe.
They remained underground until the 1990s. Unification movement activity in South America began in the 1970s with missionary work; the HSA-UWC made large investments in civic organizations and business projects, including an international newspaper. Star
James Danforth Quayle is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 44th vice president of the United States from 1989 to 1993. Quayle was a U. S. representative from 1977 to 1981 and was a U. S. senator from 1981 to 1989 for the state of Indiana. A native of Indianapolis, Quayle spent most of his childhood living in Paradise Valley, a suburb of Phoenix, Arizona, he married Marilyn Tucker in 1972 and obtained his J. D. degree from the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law in 1974. Quayle practiced law in Huntington, Indiana with his wife before his election to the United States House of Representatives in 1976. In 1980, Quayle won election to the U. S. Senate. In 1988, Vice President and Republican presidential nominee George H. W. Bush chose Quayle as his running mate; the Bush/Quayle ticket won the 1988 election over the Democratic ticket of Michael Dukakis and Lloyd Bentsen, Quayle became Vice President in January 1989. As Vice President, Quayle made official visits to 47 countries and was appointed chairman of the National Space Council.
He secured re-nomination for Vice President in 1992, but Democrat Bill Clinton and his vice presidential running mate, Al Gore, defeated the Bush/Quayle ticket. In 1994, Quayle published his memoir entitled Standing Firm, he declined to run for President in 1996. Quayle sought the Republican presidential nomination in 2000, but withdrew from the campaign and supported the eventual winner, George W. Bush. Quayle joined Cerberus Capital Management, a private equity firm, in 1999, he serves as Chairman of Global Investments at Cerberus. Quayle was born in Indiana, to Martha Corinne and James Cline Quayle, he has sometimes been incorrectly referred to as James Danforth Quayle III. In his memoirs, he points out that his birth name was James Danforth Quayle; the name Quayle originates from the Isle of Man. His maternal grandfather, Eugene C. Pulliam, was a wealthy and influential publishing magnate who founded Central Newspapers, Inc. owner of over a dozen major newspapers such as The Arizona Republic and The Indianapolis Star.
James C. Quayle moved his family to Arizona in 1955 to run a branch of the family's publishing empire. After spending much of his youth in Arizona, Quayle returned to his native Indiana and graduated from Huntington North High School in Huntington, in 1965, he matriculated at DePauw University, where he received his B. A. degree in political science in 1969, was a 3-year letterman for the University Golf Team and a member of the fraternity Delta Kappa Epsilon. After receiving his degree, Quayle joined the Indiana Army National Guard and served from 1969 to 1975, reaching the rank of sergeant. While serving in the Guard, he earned a Juris Doctor degree in 1974 at the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law, he met his future wife, taking night classes at the same law school at the time. Quayle became an investigator for the Consumer Protection Division of the Office of the Indiana Attorney General in July 1971; that year, he became an administrative assistant to Governor Edgar Whitcomb.
From 1973 to 1974, he was the Director of the Inheritance Tax Division of the Indiana Department of Revenue. Upon graduating from law school, Quayle worked as associate publisher of his family's newspaper, the Huntington Herald-Press. In 1976, Quayle was elected to the House of Representatives from Indiana's 4th congressional district, defeating eight-term incumbent Democrat J. Edward Roush by a 55%-to-45% margin, he won re-election in 1978 by the greatest percentage margin achieved to date in that northeast Indiana district. In 1980, at age 33, Quayle became the youngest person elected to the Senate from the state of Indiana, defeating three-term incumbent Democrat Birch Bayh by taking 54% of the votes to Bayh's 46%. Making Indiana political history again, Quayle was re-elected to the Senate in 1986 with the largest margin achieved to that date by a candidate in a statewide Indiana race, taking 61% of the vote and defeating his Democratic opponent, Jill Long. In November 1978, Quayle was invited by Congressman Leo Ryan of California to accompany him on a delegation to investigate unsafe conditions at the Jonestown settlement in Guyana, but Quayle was unable to participate.
The decision saved Quayle's life, because Ryan and his entourage were subsequently murdered at the airstrip in Jonestown as the party tried to escape the massacre. In 1986, Quayle was criticized for championing the cause of Daniel Anthony Manion, a candidate for a federal appellate judgeship, in law school one year above Quayle; the American Bar Association had evaluated Manion as "qualified/unqualified", its lower passing grade. Manion was nominated for the Seventh Circuit of the U. S. Court of Appeals by President Ronald Reagan on February 21, 1986, confirmed by the Senate on June 26, 1986. On August 16, 1988, at the Republican convention in New Orleans, George H. W. Bush chose Quayle to be his running mate in the 1988 United States presidential election; the choice became controversial. Outgoing President Ronald Reagan praised Quayle for his "energy and enthusiasm". Press coverage of the convention was dominated with questions about "the three Quayle problems", in the phrase of a conservative group that monitors television coverage.
The questions involved his military service, a golf trip to Florida with Paula Parkinson, whether he had enough experience to be vice president. Quayle seemed at times rattled and at other times uncertain or evasive as he tried to handle the questions. Delegates to the convention blamed television and newspapers for the focus
Activism consists of efforts to promote, direct, or intervene in social, economic, or environmental reform with the desire to make changes in society. Forms of activism range from mandate building in the community, petitioning elected officials, running or contributing to a political campaign, preferential patronage of businesses, demonstrative forms of activism like rallies, street marches, sit-ins, or hunger strikes. Activism may be performed on a day-to-day basis in a wide variety of ways, including through the creation of art, computer hacking, or in how one chooses to spend their money. For example, the refusal to buy clothes or other merchandise from a company as a protest against the exploitation of workers by that company could be considered an expression of activism. However, the most visible and impactful activism comes in the form of collective action, in which numerous individuals coordinate an act of protest together in order to make a bigger impact. Collective action, purposeful and sustained over a period of time becomes known as a social movement.
Activists have used literature, including pamphlets and books to disseminate their messages and attempt to persuade their readers of the justice of their cause. Research has now begun to explore how contemporary activist groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action combining politics with technology; the Online Etymology Dictionary records the English words "activism" and "activist" as in use in the political sense from the year 1920 or 1915 respectively. The history of the word activism traces back to earlier understandings of collective behavior and social action; as late as 1969 activism was defined as "the policy or practice of doing things with decision and energy", without regard to a political signification, whereas social action was defined as "organized action taken by a group to improve social conditions", without regard to normative status. Following the surge of so-called "new social movements" in the United States in the 1960's, a new understanding of activism emerged as a rational and acceptable democratic option of protest or appeal.
However, the history of the existence of revolt through organized or unified protest in recorded history dates back to the slave revolts of the 1st century BC in the Roman Empire, where under the leadership of former gladiator Spartacus 6,000 slaves rebelled and were crucified from Capua to Rome in what became known as the Third Servile War. In English history, the Peasant's Revolt erupted in response to the imposition of a poll tax, has been paralleled by other rebellions and revolutions in Hungary and more for example, Hong Kong. In 1930 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi thousands of protesting Indians participated in the Salt March as a protest against the oppressive taxes of their government, resulting in the imprisonment of 60,000 people and eventual independence for their nation. In nations throughout Asia and South America, the prominence of activism organized by social movements and under the leadership of civil activists or social revolutionaries has pushed for increasing national self-reliance or, in some parts of the developing world, collectivist communist or socialist organization and affiliation.
Activism has had major impacts on Western societies as well over the past century through social movements such as the Labour movement, the Women's Rights movement, the civil rights movement. Activists can function in a number of roles, including judicial, environmental and design. Most activism has focused on creating substantive changes in the policy or practice of a government or industry; some activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly, rather than to persuade governments to change laws. For example, the cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles, does not lobby or protest politically. Other activists try to persuade people or government policy to remain the same, in an effort to counter change. Activism is not always an activity performed by those; the term activist may apply broadly to anyone who engages in activism, or be more narrowly limited to those who choose political or social activism as a vocation or characteristic practice.
Judicial activism involves the efforts of public officials. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. - American historian, public intellectual, social critic - introduced the term "judicial activism" in a January 1946 Fortune magazine article titled "The Supreme Court: 1947". Activists can be public watchdogs and whistle blowers, attempting to understand all the actions of every form of government that acts in the name of the people and hold it accountable to oversight and transparency. Activism involves an engaged citizenry. Environmental activism takes quite a few forms: the protection of nature or the natural environment driven by a utilitarian conservation ethic or a nature oriented preservationist ethic the protection of the human environment (by pollution prevention or the protection of cultural heritage or quality of life the conservation of depletable natural resources the protection of the function of critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate; the power of Internet activism came into a global lens with the Arab Spring protests starting in late 2010.
People living in the Middle East and North African countries that were experiencing revolutions used social networking to communicate information about protests, including videos recorded on smart phones
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC. The division operates under NBCUniversal Broadcast, Cable and News, a subsidiary of NBCUniversal, in turn a subsidiary of Comcast; the group's various operations report to the president of Noah Oppenheim. NBC News aired the first scheduled news program in American broadcast television history on February 21, 1940; the group's broadcasts are produced and aired from 30 Rockefeller Center, NBC's headquarters in New York City. The division presides over America's number-one-rated newscast, NBC Nightly News, the longest-running television series in American history, Meet The Press, the Sunday morning program of newsmakers interviews. NBC News offers 70 years of rare historic footage from the NBCUniversal Archives online. NBC News operates a 24-hour cable news network known as MSNBC, which includes the organization's flagship daytime news operation, MSNBC Live; the cable network shares editorial control with NBC News. In 2017, the organization entered into a partnership and purchased a 25% stake in Euronews, a European 24-hour news network.
The first scheduled, American television newscast in history was made by NBC News on February 21, 1940, anchored by Lowell Thomas, airing weeknights at 6:45 p.m. It was Lowell Thomas in front of a television camera while doing his NBC network radio broadcast, the television simulcast seen only in New York. In June 1940, NBC, through its flagship station in New York City, W2XBS operating on channel one, televised 30¼ hours of coverage of the Republican National Convention live and direct from Philadelphia; the station used a series of relays from Philadelphia to New York and on to upper New York State, for rebroadcast on W2XB in Schenectady, making this among the first "network" programs of NBC Television. Due to wartime and technical restrictions, there were no live telecasts of the 1944 conventions, although films of the events were shown over WNBT the next day. About this time, there were irregularly scheduled, quasi-network newscasts originating from NBC's WNBT in New York City and fed to WPTZ in Philadelphia and WRGB in Schenectady, NY, such as Esso sponsored news features a well as The War As It Happens in the final days of World War II, another irregularly scheduled NBC television newsreel program, seen in New York and Schenectady on the few television sets which existed at the time.
After the war, NBC Television Newsreel aired. In 1948, when sponsored by Camel Cigarettes, NBC Television Newsreel was renamed Camel Newsreel Theatre and when John Cameron Swayze was added as an on-camera anchor in 1949, the program was renamed Camel News Caravan. In 1948, NBC teamed up with Life magazine to provide election night coverage of President Harry S. Truman's surprising victory over New York governor Thomas E. Dewey; the television audience was small. The following year, the Camel News Caravan, anchored by John Cameron Swayze, debuted on NBC. Lacking the graphics and technology of years, it nonetheless contained many of the elements of modern newscasts. NBC hired its own film crews and in the program's early years, it dominated CBS's competing program, which did not hire its own film crews until 1953.. In 1950, David Brinkley began serving as the program's Washington correspondent, but attracted little attention outside the network until paired with Chet Huntley in 1956. In 1955, the Camel News Caravan fell behind CBS's Douglas Edwards with the News, Swayze lost the tepid support of NBC executives.
The following year, NBC replaced the program with the Huntley-Brinkley Report. Beginning in 1951, NBC News was managed by director of news Bill McAndrew, who reported to vice president of news and public affairs J. Davidson Taylor. Television assumed an prominent role in American family life in the late 1950s, NBC News was called television's "champion of news coverage." NBC president Robert Kintner provided the news division with ample amounts of both financial resources and air time. In 1956, the network paired anchors Chet Huntley and David Brinkley and the two became celebrities, supported by reporters including John Chancellor, Frank McGee, Edwin Newman, Sander Vanocur, Nancy Dickerson, Tom Pettit, Ray Scherer. Created by producer Reuven Frank, NBC's The Huntley–Brinkley Report had its debut on October 29, 1956. During much of its 14-year run, it exceeded the viewership levels of its CBS News competition, anchored by Douglas Edwards and, beginning in April 1962, by Walter Cronkite. NBC's vice president of news and public affairs, J. Davidson Taylor, was a Southerner who, with producer Reuven Frank, was determined that NBC would lead television's coverage of the civil rights movement.
In 1955, NBC provided national coverage of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s leadership of the bus boycott in Montgomery, airing reports from Frank McGee news director of NBC's Montgomery affiliate WSFA-TV, who would join the network. A year John Chancellor's coverage of the admission of black students to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas was the first occasion when the key news story came from television rather than print and prompted a prominent U. S. senator to observe "When I think of Little Rock, I think of John Chancellor." Other reporters who covered the movement for the network included Sander Vanocur, Herbert Kaplow, Charles Quinn, Richard Valeriani, hit with an ax handle
1978 United States Senate elections
The 1978 United States Senate elections in the middle of Democratic President Jimmy Carter's term. Thirteen seats changed hands between parties; the Democrats at first lost a net of two seats to the Republicans, one more in a special election. Democrats retained a 58-41 majority. Source: "Election Statistics - Office of the Clerk". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives – via clerk.house.gov. Republicans took three open seats, including one special election in Minnesota, as well as regular elections in Mississippi and South Dakota, they defeated five Democratic incumbents: Floyd Haskell, Dick Clark, William Hathaway, Wendell Anderson, Thomas McIntyre. The two Republican victories in Minnesota saw the state's Senate delegation change from two Democrats to two Republicans in the same election; the Republican gains were offset by Democratic defeats of Edward Brooke and Robert Griffin, captures of Republican open seats in Nebraska, New Jersey, Oklahoma. In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1978 or before January 3, 1979.
In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1979. All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats. Incumbent Democratic Senator John Sparkman retired and was succeeded by Howell Heflin, the former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Alabama. Heflin, the Democratic candidate, faced no Republican opponent in the general election, defeating Prohibition Party nominee Jerome B. Couch. Following the death of Senator Jim Allen, his widow Maryon was appointed by governor George Wallace to fill the vacancy until a special election could be held. In this election, Democratic state senator Donald W. Stewart defeated former Republican Congressman James D. Martin to serve the remaining two years of the term. Incumbent Republican Senator Ted Stevens won reelection. Incumbent Democrat United States Senator Joe Biden won re-election to a second term, defeating Republican challenger James H. Baxter Jr. the Delaware Secretary of Agriculture. Incumbent Democrat Sam Nunn won re-election to a second term.
Incumbent Republican Senator James A. McClure was elected to a second term in office. Incumbent Republican Charles H. Percy ran for re-election to a third term in the United States Senate. Percy was opposed by Democratic nominee Alex Seith and former member of the Cook County Zoning Board of Appeals. Though Percy had been expected to coast to re-election over Seith, a first-time candidate, the election became competitive. In the last few days of the campaign, a desperate Percy ran a television advertisement that featured him apologizing and acknowledging that, "I got your message and you're right." Percy's last-ditch effort appeared to have paid off, as he was able to edge out Seith to win what would end up being his third and final term in the Senate. Incumbent U. S. Senator Walter Huddleston was re-elected to a second term. Incumbent Democrat William Hathaway decided to run for re-election to a second term, but was defeated by William Cohen, the Republican nominee and the United States Congressman from Maine's 2nd congressional district and Hayes Gahagan, former Maine State Senator Incumbent Republican Senator Edward Brooke was defeated by Democratic Congressman Paul E. Tsongas.
Incumbent Republican Robert P. Griffin ran for re-election to a third term, but was defeated by the Democratic candidate, former Michigan Attorney General Carl Levin. Incumbent Democrat Wendell Anderson was defeated by Republican challenger businessman Rudy Boschwitz. In 1978, all three key statewide races in Minnesota were up for election—the Governorship, both Senate Seats. But, there was a particular oddity to the three races—all three had incumbents who were never elected to the office in the first place; this became a well played issue by the Republicans—a billboard put up across the state read, "The DFL is going to face something scary -- an election". When Walter Mondale ascended to the Vice Presidency in 1976, sitting Governor Wendell Anderson appointed himself to the open seat; this act did not sit well with the electorate. Plywood magnate Rudy Boschwitz campaigned as a liberal Republican and spent of his own money, but all that seemed to matter was that he was neither a DFLer or Wendell Anderson in an election cycle where both were rejected by the voters.
The end result was not close—the challenger Boschwitz won in a 16-point landslide as all three statewide offices switched into Republican hands. Incumbent Muriel Humphrey retired. Democratic candidate Bob Short was defeated by Republican candidate David Durenberger. In 1978, all three key statewide races in Minnesota were up for election—the Governorship, both Senate Seats. But, there was a particular oddity to the three races—all three had incumbents who were never elected to the office in the first place; this became a well played issue by the Republicans—a billboard put up across the state read, "The DFL is going to face something scary -- an election". When Hubert H. Humphrey died in office in January 1978, sitting Governor Rudy Perpich appointed Humphrey's widow, Muriel to sit until a special election could be held that year. However, Muriel Humphrey opted not to seek election to the seat in her own right, the DFL nominated former Texas Rangers owner Bob Short to run in the subsequent special election.
The Independent-Republicans, on their
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Fuller Theological Seminary
Fuller Theological Seminary is a multidenominational Christian evangelical seminary in Pasadena, with regional campuses in the western United States. The seminary has 2,897 students from 110 denominations. Fuller Theological Seminary was founded in 1947 by Charles E. Fuller, a radio evangelist known for his Old Fashioned Revival Hour show, Harold Ockenga, the pastor of Park Street Church in Boston; the seminary's founders sought to reform fundamentalism's separatist and sometimes anti-intellectual stance during the 1920s-1940s. Fuller envisaged that the seminary would become "a Caltech of the evangelical world."The earliest faculty held theologically and conservative views, though professors with differing perspectives arrived in the 1960s and 1970s. There were tensions in the late 1950s and early 1960s as some faculty members became uncomfortable with staff and students who did not agree with Biblical inerrancy; this led to the people associated with the seminary playing a role in the rise of neo-evangelicalism.
Richard Mouw served as president of Fuller from 1993 to 2013. In 2006, a Los Angeles Times article labeled him as "one of the nation's leading evangelicals". In July 2013, Mark Labberton took over as the new president of Fuller. Labberton had served Fuller as Director of the Lloyd John Ogilvie Institute of Preaching since 2009, retains his position as Lloyd John Ogilvie Associate Professor of Preaching alongside the presidency. Mouw remains at Fuller as Professor of Public Life. Fuller is accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada and the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Fuller's student body of 2,897 includes students from 90 countries and 110 denominational backgrounds; the seminary is at the center of debate among religious and secular intellectuals on issues ranging from politics and culture. Fuller instructors have proposed an alternative perspective on the conservative/liberal debate: "We need to be the voice of a third way that flows out of biblical values, instead of buying into the political ideology of either the right or the left."
Fuller Theological Seminary is organized into schools of theology and intercultural studies. The seminary emphasizes integration of the three schools and many students take courses in more than one school; the seminary offers 18 degree programs, including 11 advanced degrees. The School of Theology is the oldest school at Fuller and blends academic theology and practical ministry training. Many graduates from the School of Theology serve in roles as pastors, teachers, or lay ministers at churches of every denomination—throughout the U. S. and the world. The School of Theology offers the following degrees: Master of Divinity, Master of Arts in Theology, MA in Theology and Ministry, Doctor of Ministry, Doctor of Philosophy in Theology, Master of Theology; the MA, ThM, DMin degrees are offered in the Korean language, the MDiv and MA in Theology and Ministry can be earned in Spanish. Fuller's School of Psychology opened in 1965 and is the first seminary-based psychology program to receive accreditation from the American Psychological Association.
The School of Psychology consists of two different departments: Clinical Psychology and Marriage and Family. Research in the School of Psychology takes place within the context of Travis Research Institute, named after the school's founding Dean, Lee Edward Travis. Distinctive centers have been established for biopsychosocial research; the School of Psychology offers the following degrees: MA in Family Studies, MS in Marital and Family Therapy, Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology, Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology, Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology. The School of Intercultural Studies was founded as the School of World Mission in 1965; the school equips students to serve in organizations with a cross-cultural focus. More than 3,500 alumni/ae are now serving in over 150 countries in a wide range of cross-cultural contexts and areas of work including missions and nonprofit organizations, church planting and pastoral ministry and international development; the School of Intercultural Studies offers the following degrees: MA in Intercultural Studies, MA in Global Leadership, ThM in Missiology, Doctor of Ministry in Global Ministries, Doctor of Missiology, PhD in Intercultural Studies.
In addition to its main campus in Pasadena, Fuller Theological Seminary offers classes at eight regional campuses located in the western United States: Fuller Northwest, Fuller Bay Area, Fuller Sacramento, Fuller Orange County, Fuller Arizona, Fuller Colorado, Fuller Texas. The seminary offers a number of distance learning courses, either online or in hybrid formats. Five of the master's degrees can be earned in flexible programs without relocating to one of the campuses: the Master of Divinity, MA in Intercultural Studies, MA in Theology and Ministry, MA in Global Leadership. Fuller is closing Fuller Bay Area, Fuller Orange County, it is reducing degree programs offered in Fuller Colorado and Fuller Arizona. These closures and reductions will take place before the 2019-20 academic year. In May 2009, Fuller opened its 47,000-square-foot David Allan Hubbard Library that incor