Coronation of the British monarch
The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey. It corresponds to the coronations that took place in other European monarchies, all of which have abandoned coronations in favour of inauguration or enthronement ceremonies; the coronation takes place several months after the death of the previous monarch, as it is considered a joyous occasion that would be inappropriate while mourning continues. This interval gives the planners enough time to complete the elaborate arrangements required. For example, Queen Elizabeth II was crowned on 2 June 1953, having ascended the throne on 6 February 1952; the ceremony is performed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the most senior cleric in the Church of England, of which the monarch is supreme governor. Other clergy and members of the nobility have roles. Many other government officials and guests attend, including representatives of other countries.
The essential elements of the coronation have remained unchanged for the past thousand years. The sovereign is first presented to, acclaimed by, the people, he or she swears an oath to uphold the law and the Church. Following that, the monarch is anointed with holy oil, invested with regalia, crowned, before receiving the homage of his or her subjects. Wives of kings are anointed and crowned as queen consort; the service ends with a closing procession, since the 20th century it has been traditional for the royal family to appear on the balcony of Buckingham Palace, before attending a banquet there. The main elements of the coronation service and the earliest form of oath can be traced to the ceremony devised by Saint Dunstan for Edgar's coronation in 973 AD at Bath Abbey, it drew on ceremonies used by those used in the ordination of bishops. Two versions of coronation services, known as ordines or recensions, survive from before the Norman Conquest, it is not known if the first recension was used in England and it was the second recension, used by Edgar in 973 and by subsequent Anglo-Saxon and early Norman kings.
A third recension was compiled during the reign of Henry I and was used at the coronation of his successor, Stephen, in 1135. While retaining the most important elements of the Anglo-Saxon rite, it borrowed from the consecration of the Holy Roman Emperor from the Pontificale Romano-Germanicum, a book of German liturgy compiled in Mainz in 961, thus bringing the English tradition into line with continental practice, it remained in use until the coronation of Edward II in 1308 when the fourth recension was first used, having been compiled over several preceding decades. Although influenced by its French counterpart, the new ordo focussed on the balance between the monarch and his nobles and on the oath, neither of which concerned the absolutist French kings. One manuscript of this recension is the Liber Regalis at Westminster Abbey which has come to be regarded as the definitive version. Following the start of the reformation in England, the boy king Edward VI had been crowned in the first Protestant coronation in 1547, during which Archbishop Thomas Cranmer preached a sermon against idolatry and "the tyranny of the bishops of Rome".
However, six years he was succeeded by his half-sister, Mary I, who restored the Catholic rite. In 1559, Elizabeth I underwent the last English coronation under the auspices of the Catholic Church. Scottish coronations were traditionally held at Scone Abbey, with the king seated on the Stone of Destiny; the original rituals were a fusion of ceremonies used by the kings of Dál Riata, based on the inauguration of Aidan by Columba in 574, by the Picts from whom the Stone of Destiny came. A crown does not seem to have been used until the inauguration of Alexander II in 1214; the ceremony included the laying on of hands by a senior cleric and the recitation of the king's genealogy. Alexander III was the last Scottish king to be crowned in this way in 1249, since the Stone was captured by the English forces of Edward I in 1296, it was incorporated into the English Coronation Chair and its first certain use at an English coronation was that of Henry IV in 1399. Pope John XXII in a bull of 1329 granted the kings of Scotland the right to be crowned.
No record exists of the exact form of the medieval rituals, but a account exists of the coronation of the 17-month-old infant James V at Stirling Castle in 1513. The ceremony was held in a church, since demolished, within the castle walls and was conducted by the Bishop of Glasgow, because the Archbishop of St Andrews had been killed at the Battle of Flodden, it is that the child would have been knighted before the start of the ceremony. The coronation itself started with a sermon, followed by the anointing and crowning the coronation oath, in this case taken for the child by an unknown noble or priest, an oath of fealty and acclamation by the congregation. James VI had been crowned in The Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, in 1567 and inherited the English crown in 1603. Charles I travelled north for a Scottish coronation at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh in 1633, but caused consternation amongst the Presbyterian Scots by his insistence on elaborate
Freedom of the City
The Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary. Arising from the medieval practice of granting respected citizens freedom from serfdom, the tradition still lives on in countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand – although today the title of "freeman" confers no special privileges; the Freedom of the City can be granted by municipal authorities to military units which have earned the city's trust. This allows them the freedom to parade through the city, is an affirmation of the bond between the regiment and the citizenry; the honour was sometimes accompanied by a "freedom box", a small gold box inscribed to record the occasion. In some countries, such as the United States, esteemed residents and visitors may instead be presented with the Key to the City, a symbolic honour. Other US cities award Honorary Citizenship, with just a certificate. Freedom of the City is an ancient honour granted to martial organisations, allowing them the privilege to march into the city "with drums beating, colours flying, bayonets fixed".
This honour dates back to ancient Rome which regarded the "pomerium", the boundary of the city, as sacred. Promagistrates and generals were forbidden from entering it, resigned their imperium upon crossing it. An exception was made for victory celebrations, during which the victorious general would be permitted to enter for one day only. Under the Republic, soldiers lost their status when entering, becoming citizens: thus soldiers at their general's triumph wore civilian dress. Weapons were banned inside the pomerium for religious and traditional reasons. Similar laws were passed by other European cities throughout the Medieval era, to protect public security and civic rights against their own king's troops; as a result, soldiers would be forced to camp outside the walls of the city during the winter months. The Freedom of the City was an honour granted only to troops which had earned the trust of the local populace, either through some valiant action or by being a familiar presence. Today, martial freedom of the city is an ceremonial honour bestowed upon a unit with historic ties to the area, as a token of appreciation for their long and dedicated service.
The awarding of the Freedom is accompanied by a celebratory parade through the city. A more common freedom of the city is connected to the medieval concept of "free status", when city and town charters drew a distinction between freemen and vassals of a feudal lord; as such, freemen pre-date'boroughs'. Early freedom of the boroughs ceremonies had great importance in affirming that the recipient enjoyed privileges such as the right to trade and own property, protection within the town. In modern society, the award of honorary freedom of the city or borough tends to be ceremonial, given by the local government in many towns and cities on those who have served in some exceptional capacity, or upon any whom the city wishes to bestow an honour. Before parliamentary reform in 1832, freedom of the city or town conferred the right to vote in the'parliamentary boroughs' for the MPs; until the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 the freemen were the exclusive electorate for some of the boroughs. These two acts together curtailed the power of the freemen and extended the franchise to all'householders'.
The private property belonging to the freemen collectively was retained. The freemen of York and Newcastle upon Tyne still own considerable areas within their towns, although the income is given to support charitable objects; the Local Government Act 1972 preserved freemen's rights. The Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 removed any restrictions entitling only men to be freemen. Today, the grant of honorary freedom in the United Kingdom is governed by the Local Government Act 1972; the 1972 Act enabled the councils of cities, royal boroughs and parishes with the status of a royal town to confer the status of honorary freeman on "persons of distinction and persons who have, in the opinion of the council, rendered eminent services" to the local area. The 2009 Act extends the ability to grant the status of honorary freeman to any county, district, town, parish or community council. A special meeting of the council can grant the honour by passing a resolution with a two-thirds majority at a specially convened meeting.
The exact qualifications for borough freedom differ between each city or town, but fall into two categories,'patrimony' and'servitude'. For example, in Chester, only the children or grandchildren of freemen may apply for admission. In York, this extends to great- and great-great-grandchildren, apprenticeship to a freeman of the city will allow admission. In Great Grimsby, the widow of a freeman passes his rights to her second husband, who retains the privilege after either divorce from or death of the widow; the borough freedom is strongest in York, Newcastle upon Tyne and Coventry. Durham and Northampton have extended their admission criteria to those who have served an apprenticeship
Eaton Hall, Cheshire
Eaton Hall is the country house of the Duke of Westminster. It is set in Cheshire, England; the house is surrounded by formal gardens, parkland and woodland. The estate covers an area of about 10,872 acres; the first substantial house was built in the 17th century. In the early 19th century it was replaced by a much larger house designed by William Porden; this in turn was replaced by an larger house, with outbuildings and a chapel, designed by Alfred Waterhouse. Building concluded about 12 years later. By 1960 the fabric of the house had deteriorated and, like many other mansions during this period, it was demolished, although the chapel and many of the outbuildings were retained. A new house was built but its design was not considered to be sympathetic to the local landscape, in the late 1980s it was re-cased and given the appearance of a French château; the house has been surrounded by formal gardens since the 17th century, the design of which has changed over the centuries in accordance with current ideas and fashions, as has the surrounding parkland.
A variety of buildings are included in the estate, some decorative, others built for the business of the estate. The house and estate are not open to the public, but the gardens are open on three days a year to raise money for charity, some of the estate's buildings can be hired for charitable purposes. Eaton Hall has been the country house of the Grosvenor family since the 15th century. There is evidence of a two-storey house on a moated site in the estate in a 17th-century estate map and an 18th-century engraving. A survey undertaken in 1798 showed; the first substantial house was built for 3rd Baronet. He inherited the estate at the age of 19 when he succeeded his grandfather, Sir Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Baronet, who died in 1664; the new owner commissioned the architect William Samwell to design the house. Building started in 1675. By 1683 the cost of building the house had risen to over £1,000. An engraving of the time shows it to have been a substantial square house with three storeys and dormers.
The entrance front had a portico. The engraving shows the earlier moated house to the south of the new house. By the time that Robert Grosvenor the 2nd Earl Grosvenor, the 1st Marquess of Westminster, inherited the estate in 1802, the Samwell Hall had become old-fashioned and in need of renovation. Grosvenor appointed William Porden to plan the improvements. Building started in 1803 and Porden estimated it would take three years to build at a cost of £10,000. In the event it took just under 10 years and cost over £100,000; the previous house was encased and surrounded by "every possible permutation of the gothic style". Two new wings were added in the first stage, in the 1820s more wings were added, by this time under the direction of Benjamin Gummow; the interior of the house was as lavish with more Gothic detailing. The hangings for the state bed included 97 yards of purple damask and 103 yards of sarsenet trimmed with gold lace; when the future Queen Victoria visited in 1832 at the age of 13, she wrote in her journal: "The house is magnificent".
Others described it as being "as extravagant and opulent as the latest upholsterer-decorators could make it". A critic found it "the most gaudy concern I saw" and "a vast pile of mongrel gothic which... is a monument of wealth and bad taste". Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster, succeeded his father in 1845 and commissioned the Scottish architect William Burn to make alterations to the house. Burn raised the centre of the south front to make it look like a tower, changed some of the external Gothic features; the architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner described this house as a "spectacular Gothic mansion". The 2nd Marquess died in 1869 and was succeeded by his son Hugh Lupus Grosvenor the 3rd Marquess and from 1874 the 1st Duke of Westminster, he appointed Alfred Waterhouse to design another new hall. Again the core of the previous hall was retained. A private wing was built for the use of the family, this was joined to the main part of the hall by a corridor. Waterhouse designed the chapel and a clock-house, rebuilt most of the stabling.
The work began in 1870, took 12 years to complete, cost £803,000. The library was 90 feet long, the dining room with its ante room was 105 feet long, the octagonal great hall contained an organ. For the interior, Henry Stacy Marks painted a frieze of the Canterbury Pilgrims for the morning room, Gertrude Jekyll painted panels for the drawing room, in other rooms were paintings by Gainsborough and Reynolds. Pevsner wrote that it "was an outstanding expression of High Victorian originality", added "this Wagnerian palace was the most ambitious instance of Gothic Revival domestic architecture anywhere in the country"; the Daily Telegraph described it as "one of the most princely and beautiful mansions that these islands contain". During both World Wars, parts of the hall were used as a hospital. In 1943, the Britannia Royal Naval College moved to the hall from Dartmouth when the colle
John Jackson (painter)
John Jackson was an English painter who specialised in portraits. Jackson was born in Lastingham and started his career as an apprentice tailor to his father, who opposed the artistic ambitions of his son. However, he enjoyed the support of Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave, who recommended him to the Earl of Carlisle; as a result, Jackson was able to attend the Royal Academy Schools, where he befriended David Wilkie and B. R. Haydon. At Castle Howard, residence of the Earl of Carlisle, he could study and copy from a large collection of paintings, his watercolours were judged to be of uncommon quality. By 1807 Jackson's reputation as a portrait painter had become established, he made the transition to oils if not regularly forwarding paintings to Somerset House. After a visit to the Netherlands and Flanders with Edmund Phipps in 1816, he accompanied Sir Francis Chantrey on a trip to Switzerland, Rome and Venice in 1819. In Rome he was elected to the Academy of St Luke, his portrait of Antonio Canova, painted on this trip, was regarded as outstanding.
Jackson was a prolific portraitist showing the influence of Sir Thomas Lawrence and Henry Raeburn in his work. His sitters included the Duke of Wellington, the explorer Sir John Franklin and some noted Wesleyan ministers, his 1823 portrait of Lady Dover, wife of George Agar-Ellis, 1st Baron Dover, was acclaimed. He was a Royal Academy student from 9 March 1805, was elected an Associate of the RA on 6 November 1815 and elected a full member on 10 February 1817. John Jackson was married twice – the first marriage was to the daughter of a jeweller, the second to Matilda the daughter of the painter James Ward and a niece of George Morland, he died in London. His son Mulgrave Phipps Jackson was born on August 5, 1830 and died on October 4, 1913. A painter himself, exhibited in the Royal Academy for 12 years, he had at least one daughter, Ida Augusta Jackson, married Roeneke, buried in the English Cemetery, Florence. Michael Bryan. A Biographical and Critical Dictionary of Painters and Engravers: From the Revival of the Art under Cimabue, the Alleged Discovery of Engraving by Finiguerra, to the Present Time: With the Ciphers and Marks, Used by each Engraver: by Michael Bryan.
A New Edition, Revised and Continued to the Present Time, Comprising above One Thousand Additional Memoirs, Large Accessions to the Lists of Pictures and Engravings. London: H. G. Bohn. p. 355. OCLC 154060793. 102 paintings by or after John Jackson at the Art UK site
Demosthenes was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators, he delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits. Demosthenes grew interested in politics during his time as a logographer, in 354 BC he gave his first public political speeches, he went on to devote his most productive years to opposing Macedon's expansion. He idealized his city and strove throughout his life to restore Athens' supremacy and motivate his compatriots against Philip II of Macedon, he sought to preserve his city's freedom and to establish an alliance against Macedon, in an unsuccessful attempt to impede Philip's plans to expand his influence southward by conquering all the other Greek states.
After Philip's death, Demosthenes played a leading part in his city's uprising against the new king of Macedonia, Alexander the Great. However, his efforts failed and the revolt was met with a harsh Macedonian reaction. To prevent a similar revolt against his own rule, Alexander's successor in this region, sent his men to track Demosthenes down. Demosthenes took his own life, in order to avoid being arrested by Archias of Thurii, Antipater's confidant; the Alexandrian Canon compiled by Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace recognised Demosthenes as one of the ten greatest Attic orators and logographers. Longinus likened Demosthenes to a blazing thunderbolt, argued that he "perfected to the utmost the tone of lofty speech, living passions, readiness, speed". Quintilian extolled him as lex orandi, Cicero said about him that inter omnis unus excellat, he acclaimed him as "the perfect orator" who lacked nothing. Demosthenes was born in 384 BC, during the last year of the 98th Olympiad or the first year of the 99th Olympiad.
His father—also named Demosthenes—who belonged to the local tribe and lived in the deme of Paeania in the Athenian countryside, was a wealthy sword-maker. Aeschines, Demosthenes' greatest political rival, maintained that his mother Kleoboule was a Scythian by blood—an allegation disputed by some modern scholars. Demosthenes was orphaned at the age of seven. Although his father provided well for him, his legal guardians, Aphobus and Therippides, mishandled his inheritance. Demosthenes started to learn rhetoric because he wished to take his guardians to court and because he was of "delicate physique" and couldn't receive gymnastic education, customary. In Parallel Lives Plutarch states that Demosthenes built an underground study where he practiced speaking and shaving one half of his head so that he could not go out in public. Plutarch states that he had “an inarticulate and stammering pronunciation” that he got rid of by speaking with pebbles in his mouth and by repeating verses when running or out of breath.
He practiced speaking in front of a large mirror. As soon as Demosthenes came of age in 366 BC, he demanded they render an account of their management. According to Demosthenes, the account revealed the misappropriation of his property. Although his father left an estate of nearly fourteen talents, Demosthenes asserted his guardians had left nothing "except the house, fourteen slaves and thirty silver minae". At the age of 20 Demosthenes sued his trustees in order to recover his patrimony and delivered five orations: three Against Aphobus during 363 and 362 BC and two Against Onetor during 362 and 361 BC; the courts fixed Demosthenes' damages at ten talents. When all the trials came to an end, he only succeeded in retrieving a portion of his inheritance. According to Pseudo-Plutarch, Demosthenes was married once; the only information about his wife, whose name is unknown, is that she was the daughter of Heliodorus, a prominent citizen. Demosthenes had a daughter, "the only one who called him father", according to Aeschines in a trenchant remark.
His daughter died unmarried a few days before Philip II's death. In his speeches, Aeschines uses pederastic relations of Demosthenes as a means to attack him. In the case of Aristion, a youth from Plataea who lived for a long time in Demosthenes' house, Aeschines mocks the "scandalous" and "improper" relation. In another speech, Aeschines brings up the pederastic relation of his opponent with a boy called Cnosion; the slander that Demosthenes' wife slept with the boy suggests that the relationship was contemporary with his marriage. Aeschines claims that Demosthenes made money out of young rich men, such as Aristarchus, the son of Moschus, whom he deceived with the pretence that he could make him a great orator. While still under Demosthenes' tutelage, Aristarchus killed and mutilated a certain Nicodemus of Aphidna. Aeschines accused Demosthenes of complicity in the murder, pointing out that Nicodemus had once pressed a lawsuit accusing Demosthenes of desertion, he accused Demosthenes of having been such a bad erastes to Aristarchus so as not to deserve the name.
His crime, according to Aeschines, was to have betrayed his eromenos by pillaging his estate pretending to b
George IV of the United Kingdom
George IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness. George IV led an extravagant lifestyle, he was a patron of new forms of leisure and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, Sir Jeffry Wyattville to rebuild Windsor Castle, his charm and culture earned him the title "the first gentleman of England", but his dissolute way of life and poor relationships with his parents and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy. He forbade Caroline to attend his coronation and asked the government to introduce the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate, unsuccessful attempt to divorce her. For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister.
George's ministers found his behaviour selfish and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending during the Napoleonic Wars, he act as a role model for his people. Liverpool's government presided over Britain's ultimate victory, negotiated the peace settlement, attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. After Liverpool's retirement, George was forced to accept Catholic emancipation despite opposing it, his only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte, died before him in 1817 and so he was succeeded by his younger brother, William. George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762, the first child of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; as the eldest son of a British sovereign, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth. On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Archbishop of Canterbury, his godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Duke of Cumberland and the Dowager Princess of Wales.
George was a talented student, learned to speak French and Italian, in addition to his native English. At the age of 18 he was given a separate establishment, in dramatic contrast with his prosaic, scandal-free father, threw himself with zest into a life of dissipation and wild extravagance involving heavy drinking and numerous mistresses and escapades, he was a witty conversationalist, drunk or sober, showed good, but grossly expensive, taste in decorating his palace. The Prince of Wales turned 21 in 1783, obtained a grant of £60,000 from Parliament and an annual income of £50,000 from his father, it was far too little for his needs – the stables alone cost £31,000 a year. He established his residence in Carlton House, where he lived a profligate life. Animosity developed between the prince and his father, who desired more frugal behaviour on the part of the heir apparent; the King, a political conservative, was alienated by the prince's adherence to Charles James Fox and other radically inclined politicians.
Soon after he reached the age of 21, the prince became infatuated with Maria Fitzherbert. She was a commoner, six years his elder, twice widowed, a Roman Catholic; the prince was determined to marry her. This was in spite of the Act of Settlement 1701, which barred the spouse of a Catholic from succeeding to the throne, the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which prohibited his marriage without the King's consent; the couple went through a marriage ceremony on 15 December 1785 at her house in Park Street, Mayfair. The union was void, as the King's consent was not granted. However, Fitzherbert believed that she was the prince's canonical and true wife, holding the law of the Church to be superior to the law of the State. For political reasons, the union remained secret and Fitzherbert promised not to reveal it; the prince was plunged into debt by his exorbitant lifestyle. His father refused to assist him, forcing him to quit Carlton House and live at Fitzherbert's residence. In 1787, the prince's political allies proposed to relieve his debts with a parliamentary grant.
The prince's relationship with Fitzherbert was suspected, revelation of the illegal marriage would have scandalised the nation and doomed any parliamentary proposal to aid him. Acting on the prince's authority, the Whig leader Charles James Fox declared that the story was a calumny. Fitzherbert was not pleased with the public denial of the marriage in such vehement terms and contemplated severing her ties to the prince, he appeased her by asking another Whig, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, to restate Fox's forceful declaration in more careful words. Parliament, granted the prince £161,000 to pay his debts and £60,000 for improvements to Carlton House. In the summer of 1788 the King's mental health deteriorated as the result of the hereditary disease porphyria, he was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament prorogued from 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation he became deranged, posing a threat to his own life, when Parliament reconvened in November the King could not deliver th
Robert Grosvenor, 1st Baron Ebury
Robert Grosvenor, 1st Baron Ebury PC, styled Lord Robert Grosvenor from 1831 to 1857, was a British courtier and Whig politician. He served as Comptroller of the Household between 1830 and 1834 and as Treasurer of the Household between 1846 and 1847. In 1857 he was ennobled as Baron Ebury. Grosvenor was the third son of Robert Grosvenor, 1st Marquess of Westminster and his wife Eleanora, daughter of Thomas Egerton, 1st Earl of Wilton, he was the younger brother of Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster and Thomas Grosvenor Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton, who had succeeded their maternal grandfather in the earldom of Wilton 1814, while Hugh Lupus Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster and Richard Grosvenor, 1st Baron Stalbridge were his nephews. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. In 1821 Grosvenor was returned to Parliament for Shaftesbury, a seat he held until 1826, sat for Chester until 1847; when the Whigs came to power in November 1830 under Lord Grey, Grosvenor was appointed Comptroller of the Household and admitted to the Privy Council.
He retained this office when Lord Melbourne became Prime Minister in July 1834. The Whig government fell in November the same year. Grosvenor did not serve in Melbourne's second administration which lasted from 1835 to 1841. However, when the Whigs returned to office in 1846 under Lord John Russell he was made Treasurer of the Household, which he remained until his resignation in July 1847; the latter year Grosvenor was returned to Parliament for Middlesex, a seat he held until 1857. However, he never returned to office. In September 1857 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Ebury, of Ebury Manor in the County of Middlesex. Apart from his political career Lord Ebury was an active campaigner for Protestantism in the Church of England, was the founder and President of the society for the "revision of the prayer-book", he was involved in the movement led by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury for the improvement of factory working hours. In life he came to oppose William Ewart Gladstone on the issue of Irish Home Rule.
In September 1893, at the age of 92, Lord Ebury voted against the Second Home Rule Bill, by far the oldest peer to vote in the matter. Lord Ebury was a fervent supporter of Homeopathy, the medical doctrine introduced by the German physician Samuel Hahnemann, he was a patron of both Dr Curie's short-lived Homoeopathic Hospital in Bloomsbury Square and Dr Quin's London Homoeopathic Hospital. Lord Ebury served as Chairman and President of the London Homoeopathic Hospital from its foundation in 1849 and during that time defended the practice and the institution against its opponents in Parliament. In 1860 Lord Ebury led a business venture with the Great Western Railway to build a 13-kilometre railway from Watford, near his mansion at Moor Park, to Uxbridge in Buckinghamshire; the scheme failed and the line, the Watford and Rickmansworth Railway, only reached as far as Rickmansworth, 7.2 kilometres south of Watford. The railway never operated at a profit and closed in 1952, but has since been converted into a cycle path which bears his name, the Ebury Way.
Lord Ebury married the Honourable Charlotte Arbuthnot Wellesley, eldest daughter of Henry Wellesley, 1st Baron Cowley, in 1831. They had two daughters. One of the sons, the Honourable Norman Grosvenor, represented Chester in Parliament. Lord Ebury died in November 1893, aged 92, was succeeded in the barony by his eldest son Robert. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Robert Grosvenor, 1st Baron Ebury