A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died. The treatment of widows and widowers around the world varies. A widow is a woman; the state of having lost one's spouse to death is termed widowhood. These terms are not applied to a divorcé following the death of an ex-spouse; the term widowhood can be used for either sex, at least according to some dictionaries, but the word widowerhood is listed in some dictionaries. The word viduity is used; the adjective for either sex is widowed. In societies where the husband is the sole provider, his death can leave his family destitute; the tendency for women to outlive men can compound this, as can men in many societies marrying women younger than themselves. In some patriarchal societies, widows may maintain economic independence. A woman would carry on her spouse's business and be accorded certain rights, such as entering guilds. More widows of political figures have been among the first women elected to high office in many countries, such as Corazón Aquino or Isabel Martínez de Perón.
In 19th-century Britain, widows had greater opportunity for social mobility than in many other societies. Along with the ability to ascend socio-economically, widows—who were "presumably celibate"—were much more able to challenge conventional sexual behaviour than married women in their society. In some parts of Europe, including Russia, Greece and Spain, widows used to wear black for the rest of their lives to signify their mourning, a practice that has since died out. Many immigrants from these cultures to the United States as as the 1970s have loosened this strict standard of dress to only two years of black garments. However, Orthodox Christian immigrants may wear lifelong black in the United States to signify their widowhood and devotion to their deceased husband. In other cultures, widowhood customs are stricter. Women are required to remarry within the family of their late husband after a period of mourning. With the rise of HIV/AIDS levels of infection across the globe, rituals to which women are subjected in order to be "cleansed" or accepted into her new husband's home make her susceptible to the psychological adversities that may be involved as well as imposing health risks.
It may be necessary for a woman to comply with the social customs of her area because her fiscal stature depends on it, but this custom is often abused by others as a way to keep money within the deceased spouse's family. It is uncommon for widows to challenge their treatment because they are "unaware of their rights under the modern law…because of their low status, lack of education or legal representation.". Unequal benefits and treatment received by widows compared to those received by widowers globally has spurred an interest in the issue by human rights activists; as of 2004, women in United States who were "widowed at younger ages are at greatest risk for economic hardship." Married women who are in a financially unstable household are more to become widows "because of the strong relationship between mortality and wealth." In underdeveloped and developing areas of the world, conditions for widows continue to be much more severe. However, the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, while slow, is working on proposals which will make certain types of discrimination and treatment of widows illegal in the countries that have joined CEDAW.
The phenomenon that refers to the increased mortality rate after the death of a spouse is called the widowhood effect.. It is “strongest during the first three months after a spouse's death, when they had a 66-percent increased chance of dying.” Most widows and widowers suffer from this effect during the first 3 months of their spouse's death, however they can suffer from this effect on in their life for much longer than 3 months. There remains controversy over whether women or men have worse effects from becoming widowed, studies have attempted to make their case for which side is worse off, while other studies try to show that there are no true differences based on gender and other factors are responsible for any differences. A recent study shows that holding post-materialist views provides greater levels of well-being in widowhood. "postmaterialist values not only lead to a new way of living for singles, but free singles from feeling judged in doing so, hence encourage them to adapt accordingly.
". Of all unmarried groups, widowed people benefit the most from these values. A variable, deemed important and relative to the effects of widowhood is the gender of the widow. Research has shown that the difference falls in the burden of care and how the react after the spouse's death. For example, women carry more a burden than men and are less willing to want to go through this again. After being widowed, however and women can react differently and have a change in lifestyle. A study has sought to show that women are more to yearn for their late husband if he were to be taken away suddenly. Men on the other hand tend to be more to long for their late wife if she were to die after suffering a long, terminal illness. Another change that happens to most men is. For example, without a wife there, he is more to not watch what he eats like he would if she were there. I
Norwich is a historic city in Norfolk, England. Situated on the River Wensum in East Anglia, it lies 100 miles north-east of London, it is the county town of Norfolk and is considered the capital of East Anglia, with a population of 141,300. From the Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, one of the most important; the city is the most complete medieval city in the UK, including cobbled streets such as Elm Hill, Timber Hill and Tombland, ancient buildings such as St Andrew's Hall, half-timbered houses such as Dragon Hall, The Guildhall and Strangers' Hall, the Art Nouveau of the 1899 Royal Arcade, many medieval lanes and the winding River Wensum that flows through the city centre towards Norwich Castle. The city has two universities, the University of East Anglia and the Norwich University of the Arts, two cathedrals, Norwich Cathedral and St John the Baptist Cathedral. Norwich is the only city containing part of a National Park, the Norfolk Broads, it holds the largest permanent undercover market in Europe.
The urban area of Norwich had a population of 213,166 according to the 2011 Census. The parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. A total of 132,512 people live in the City of Norwich and the population of the Norwich Travel to Work Area is 282,000. Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local-government district in the East of England, with 3,480 people per square kilometre. In May 2012, Norwich was designated England's first UNESCO City of Literature. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, it was voted by The Guardian in 2016 as the "happiest city to work in the UK" and in 2013 as one of the best small cities in the world by The Times Good University Guide. In 2018, Norwich was voted one of the "Best Places To Live" in the UK by The Sunday Times; the capital of the Iceni tribe was a settlement located near to the village of Caistor St. Edmund on the River Tas 8 kilometres to the south of modern-day Norwich. Following an uprising led by Boudica around AD 60 the Caistor area became the Roman capital of East Anglia named Venta Icenorum "the marketplace of the Iceni".
The Roman settlement fell into disuse around 450 and the Anglo-Saxons settled on the site of the modern city between the 5th and 7th centuries, founding the towns of Northwic and the secondary settlement at Thorpe. According to a local rhyme, the demise of Venta Icenorum led to the development of Norwich: "Caistor was a city when Norwich was none, Norwich was built of Caistor stone." There are two suggested models of development for Norwich. It is possible that three separate early Anglo-Saxon settlements, one on the north of the river and two either side on the south, joined together as they grew or that one Anglo-Saxon settlement, on the north of the river, emerged in the mid-7th century after the abandonment of the previous three; the ancient city was a thriving centre for trade and commerce in East Anglia in 1004 when it was raided and burnt by Swein Forkbeard the Viking king of Denmark. Mercian coins and shards of pottery from the Rhineland dating from the 8th century suggest that long-distance trade was happening long before this.
Between 924 and 939, Norwich became established as a town, with its own mint. The word Norvic appears on coins across Europe minted during this period, in the reign of King Athelstan; the Vikings were a strong cultural influence in Norwich for 40 to 50 years at the end of the 9th century, setting up an Anglo-Scandinavian district near the north end of present day King Street. At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England; the Domesday Book states that it had 25 churches and a population of between 5,000 and 10,000. It records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the Norman cathedral. Norwich continued to be a major centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth, which served as the port for Norwich. Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre; these date from the 11th century onwards.
Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest. The Domesday Book records; the Normans established a new focus of settlement around the Castle and the area to the west of it: this became known as the "New" or "French" borough, centred on the Normans' own market place which survives to the present day as Norwich Market. In 1096, Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of Thetford, began construction of Norwich Cathedral; the chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone. To transport the building stone to the site, a canal was cut from the river, all the way up to the east wall. Herbert de Losinga moved his See there to what became the cathedral church for the Diocese of Norwich; the Bishop of Norwich still signs himself Norvic. Norwich received a royal charter from Henry II in 1158, another one from Richard the Lionheart in 1194. Following a riot in the city in 1274, Norwich has the distinction of being the only complete English city to be excommunicated by the Pope; the first recorded presence of Jews in Norwich is 1134.
In 1144, the Jews of Norwich were accused of ritual murder after a boy was found dead with stab wounds. William acquired the status of martyr
A benefice or living is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services. The Roman Empire used the Latin term beneficium as a benefit to an individual from the Empire for services rendered, its use was adopted by the Western Church in the Carolingian Era as a benefit bestowed by the crown or church officials. A benefice from a church is called a precaria such as a stipend and one from a monarch or nobleman is called a fief. A benefice is distinct from an allod, in that an allod is property owned outright, not bestowed by a higher authority. In ancient Rome a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward for services rendered to the state; the word comes from the Latin noun beneficium, meaning "benefit". In the 8th century, using their position as Mayor of the Palace, Charles Martel, Carloman I and Pepin II usurped a large number of church benefices for distribution to vassals, Carolingians continued this practice as emperors; these estates were held in return for oaths of military assistance, which aided the Carolingians in consolidating and strengthening their power.
Charlemagne continued the late Roman concept of granting benefices in return for military and administrative service to his empire. Thus, the imperial structure was bound together through a series of oaths between the monarch and the recipient of land, he ordered and administered his kingdom and his empire through a series of published statutes called capitularies. The Capitulary of Herstal distinguished between his vassals who were styled casati and non-casati, those subjects who had received a benefice from the hand of the king and those who had not, towards the end of Charlemagne's reign it appears that a royal vassal who had satisfactorily fulfilled his duties could always look forward to the grant of a benefice in some part of the Empire. Once he had received a benefice, he would take up his residence on it. In the year 800 Pope Leo III placed the crown of Holy Roman Emperor on the head of Charlemagne; this act caused great turmoil for future generations, who would afterward argue that the emperor thereby received his position as a benefice from the papacy.
In his March 1075 Dictatus Papae, Pope Gregory VII declared that only the pope could depose an emperor, which implied that he could do so just as a lord might take a benefice away from a vassal. This declaration inflamed Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and furthered the friction caused in the Investiture Conflict; the expanded practice continued through the Middle Ages within the European feudal system. This same customary method became adopted by the Catholic Church; the church's revenue streams came from, amongst other things and profits arising from assets gifted to the church, its endowment, given by believers, be they monarch, lord of the manor or vassal, also upon tithes calculated on the sale of the product of the people's personal labour in the entire parish such as cloth or shoes and the people's profits from specific forms of God-given, natural increase such as crops and in livestock. The Catholic Church granted buildings, grants of land and greater and/or lesser tithes for life but the land was not alienated from the dioceses.
However the Council of Lyons of 566 annexed these grants to the churches. By the time of the Council of Mainz of 813 these grants were known as beneficia. Holding a benefice did not imply a cure of souls although each benefice had a number of spiritual duties attached to it. For providing these duties, a priest would receive "temporalities". Benefices were used for the worldly support of much of its pastoral clergy – clergy gaining rewards for carrying out their duties with rights to certain revenues, the "fruits of their office"; the original donor of the temporalities or his nominee, the patron and his successors in title, held the advowson. Parish priests were charged with the temporal care of their congregation; the community provided for the priest as necessary as organisation improved, by tithe. Some individual institutions within the church accumulated enormous endowments and, with that, temporal power; these endowments sometimes concentrated great wealth in the "dead hand" of the church, so called because it endured beyond any individual's life.
The church was exempt from all taxes. This was in contrast to feudal practice where the nobility would hold land on grant from the king in return for service service in war; this meant that the church over time gained a large share of land in many feudal states and so was a cause of increasing tension between the church and the Crown. The holder of more than one benefice known as a pluralist, could keep the revenue to which he was entitled and pay lesser sums to deputies to carry out the corresponding duties. By a Decree of the Lateran Council of 1215 no clerk could hold two benefices with cure of souls, if a beneficed clerk took a second benefice with cure of souls, he vacated ipso facto his first benefice. Dispensations, could be obtained from Rome; the benefice system was open to abuse. Acquisitive prelates held multiple major benefices; the holding of more than one benefice is termed pluralism. An Engli
St Mary Bishophill Junior, York
St Mary Bishophill Junior, York is a Grade I listed parish church in the Church of England, in the Bishophill area of York. The church dates from the 10th century with the oldest part being the tower, which reuses some Roman stones, it was heightened in the 11th century before the Norman Conquest, the battlements were added around 1411. The 11th century nave has a 12th-century north north aisle; the chancel dates from the 13th century. The font and bells are Mediaeval; the church was restored between 1860 and 1861 by J. B. and W. Atkinson, described by the York Civic Trust as "poorly conceived"; the old pews were removed, the floor was concreted. The brick porch was removed, the wooden window taken out. A stone porch was erected and new windows added; the flat ceilings were removed to reveal the open timber roof. The chancel was renovated by architect of the commissioners; the pulpit and reredos were added by Temple Lushington Moore in 1889. The tower was restored in 1980; the church is in a joint parish with York.
The church contained an organ before 1860. During the 1860 restoration, this was turned into a Swell, a new Great manual of 7 stops was added. In 1921, F. D. Ward of Middlesbrough undertook renovation. After 1930, the 1870 organ by Forster and Andrews from the Church of St Mary Bishophill Senior was installed here; the current pipe organ dates from 1864 and was made by William Denman for the Spiritualist Church on Spen Lane, York. It moved to Freemasons’ Hall and in 1986 Principal Pipe Organs installed it here. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register
Wakefield is a cathedral city in West Yorkshire, England, on the River Calder and the eastern edge of the Pennines, which had a population of 99,251 at the 2011 census. The Battle of Wakefield took place in the Wars of the Roses and it was a Royalist stronghold in the Civil War. Wakefield became an important market town and centre for wool, exploiting its position on the navigable River Calder to become an inland port. In the 18th century, Wakefield traded in corn, coal mining and textiles and in 1888 its parish church acquired cathedral status, it became the county town of the West Riding of Yorkshire and was the seat of the West Riding County Council from 1889 until 1974, when the county and council were abolished, of the West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council from 1974 until its dissolution in 1986. The name "Wakefield" may derive from "Waca's field" – the open land belonging to someone named "Waca" or could have evolved from the Old English word wacu, meaning "a watch or wake", feld, an open field in which a wake or festival was held.
In the Domesday Book of 1086, it was written Wachefeld and as Wachefelt. Flint and stone tools and bronze and iron implements have been found at Lee Moor and Lupset in the Wakefield area showing evidence of human activity since prehistoric times; this part of Yorkshire was home to the Brigantes until the Roman occupation in AD 43. A Roman road from Pontefract passing Streethouse, Heath Common, Ossett Street Side, through Kirklees and on to Manchester crossed the River Calder by a ford at Wakefield near the site of Wakefield Bridge. Wakefield was settled by the Angles in the 5th or 6th century and after AD 876 the area was controlled by the Vikings who founded twelve hamlets or thorpes around Wakefield, they divided the area into wapentakes and Wakefield was part of the Wapentake of Agbrigg. The settlement grew near a crossing place on the River Calder around three roads, Westgate and Kirkgate; the "gate" suffix derives from Old Norse gata meaning road and kirk, from kirkja indicates there was a church.
Before 1066 the manor of Wakefield belonged to Edward the Confessor and it passed to William the Conqueror after the Battle of Hastings. After the Conquest Wakefield was a victim of the Harrying of the North in 1069 when William the Conqueror took revenge on the local population for resistance to Norman rule; the settlement was recorded as Wachfeld in the Domesday Book of 1086, covered a much greater area than present day Wakefield, much of, described as "waste". The manor was granted by the crown to William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey whose descendants, the Earls Warenne, inherited it after his death in 1088; the construction of Sandal Castle began early in the 12th century. A second castle was abandoned. Wakefield and its environs formed the caput of an extensive baronial holding by the Warennes that extended to Cheshire and Lancashire; the Warennes, their feudal sublords, held the area until the 14th century, when it passed to their heirs. Norman tenants holding land in the region included the Lyvet family at Lupset.
The Domesday Book recorded one in Wakefield and one in Sandal Magna. The Saxon church in Wakefield was rebuilt in about 1100 in stone in the Norman style and was continually enlarged until 1315 when the central tower collapsed. By 1420 the church was again rebuilt and was extended between 1458 and 1475. In 1203 William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey received a grant for a market in the town. In 1204 King John granted the rights for a fair at the feast of All Saints, 1 November, in 1258 Henry III granted the right for fair on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June; the market was close to the church. The townsfolk of Wakefield amused themselves in games and sports earning the title "Merrie Wakefield", the chief sport in the 14th century was archery and the butts in Wakefield were at the Ings, near the river. During the Wars of the Roses, Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York was killed on 30 December 1460 in the Battle of Wakefield near Sandal Castle; as preparation for the impending invasion by the Spanish Armada in April 1558, 400 men from the wapentake of Morley and Agbrigg were summoned to Bruntcliffe near Morley with their weapons.
Men from Kirkgate, Westgate and Sandal were amongst them and all returned by August. At the time of the Civil War, Wakefield was a Royalist stronghold. An attack led by Sir Thomas Fairfax on 20 May 1643 captured the town for the Parliamentarians. Over 1500 troops were taken prisoner along with Lieutenant-General Goring. In medieval times Wakefield became an inland port on the Calder and centre for the woollen and tanning trades. In 1699 an Act of Parliament was passed creating the Aire and Calder Navigation which provided the town with access to the North Sea; the first Registry of Deeds in the country opened in 1704 and in 1765 Wakefield's cattle market was established and became the one of largest in the north of England. The town was a centre for cloth dealing, with its own piece hall, the Tammy Hall, built in 1766. In the late 1700s Georgian town houses and St John's Church were built to the north of the town centre. Wakefield was dubbed the "Merrie City" in the Middle Ages and in 1538 John Leland described it as, "a quick market town and meately large.
A right honest man shall fare well for 2d. A meal.... There be plenti of se coal in the quarters about Wakefield". At the start of 19th century Wakefield was a wealthy market town and inland port trading in wool and grain; the Aire and Calder and Calder and Hebble Navigations and the Barnsley Canal were instrumental in the development of Wakefield as an
Northallerton is a market town and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England. It lies at the northern end of the Vale of York, it had a population of 15,741 according to the 2001 census, which had risen to 16,832 in 2011. It has served as the county town of the North Riding of Yorkshire and since 1974, of North Yorkshire. Northallerton is made up of four wards, Broomfield and Central. There has been a settlement at Northallerton since Roman times, however its growth in importance began in the 11th century when King William II gifted land to the Bishop of Durham. Under the Bishop's authority Northallerton became an important centre for religious affairs, it was a focus for much conflict in subsequent years between the English and the Scots, most notably the Battle of the Standard, nearby in 1138, which saw losses of as many as 12,000 men. In years trade and transport became more important; the surrounding area was discovered to have large phosphorus reserves which brought industry to Northallerton due to the easy trade routes.
Lying on the main route between Edinburgh and London it became an important stopping point for coaches travelling the route superseded by the growth of the railways in the 19th century. Lying in the centre of a large rural area Northallerton was established as a market town in 1200 by Royal Charter, there is still a market in the town today, it continues to be a major retail centre for the local area. As the administrative centre for Hambleton district and the county of North Yorkshire, the councils, several other associated public sector organisations have their headquarters in the town. Due to the proximity of the Roman road and relics it seems that the earliest settlement at Northallerton was some form of Roman military station. There is evidence that the Romans had a signal station on Castle Hills just to the west of the town as part of the imperial Roman postal system and a path connecting Hadrian's Wall with Eboracum ran through what is now the neighbouring village of Brompton; the first church was set up by St Paulinus of York on the site of the present All Saints Parish Church sometime in the early 7th century.
It was made from nothing survives of it. In 855 a stone church was built on the same site, fragments of stone have been found during restoration work which provide strong evidence of this Saxon church, it was believed that a Saxon town known as Alvertune developed. In Pierre de Langtoft's history of King Alfred he writes that in 865 it was the site of a number of battles between King Elfrid and his brother Alfred and five Danish kings and a similar number of earls. In the 10th century, Danes settled at Romanby and Brompton. A fine example of English stonecarving from the period, the Brompton Hogbacks, can be found in Brompton Parish Church. In the Domesday Survey, Norman scribes named the settlement Alvertune and Alretone and there is a reference to the Alvertune wapentac, an area identical to the Allertonshire wapentake of the North Riding, named after the town; the origin of the town's name is uncertain, though it is believed that the name derives from a derivation of the name Aelfere, Aelfereton translates as the farm belonging to Aelfere or of King Alfred.
Alternatively it may be referring to the Alder trees. The prefix of North was added in the 12th century to differentiate from the parish of Allerton Mauleverer, 25 miles to the south, its position on a major route way brought destruction to the town on many occasions. In 1069, in an attempt to quell rebellion in the north, the area between the Ouse and the Tyne was laid to waste by the armies of William the Conqueror; the town of Northallerton was totally destroyed or depopulated. Just a few years it is described in the Domesday Book as modo est in manu regis et wastum est. In 1318, the town was destroyed again by the Scots, under Sir James Douglas following the Capture of Berwick upon Tweed. On 22 August 1138, English forces repelled a Scottish army on Cowton Moor in Brompton parish, around 2 mi north of the town; this was the first major battle between the Scots and the English since the Norman conquest and one of the two major battles in the civil war between King Stephen and Empress Matilda.
The English forces were summoned by Archbishop Thurstan of York, who had gathered local militia and baronial armies from Yorkshire and the North Midlands. They arrayed themselves round a chariot with a ship's mast carrying the consecrated banners of St Peter of York, St John of Beverley, St Wilfrid of Ripon and St Cuthbert of Durham, it was this standard-bearing chariot that gave the battle its name; the Scottish army was led by King David I of Scotland. King David had entered England in support of his niece, Empress Matilda, viewed as the rightful heiress to the English throne usurped by King Stephen. With Stephen fighting rebel barons in the south, the Scottish armies had taken Cumberland and Northumberland, the city of Carlisle and the royal castle at Bamburgh. Finding the English in a defensive position on a hill, David elected to force a battle counting on his superior numbers, 16,000 Scots against 10,000 Englishmen. Repeated attacks by native Scots failed against the onslaught from the English archers, with losses of up to 12,000 Scots.
A subsequent attack by mounted knights met initial success but fell back due to lack of infantry support. The battle ended; the English elected not to pursue, despite their great losses the Scots were able to regroup in sufficient number to besiege and capture Wark Castle. The victory by the English ensured the safety of Nor
James Pigott Pritchett
James Pigott Pritchett was an architect of London and York whose practice stretched from Lincolnshire to the Scottish borders. Pritchett was born on 14 October 1789 to Charles Pigott Pritchett and Anne née Rogers, christened 4 January 1790 at St Petrox, Pembrokeshire, he lived for a time in London, around 1813 moved to York, where he is recorded as a Congregationalist deacon, together with William Ellerby, wrote A History of the Nonconformist Churches of York. He married Peggy Maria Terry on 22 December 1813 at Kent, they had a daughter. The eldest son, became a Congregationalist minister. Pritchett's second marriage was to Caroline Benson on 6 January 1829 at Lincolnshire, they had two daughters. His eldest son, James Pigott Pritchett junior, was trained by him as an architect and set up a practice in Darlington in 1854. Another son, John Benson Pritchett, became a surgeon, Pritchett died in York on 23 May 1868 and was buried in York Cemetery, whose buildings he had designed, on 27 May 1868, his nephew, George was an architect, active in Hertfordshire and Essex.
Pritchett's practice extended from Lincolnshire with offices in York. Known work includes: 1825 - Saltmarshe Hall, East Riding of Yorkshire 1828 - Facade of the York Assembly Rooms in Blake Street. 1829-30 - The Savings Bank, St Helen's Square, York 1834-5 - St Peter's Church, Huddersfield. 1836 - St John's Church Brearton. 1836-7 - York Cemetery, York. 1837 - Holy Trinity church Thorpe Hesley. 1838 - St James's Church Meltham Mills. 1839 - St Mary's Church Rawmarsh. C.1840 Gate Helmsley Lunatic Asylum. 1847-8 - Huddersfield railway station. 1851 - Ebenezer Chapel, York Other examples are said to be found in York Minster, Rawmarsh and Meltham Mills. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600-1840 by H. M. Colvin, New Haven & London 1995. A History of the Nonconformist Churches of York by William Ellerby and James Pigott Pritchett ed. from the original manuscript by Edward Royle, The Borthwick Institute for Archives, University of York