Rawhide (TV series)
Rawhide is an American Western TV series starring Eric Fleming and Clint Eastwood. The show aired for eight seasons on the CBS network on Friday nights, from January 9, 1959, to September 3, 1965, before moving to Tuesday nights from September 14, 1965, until January 4, 1966, with a total of 217 black-and-white episodes; the series was produced and sometimes directed by Charles Marquis Warren, who produced early episodes of Gunsmoke. Spanning seven and a half years, Rawhide was the sixth-longest-running American television Western, exceeded only by eight years of Wagon Train, nine years of The Virginian, fourteen years of Bonanza, eighteen years of Death Valley Days, twenty years of Gunsmoke. Set in the 1860s, Rawhide portrays the challenges faced by the drovers of a cattle drive. Most episodes are introduced with a monologue by trail boss. In a typical Rawhide story, the drovers come upon people on the trail and are drawn into solving whatever problem they present or confront. Sometimes, one or more of the crew venture into a nearby town and encounter some trouble from which they need to be rescued.
Rowdy Yates was young and at times impetuous in the earliest episodes, Favor had to keep a tight rein on him. Favor is a savvy and strong leader who always plays "square" with his fellow men - a tough customer who can handle the challenges and get the job done. Although Favor had the respect and loyalty of the men who worked for him, the people, including Yates, are insubordinate to him a few times, after working too hard or after receiving a tongue lashing. Favor has to fight at times and wins; some Rawhide stories were easy in production terms, but the peak form of the show was convincing and naturalistic, sometimes brutal. Its story lines ranged from parched plains to anthrax, ghostly riders to wolves, cattle raiding, bandits and others. A frequent story line was the constant need to find water for the cattle; the scout spent much of his time looking for water, sometimes finding that water holes and rivers had dried up. In some ways, the show was similar to the TV series Wagon Train, which had debuted on NBC on September 18, 1957.
Rawhide dealt with controversial topics. Robert Culp played an ex-soldier on the drive. Mexican drover Jesús faced racism at times. Several shows deal with the aftermath of the American Civil War; the "Poco Tiempo" episode reveals that Yates' father's name was Dan, that Yates' came from Southwestern Texas, that he joined the Confederate States Army at 16, that he was held in a federal prison camp. Favor served in the CSA as a captain. "Incident on the Edge of Madness" in season one, guest-starring Lon Chaney Jr. had Favor's old commanding officer attempting to enlist the aid of Favor and his men to start the "New Confederacy of Panama" much to Favor's dismay. In that same episode Favor and Nolan were revealed to have been in the Confederate forces up on Marye's Heights at the Battle of Fredericksburg, they "felt shamed" at killing so many Union soldiers; some American Indians demanded cattle as payment for going through their land. Rough characters were in the shows, in one episode Gil Favor is tortured by having his face held near a fire.
In "Incident of the Town in Terror," people think that a sick Yates has "the plague" and they enforce by gunpoint a quarantine of the cattle drovers outside the town. Cattle rustlers were around, including Commancheros. On occasions, Rawhide was eerily atmospheric. "Incident with an Executioner" featured a mysterious dark rider seen on the hillside following the herd, "Incident of the Haunted Hills" featured a sacred Indian burial ground, "Incident of the Druid Curse" and season two's "Incident of the Murder Steer". The series featured episodes with ghost towns, cattle with horns lit up by St. Elmo's fire at dusk, cowboys struck by lightning, plus a strange enclosed gypsy wagon steering itself turning up, all stand out as curiously "spooky" tales for a bustling dusty cattle drive. In episode 67, "Incident Near the Promised Land", the cattle drive reached Sedalia for the first time in the series. Unusually, episode 68 continues on from that, where the cattle have been sold and the men celebrate in town and decide on their futures with Favor thinking of leaving the business.
Instead of the usual ending, wherein Favor gives the command "Head'em up! Move'em out!" and the cattle move off, this episode had the end titles over a view of a Sedalia street. Episode 69 has Favor visiting his two daughters and Maggie, who live with their aunt Eleanor Bradley in Philadelphia. In episode 70, a number of the men are back together and heading back to San Antonio about 650 miles away, with a herd of horses instead of cattle. Episode 71 has a new cattle drive ready to go, but the owner of 1600 of the cattle wants to be in charge, so Favor reluctantly signs on as a ramrod, but after problems, Favor becomes boss again at the end of the show; these five episodes made up one storyline instead of the usual single-episode stories which could have been set anywhere in the West. Favor had many bad moments in the series, but none worse than the "Lost
Valley of the Dolls (film)
Valley of the Dolls is a 1967 American drama film directed by Mark Robson, produced by Robson and David Weisbart, starring Barbara Parkins, Patty Duke, Sharon Tate, Susan Hayward. It was based on the 1966 novel of the same name by Jacqueline Susann. Three young women meet. Neely O'Hara is a plucky kid with undeniable talent who sings in a Broadway show, of which legendary actress Helen Lawson is the arrogant star, while Jennifer North, a beauty with limited talent, is in the chorus. Anne Welles is a New England ingenue who has arrived in New York City and works as a secretary for a theatrical agency that represents Lawson, she proves her worth to her boss, Henry Bellamy, Miss Steinberg, excels in her job. Neely and Anne become fast friends, sharing the bonds of ambition and the tendency to fall in love with the wrong men. Neely is fired from the show. Assisted by Lyon Burke, an attorney from Anne's theatrical agency, Neely makes an appearance on a telethon and is hired as a nightclub act, she moves to Hollywood to pursue a lucrative film career.
After achieving stardom, Neely not only displays the egotistical behavior of Lawson, she falls victim to the eponymous "dolls". She betrays Mel Anderson, by having an affair with fashion designer Ted Casablanca, her career is shattered by her erratic behavior due to drug abuse, she is committed to a sanitarium for drug rehabilitation. Jennifer follows Neely's path to Hollywood, where she marries nightclub singer Tony Polar and becomes pregnant; when she learns that he has the hereditary condition Huntington's chorea—a fact his domineering half-sister and manager Miriam had been concealing—Jennifer has an abortion. As Tony's mental and physical health declines and Miriam check him into the same sanitarium as Neely. Faced with Tony's mounting medical expenses, Jennifer finds herself working in French "art films" to pay the bills. Anne's natural beauty lands her a profitable job promoting a line of cosmetics in TV commercials and print ads, with Henry managing her; the company is owned by one Kevin Gillmore, who falls in love with her.
However, they amicably break it off. She falls under the allure of drugs to escape her doomed relationship with cad Lyon, who has an affair with her erstwhile friend and becomes her manager. Neely, committed to the same institution as Tony to recover from her addictions, meets him there, they sing a duet at one of the sanitarium's weekly parties. Neely is released and given a chance to rebuild her career, but the lure of drugs and alcohol proves too strong and she spirals into a hellish decline. Brazenly ignoring Lyon's orders, she goes to a press party for her long-time arch-rival, Helen Lawson, they proceed to get into a catfight in the ladies' room, where Neely throws her wig into the commode. On, Neely becomes more arrogant, throwing weight around that she doesn't have, viciously insulting Lyon which leads him to resign from representing her, she is removed from the show for her understudy. She goes to a bar across the street and gets more high, she is seen outside of the stage door of her theater as she hits complete rock bottom, screaming into the empty alley where nobody hears her or helps her.
Meanwhile, Jennifer needs a mastectomy. She phones her mother, seeking moral support, but her mother is only concerned with the reaction from her friends to Jennifer's "art films." Believing her body to be her only form of currency, insisting to Anne that "all I know how to do is take off my clothes," Jennifer commits suicide by drug overdose.. Anne abandons drugs and her unfaithful lover and takes a train returning to New England, where her aunt Amy lives, she finds she is happier, she moves back in with her aunt and with the money she accrued over the years, helps her with the house and finances. Lyon travels to New England to ask Anne to marry him, she declines his offer. The ending to the film was changed from the novel. In the film and Lyon never marry and do not have a child together. Rather, she leaves Lyon and returns to Lawrenceville, described as the one place she found real happiness. Lyon visits her to propose but she refuses; these last-minute changes in the script, so out of keeping with Anne's established character, prompted original screenwriter Harlan Ellison, who wanted to keep the original downbeat ending, to remove his name and credit from the film.
Another important difference is that the film is set in the mid-to-late 1960s and the events unfold over the course of a few years, whereas in the book the story begins in 1945 and develops throughout two decades. Judy Garland was cast as Helen Lawson, but was fired when she came to work drunk. On July 20, 2009, Patty Duke told an audience at a screening of the film at the Castro Theater in San Francisco that director Mark Robson made Garland wait from 8:00 am to 4:00 pm before filming her scenes for the day, knowing that Garland would be upset and drunk by that ti
The Invisible Boy
The Invisible Boy is a 1957 black and white American science fiction film from Metro-Goldwyn Mayer, produced by Nicholas Nayfack, directed by Herman Hoffman, starring Richard Eyer and Philip Abbott. It is the second film appearance of Robby the Robot, the science fiction character who "stole the show" in Forbidden Planet released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. According to an implied, subtle back story in The Invisible Boy, the robot is the same character as that in Forbidden Planet, set in the 23rd century; the Invisible Boy is a mixture of menacing evil. In 1957, ten-year-old Timmie Merinoe seems only to want a playmate. After he is mysteriously invested with superior intelligence, he reassembles a robot that his father and other scientists had been ready to discard as unrepairable junk. No one pays much attention to the robot, named Robby, after Timmie gets it operating again, until Timmie's mother becomes angry when her son is taken aloft by a huge powered kite that Robby has built at Timmie's urging.
When Timmie expresses a wish to be able to play without being observed by his parents, with the aid of a supercomputer, makes him invisible. At first Timmie uses his invisibility to play simple pranks on his parents and others, but the mood soon changes, when it becomes clear that the supercomputer is evil and intends to take over the world using a military satellite; the Supercomputer takes Timmie captive aboard the rocket, the army tries to stop Robbie, but all of their artilleries and weapons have no affect on him. Robbie boards the ship, but rather frees Timmie than listening to the supercomputer. Dr. Merrioe tells Timmie and Robbie to remain onboard the ship as it enough supplies for him to last a year, but insteads goes to earth. Timmie and Dr. Merione return to the lab to shut down the supercomputer. Robbie shows up, but turns against the supercomputer and destroys its power source. Everything is back to normal we find the Merinoes having a peaceful evening, Dr. Merinoe is about to whip Timmie as punishment for ignoring him.
He is however stop Robbie, the film ends with shot of the Merinoes and Robbie all having a peaceful evening together. Richard Eyer as Timmie Merrinoe Philip Abbott as Dr. Tom Merrinoe Diane Brewster as Mary Merrinoe Harold J. Stone as Gen. Swayne Robert H. Harris as Prof. Frank Allerton Dennis McCarthy as Col. Macklin Alexander Lockwood as Arthur Kelvaney John O'Malley as Prof. Baine Robby the Robot as Robby Gage Clarke as Dr. Bannerman Than Wyenn as Prof. Zeller Jefferson Searles as Prof. Foster Alfred Linder as Martin / Computer Ralph Votrian as 1st Gate Sergeant Michael Miller as 2nd Gate Sergeant According to MGM records, the film earned $390,000 in the US and Canada and $450,000 elsewhere, for a total of $840,000. With a budget of $384,000 this resulted in a profit of $456,000; the entire feature film appears as an extra on the Forbidden Planet 50th Anniversary DVD released in 2006 and on the Blu-ray released in 2010. On the Blu-ray, the film is in standard definition. Eder, Bruce. "The Invisible Boy".
Allmovie by Rovi. But in its own low-budget way, it is a fascinating pop-culture artifact of its time, and it is a lot of fun, just as a notion for a science fiction/adventure film, with a dark side to the serious component of the plot. Schwartz, Dennis. "The Invisible Boy". Ozus' World. Adults as well as children should be entertained by this sci-fier that succeeds without much technological gadgetry, instead relying on its charm; the Invisible Boy on IMDb The Invisible Boy at AllMovie The Invisible Boy at the TCM Movie Database The Invisible Boy at the American Film Institute Catalog
Ben Casey is an American medical drama series that aired on ABC from 1961 to 1966. The show was known for its opening titles, which consisted of a hand drawing the symbols "♂, ♀, ✳, †, ∞" on a chalkboard, as cast member Sam Jaffe uttered, "Man, birth, infinity." Neurosurgeon Joseph Ransohoff served as a medical consultant for the show. The series stars Vince Edwards as medical doctor Ben Casey, the young, intense but idealistic neurosurgeon at County General Hospital, his mentor is chief of neurosurgery Doctor David Zorba, played by Sam Jaffe, who, in the pilot episode, tells a colleague that Casey is "the best chief resident this place has known in 20 years." In its first season, the series and Vince Edwards were nominated for Emmy awards. Additional nominations at the 14th Primetime Emmy Awards on May 22, 1962, went to Sam Jaffe, Jeanne Cooper, Joan Hackett; the show began running multi-episode stories, starting with the first five episodes of season four. At the beginning of season five, Jaffe left the show and Franchot Tone replaced Zorba as new chief of neurosurgery, Doctor Daniel Niles Freeland.
Vince Edwards as Dr. Ben Casey Sam Jaffe as Dr. David Zorba Harry Landers as Dr. Ted Hoffman Bettye Ackerman as Dr. Maggie Graham Nick Dennis as Orderly Nick Kanavaras Jeanne Bates as Nurse Wills Franchot Tone as Dr. Daniel Niles Freeland Creator James E. Moser based the character of Ben Casey on Dr. Allan Max Warner, a neurosurgeon whom Moser met while researching Ben Casey. Warner served as the program's original technical advisor in 1961, he worked with the actors, showing them how to handle medical instruments, according to an article in TV Guide. Ben Casey had several directors, including Sydney Pollack, its theme music was written by David Raksin. Filmed at the Desilu Studios, the series was produced by Bing Crosby Productions. Vince Edwards appeared on the television series Breaking Point as Ben Casey; the episode was "Solo for B-Flat Clarinet" and debuted 16 September 1963. Both Ben Casey and Breaking Point were produced by Bing Crosby Productions. Members of Breaking Point had guest roles on Ben Casey.
Original runThe. Monday at 10–11 p.m. on ABC: October 2, 1961 — May 13, 1963. In the 1962–1963 season, it swamped Loretta Young's return to weekly television in her family sitcom The New Loretta Young Show on CBS. In 1963, it moved to Wednesdays as the preceding program for ABC's drama about college life, Channing. However, due to the combination of CBS' The Beverly Hillbillies and The Dick Van Dyke Show, Ben Casey returned to its original Monday-night time slot in the fall of 1964, remaining there until its cancellation in March 1966. Daytime repeats of the series aired on ABC's weekday schedule from 1965 through 1967. Nielsen ratingsNOTE: The highest average rating for the series is in bold text. Both a comic strip and a comic book were based on the television series; the strip was drawn by Neal Adams. The daily comic strip began on November 26, 1962, the Sunday strip debuted on September 20, 1964. Both ended on July 31, 1966; the daily strip was reprinted in The Menomonee Falls Gazette. The comic book was published by Dell Comics for 10 issues from 1962 to 1964.
All had photo covers, except for that of the final issue, drawn by John Tartaglione. From 1962 through 1963, the paperback publisher Lancer Books issued four original novels based on the series, they were Ben Casey by William Johnston, A Rage for Justice by Norman Daniels, The Strength of His Hands by Sam Elkin, The Fire Within, again by Daniels, small-print standard mass-market size paperbacks of 128 or 144 pages each. The covers of the books featured photographs of Edwards as Casey, or in the case of the last novel, a drawing of a doctor with Edwards' appearance. In 1988, the made-for-TV-movie The Return of Ben Casey, with Vince Edwards reprising his role as Casey, aired in syndication. Harry Landers was the only other original cast member; the film was directed by Joseph L. Scanlan; the pilot was not picked up by the major networks to bring the series back. In 1962, the series inspired a semicomic rock song, "Callin' Dr. Casey", written and performed by songwriter John D. Loudermilk. In the song, Loudermilk refers to the TV doctor's wide-ranging medical abilities and asks whether Casey has any cure for heartbreak.
The song reached number 83 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. During the Vietnam War, the term "Ben Casey" was used by American troops as slang for a medic; the long-running Cleveland, late-night movie program The Hoolihan and Big Chuck Show and its successor program, The Big Chuck and Lil' John Show aired comedy skits under the title "Ben Crazy" that parodied Ben Casey. The skits opened with a spoof of the chalkboard sequence, adding one more symbol at the end — a dollar sign, accompanied by a laugh track. "Big Chuck" Schodowski, one of the hosts of the show, said that the skits continued to air for so many years after the 1966 cancellation of Ben Casey that younger viewers did not recognize the opening, that real-life doctors would send in ideas for skits, some
Perry Mason (TV series)
Perry Mason is an American legal drama series broadcast on CBS television from September 21, 1957, to May 22, 1966. The title character, portrayed by Raymond Burr, is a fictional Los Angeles criminal-defense lawyer who appeared in detective fiction by Erle Stanley Gardner. Many episodes are based on stories written by Gardner. Perry Mason was Hollywood's first weekly one-hour series filmed for television, remains one of the longest-running and most successful legal-themed television series. During its first season, it received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination as Best Dramatic Series, it became one of the five most popular shows on television. Raymond Burr received two Emmy Awards for Outstanding Lead Actor, Barbara Hale received an Emmy Award for her portrayal of Mason's confidential secretary Della Street. Perry Mason and Burr were honored as Favorite Series and Favorite Male Performer in the first two TV Guide Award readers' polls. In 1960, the series received the first Silver Gavel Award presented for television drama by the American Bar Association.
Perry Mason has aired in syndication in the United States and internationally since its cancellation, the complete series has been released on Region 1 DVD. A 2014 study found that Netflix users rate Raymond Burr as their favorite actor, with Barbara Hale number seven on the list; the New Perry Mason, a 1973 revival of the series with a different cast, was poorly received and ran for 15 episodes. In 1985, the first in a successful series of 30 Perry Mason television films aired on NBC, with Burr reprising the role of Mason in 26 of them before his death in 1993. In August 2016, HBO announced plans to make a new series. Perry Mason is a distinguished criminal defense lawyer practicing in Los Angeles, most of whose clients have been charged with murder; each episode follows a formula. The first half of the show introduces a prospective murder victim and a series of persons involved with the victim who, through word or deed, reveal themselves as the perpetrator of the crime. Once the crime has been committed, his private investigator Paul Drake, his secretary Della Street have some adversarial dealings with the homicide detective, who arrests the wrong suspect, Mason's legal nemesis, Los Angeles district attorney Hamilton Burger, who prosecutes an innocent suspect, until Mason's client is charged with murder based on the circumstantial evidence.
In the second half, Mason spars with Burger in the courtroom, either during the trial or the preliminary hearing, in which the district attorney is required to produce just enough evidence to convince the judge that the defendant should be bound over for trial. As the courtroom proceedings advance, Mason finds the case going against him, so that outside the courtroom either Mason himself or Paul and Della pursue further leads; as the investigation or examination progresses and sometimes Burger will uncover the morally ugly or illegal conduct of some of the witnesses or participants, thus complicating the moral and legal intrigue of the case. Some detail uncovered or remark made inside or outside the courtroom gives Mason the clue he needs to enter into the line of questioning that causes the surprise perpetrator, whether on the stand or not, to break down and confess to the crime and admit to the appalling truth of their motive. In the closing scene or epilogue and Della, sometimes Burger and Tragg, will ask Mason what gave him the clue he needed.
The show never discloses the amount of money spent by the innocent suspect to Mason after being falsely accused by the police and being falsely prosecuted by the District Attorney. Perry Mason – defense attorney Della Street – Mason's confidential secretary Paul Drake – private investigator Hamilton Burger – District Attorney Lieutenant Arthur Tragg – a police homicide detective and lead police official on the series, who appeared from the beginning of the series until midway through the 1963-64 season after appearing less from early in the 1961-62 season.. Lieutenant Anderson – another police homicide detective and lead police official on the series. Known as Andy to his friends, he started appearing in the fall of 1961 when Ray Collins began to reduce his participation in the show due to illness, became more prominent.. Lieutenant Steve Drumm – another police homicide detective and lead police official on the series, who appeared in the final season. Recurring smaller rolesDr. Hoxie – autopsy surgeon played by Michael Fox.
Seen in seasons 1 through 7. Fox played other small roles in season 9. Sgt. Brice – a police officer, played by Lee Miller, who accompanies Tragg, Anderson or Drumm. Seen throughout the series run. Miller played other bit roles in seasons 1 and 2. Terrance Clay – owner of the upscale "Clay's Grill" where Perry, Della gather in the final season during the story's epilogue. Played by Dan Tobin. Gertrude "Gertie" Lade – Mason's mentioned but seen receptionist, played by Connie Cezon. Seen in seasons 1 and 2, with one appearance in season 4, four consecutive episodes in season 7. Court clerk – seen, but heard from, during courtroom procedures. Seen in seasons 2 through 6, played by George
The Man from U.N.C.L.E.
The Man from U. N. C. L. E. is an American spy-fiction television series produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Television and first broadcast on NBC. It follows secret agents, played by Robert Vaughn and David McCallum, who work for a secret international counterespionage and law-enforcement agency called U. N. C. L. E; the series premiered on September 22, 1964, completing its run on January 15, 1968. The series led the spy-fiction craze on television, by 1966 there were nearly a dozen imitators. Several episodes were released to theaters as B movies or double features. There was a spin-off series, The Girl from U. N. C. L. E. Novel and comic book series, merchandising. With few recurring characters, the series attracted a large number of high-profile guest stars. Props from the series are exhibited at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and at the museums of the Central Intelligence Agency and other US intelligence agencies; the series won the Golden Globe Award for Best TV Show in 1966. Co-creator Sam Rolfe wanted to leave the meaning of U.
N. C. L. E. Ambiguous so it could refer to the United Nations. Concerns by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's legal department about using "U. N." for commercial purposes resulted in the producers' clarification that U. N. C. L. E. was an acronym for the United Network Command for Enforcement. Each episode had an "acknowledgement" to the U. N. C. L. E. in the end titles. The series consists of 105 episodes broadcast between 1964 and 1968, it was produced by Arena productions. The first season was produced in white, it was introduced September 22, 1964, as part of the Tuesday night lineup, but moved to Monday nights, an half hour earlier, the following January. Ian Fleming contributed to the concepts after being approached by the show's co-creator, Norman Felton; the book The James Bond Films says Fleming proposed Napoleon Solo and April Dancer. The original name was Ian Fleming's Solo. Robert Towne, Sherman Yellen, Harlan Ellison wrote scripts for the series. Author Michael Avallone, who wrote the first original novelisation based upon the series, is sometimes incorrectly cited as the show's creator.
Solo was supposed to have been the focus, but a scene featuring a Russian agent named Illya Kuryakin drew enthusiasm from the fans and the agents were paired. The series centered on a two-man troubleshooting team working for multi-national secret intelligence agency U. N. C. L. E.: American Napoleon Solo, Russian Illya Kuryakin. Leo G. Carroll played an English head of the organization. Barbara Moore joined the cast as Lisa Rogers in the fourth season; the series, though fictional, achieved such cultural prominence that props and documents, a video clip are in the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library's exhibit on spies and counterspies. Similar U. N. C. L. E. Exhibits are in the museums of other US intelligence agencies. U. N. C. L. E.'s primary adversary was THRUSH. The original series never divulged who or what THRUSH represented, nor was it used as an acronym. In the U. N. C. L. E. Novels written by David McDaniel it is the Technological Hierarchy for the Removal of Undesirables and the Subjugation of Humanity, described as having been founded by Col. Sebastian Moran after the death of Professor Moriarty at the Reichenbach Falls in the Sherlock Holmes story "The Final Problem".
But in a second season episode, guest star Jessie Royce Landis plays a character who claims that she founded THRUSH. THRUSH's aim was to conquer the world. THRUSH was considered so dangerous an organization that governments who were ideologically opposed to each other – such as the United States and the Soviet Union – had cooperated in forming and operating the U. N. C. L. E. Organization; when Solo and Kuryakin held opposing political views, the friction between them in the story was held to a minimum. Although executive producer Norman Felton and Ian Fleming conceived Napoleon Solo, it was the producer Sam Rolfe who created the global U. N. C. L. E. Hierarchy, he included the Soviet agent, Illya Kuryakin. Unlike the CIA or MI6, U. N. C. L. E. was a global organization of agents from many cultures. The creators decided an innocent character would be featured in each episode, giving the audience someone with whom to identify. Despite many changes over four seasons, "innocents" remained a constant – from a suburban housewife in the pilot, "The Vulcan Affair", to those kidnapped in the final episode, "The Seven Wonders of the World Affair."
Filmed in color from late November to early December 1963, with locations at a Lever Brothers soap factory in California, the television pilot made as a 70-minute film was titled Ian Fleming's Solo and shortened to Solo. However, in February 1964 a law firm representing James Bond movie producers Harry Saltzman and Albert R. Broccoli demanded an end to the use of Fleming's name in connection with the series and an end to use of the name and character "Solo", "Napoleon Solo" and "Mr. Solo". At that time filming was underway for the Bond movie Goldfinger, in which Martin Benson was playing a supporting character named "Mr. Solo"; the claim was the name "Solo" had been sold to them by Fleming, Fleming could not again use it. Within five days Fleming had signed an affidavit that nothing in the Solo pilot infringed any of his Bond characters, but the threat of legal action resulted in a settlement in which the name Napoleon Solo could be kept but the title of the show had to change; the role of the head of U.
N. C. L. E. I
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m