Richard II, Duke of Normandy
Richard II, called the Good, was the eldest son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora. He was a Norman nobleman of the House of Normandy, Richard succeeded his father as Duke of Normandy in 996. During his minority, the first five years of his reign, his regent was Count Rodulf of Ivry, his uncle, Richard had deep religious interests and found he had much in common with Robert II of France, who he helped militarily against the duchy of Burgundy. He forged an alliance with Brittany by marrying his sister Hawise to Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany and by his own marriage to Geoffreys sister. In 1000-1001, Richard repelled an English attack on the Cotentin Peninsula that was led by Ethelred II of England, Ethelred had given orders that Richard be captured and brought to England. But the English had not been prepared for the response of the Norman cavalry and were utterly defeated. Richard attempted to improve relations with England through his sister Emma of Normandys marriage to King Ethelred and this marriage was significant in that it gave his grandson, William the Conqueror, the basis of his claim to the throne of England.
The improved relations proved to be beneficial to Ethelred when in 1013 Sweyn Forkbeard invaded England, Emma with her two sons Edward and Alfred fled to Normandy followed shortly thereafter by her husband king Ethelred. Soon after the death of Ethelred, King of England forced Emma to marry him while Richard was forced to recognize the new regime as his sister was again Queen, Richard had contacts with Scandinavian Vikings throughout his reign. He employed Viking mercenaries and concluded a treaty with Sweyn Forkbeard who was en route to England, in 1025 and 1026 Richard confirmed gifts of his great-grandfather Rollo to Saint-Ouen at Rouen. His other numerous grants to monastic houses tends to indicate the areas over which Richard had ducal control, namely Caen, the Éverecin, the Cotentin, Richard II died 28 Aug 1026. His eldest son, Richard becoming the new Duke,1025, buried at Fécamp Abbey Eleanor, married to Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders Matilda, nun at Fecamp, d.1033. Secondly he married Poppa of Envermeu, by whom he had the issue, Archbishop of Rouen William
Normandy is one of the regions of France, roughly corresponding to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Administratively, Normandy is divided into five departments, Eure, Orne and it covers 30,627 km², forming roughly 5% of the territory of France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France, Normans is the name given to the inhabitants of Normandy, and the region is the homeland of the Norman language. The historical region of Normandy comprised the region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the départements, or departments of Mayenne. For a century and a following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman. Archaeological finds, such as paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC, when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the methods, Roman roads.
Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy, in the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates, Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east, while the Saxons subjugated the Norman coast, the Roman Emperor withdrew from most of Normandy. As early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis, the Vikings started to raid the Seine Valley during the middle of the 9th century. As early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, after attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagnes empire to take northern France. The fiefdom of Normandy was created for the Norwegian Viking leader Hrólfr Ragnvaldsson, Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte.
In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo legally gained the territory which he, the name Normandy reflects Rollos Viking origins. The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and they became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Saxons and indigenous Franks and Celts. Besides the Norman conquest of England and the subsequent conquests of Wales and Ireland, Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the Norman conquest of southern Italy and Crusades. They carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor, the 14th century Norman explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands
Alan III, Duke of Brittany
Alan III of Rennes was Count of Rennes and duke of Brittany, by right of succession from 1008 to his death. He was the son of Duke Geoffrey I and Hawise of Normandy, Alan succeeded his father as Duke of Brittany in 1008. Because he was still a minor at his fathers death, his mother acted as regent of Brittany while her brother Richard II, in 1018 Alan married Bertha of Blois, daughter of Odo II, Count of Blois and his second wife Ermengarde of Auvergne. When Richard III, Duke of Normandy died in August 1026, Alan apparently took advantage of the resulting turmoil to break free of Norman suzerainty. In the early 1030s Robert I successfully attacked Dol and Alans retaliatory raid on Avranches was repulsed causing continued raiding back and forth between them. When he left Normandy for the Holy Land Robert I, Duke of Normandy appointed his cousin, Alan III, to be a guardian of his young son William. In 1037 at the death of Robert, Archbishop of Rouen and they appointed Mauger to the now vacant see of Rouen and his brother William as count of Arques, attempting to gain their support for Duke William.
On 1 October 1040, while besieging a castle near Vimoutiers in Normandy. According to Orderic, he was poisoned by unnamed Normans, by Bertha of Blois, he had two children, Conan II, succeeded his father. Hawise of Brittany, who married Hoel of Cornouaille, after 14 May 1046 his widow Bertha married secondly Hugh IV, Count of Maine
Baldwin V, Count of Flanders
Baldwin V of Flanders was Count of Flanders from 1035 until his death. He was the son of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders, during a long war as an ally of Godfrey the Bearded, Duke of Lorraine, against the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, he initially lost Valenciennes to Herman, Count of Mons. Upon the death of Henry III this marriage was acknowledged by treaty by Agnes de Poitou, Baldwin V played host to a grateful dowager queen Emma of England, during her enforced exile, at Bruges. He supplied armed security guards, comprising a band of minstrels, Bruges was a bustling commercial centre, and Emma fittingly grateful to the citizens. She dispensed generously to the poor, making contact with the monastery of Saint Bertin at St Omer, from 1060 to 1067 Baldwin was the co-Regent with Anne of Kiev for his nephew-by-marriage Philip I of France, indicating the importance he had acquired in international politics. As Count of Maine, Baldwin supported the King of France in most affairs, but he was father-in-law to William of Normandy, who had married his daughter Matilda.
Flanders played a role in Edward the Confessors foreign policy. Baldwins half-sister had married Earl Godwins third son, the half-Viking Godwinsons had spent their exile in Dublin, at a time William of Normandy was fiercely defending his duchy. It is unlikely however that Baldwin intervened to prevent the invasion plans of England. By 1066, Baldwin was an old man, and died the following year, Baldwin and Adèle are known to have had three children, Baldwin VI, 1030–1070 Matilda, c. 1031–1083 who married William the Conqueror Robert I of Flanders, c, but this belief is not accepted by the other historians, including Charles Cawley of Medieval Lands and Stewart Baldwin of The Henry Project. D. Sir Frank Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, The Oxford History of England Heather J. Tanner, Families and Allies, Boulogne and Politics in Northern France and England, c. 879-1160, ISBN 978-9004132436 Harriet H. Wood, The Battle of Hastings, The Fall of Anglo-Saxon England, ISBN 978-1843548072
Rollo was a Viking who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region of France. He is sometimes called the 1st Duke of Normandy, Rollo emerged as the outstanding personality among the Norsemen who had secured a permanent foothold on Frankish soil in the valley of the lower Seine. Rollo is first recorded as the leader of these Viking settlers in a charter of 918 and he was succeeded by his son, William Longsword in the Duchy of Normandy that he had founded. The offspring of Rollo and his followers known as the Normans. The name Rollo is generally presumed to be a latinisation of the Old Norse name Hrólfr – a theory that is supported by the rendition of Hrólfr as Roluo in the Gesta Danorum. It is suggested that Rollo may be a latinised version of another Norse name. The byname Walker is usually understood to suggest that Rollo was so physically imposing that he could not be carried by a horse and was obliged to travel on foot. Norman and other French sources do not use the name Hrólfr, the 10th century Norman historian Dudo records that Rollo took the baptismal name Robert.
A variant spelling, Roul, is used in the 12th-century Norman French Roman de la Rou, Rollo was born in the latter half of the 9th century, his place of birth is unknown. The earliest well-attested historical event associated with Rollo is his leadership of Vikings who besieged Paris in 885–886, perhaps the earliest known source to mention Rollos early life is the French chronicler Richer of Reims, who claims that Rollo was the son of a Viking named Ketill. Medieval sources contradict each other regarding whether Rollos family was Norwegian or Danish in origin, in part, this disparity may result from the indifferent and interchangeable usage in Europe, at the time, of terms such as Vikings, Danes, Norwegians and so on. A biography of Rollo, written by the cleric Dudo of Saint-Quentin in the late 10th Century, one of Rollos great-grandsons and a contemporary of Dudo was known as Robert the Dane. According to Dudo, a king of Denmark was antagonistic to Rollos family, including his father – an unnamed Danish nobleman –.
Following the death of Rollo and Gurims father, Gurim was killed, Dudo appears to have been the main source for William of Jumièges and Orderic Vitalis, although both include additional details. Likewise, the 12th-century English historian William of Malmesbury stated that Rollo was born of noble lineage among the Norwegians, a chronicler named Benoît wrote in the mid-12th Century Chronique des ducs de Normandie that Rollo had been born in a town named Fasge. This has since been interpreted as referring to Faxe, in Sjælland, Fauske, in Hålogaland. Benoît repeated the claim that Rollo had been persecuted by a ruler and had fled from there to Scanza island. While Faxe was physically much closer to Scania, the scenery of Fasge, described by Benoît
Henry I of France
Henry I was King of the Franks from 1031 to his death. The royal demesne of France reached its smallest size during his reign and this is not entirely agreed upon, however, as other historians regard him as a strong but realistic king, who was forced to conduct a policy mindful of the limitations of the French monarchy. A member of the House of Capet, Henry was born in Reims and he was crowned King of France at the Cathedral in Reims on 14 May 1027, in the Capetian tradition, while his father still lived. He had little influence and power until he became sole ruler on his fathers death, the reign of Henry I, like those of his predecessors, was marked by territorial struggles. Initially, he joined his brother Robert, with the support of their mother and his mother, supported Robert as heir to the old king, on whose death Henry was left to deal with his rebel sibling. In 1032, he placated his brother by giving him the duchy of Burgundy which his father had him in 1016. In an early strategic move, Henry came to the rescue of his very young nephew-in-law, in 1051, William married Matilda, the daughter of the count of Flanders, which Henry saw as a threat to his throne.
In 1054, and again in 1057, Henry invaded Normandy, Henry had three meetings with Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor—all at Ivois. In early 1043, he met him to discuss the marriage of the emperor with Agnes of Poitou, in October 1048, the two Henries met again and signed a treaty of friendship. The final meeting place in May 1056 and concerned disputes over Theobald III. The debate over the duchy became so heated that Henry accused the emperor of breach of contract, in 1058, Henry was selling bishoprics and abbacies, ignoring the accusations of simony and tyranny by the Papal legate Cardinal Humbert. Despite his efforts, Henry Is twenty-nine-year reign saw feudal power in France reach its pinnacle, King Henry I died on 4 August 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie and was interred in Basilica of St Denis. He was succeeded by his son, Philip I of France, at the time of his death, he was besieging Thimert, which had been occupied by the Normans since 1058. He was Duke of Burgundy from 1016 to 1032, when he abdicated the duchy to his brother Robert, Henry I was betrothed to Matilda, the daughter of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, but she died prematurely in 1034.
Henry married Matilda of Frisia, but she died in 1044, casting further afield in search of a third wife, Henry married Anne of Kiev on 19 May 1051. They had four children, Philip I, vajay, S. Mathilde, reine de France inconnue,1971
All became prominent in Williams realm. The background of Herleva and the circumstances of Williams birth are shrouded in mystery, the most commonly accepted version says that she was the daughter of a tanner named Fulbert from the town of Falaise, in Normandy. The meaning of filia pelletarii burgensis is somewhat uncertain, and Fulbert may instead have been a furrier, apothecary, some argue that Herlevas father was not a tanner but rather a member of the burgher class. The idea is supported by the appearance of her brothers in a document as attestors for an under-age William. Also, the Count of Flanders accepted Herleva as a guardian for his own daughter. Both of these would be impossible if Herlevas father was a tanner. Orderic Vitalis described Herlevas father Fulbert as the Dukes Chamberlain, according to one legend, still recounted by tour guides at Falaise, it all started when Robert, the young Duke of Normandy, saw Herleva from the roof of his castle tower. The walkway on the roof still looks down on the dyeing trenches cut into stone in the courtyard below, the traditional way of dyeing leather or garments was to trample barefoot on the garments which were awash in the liquid dye in these trenches.
Herleva, legend goes, seeing the Duke on his ramparts above, the latter was immediately smitten and ordered her brought in through the back door. Herleva refused, saying she would enter the Dukes castle on horseback through the front gate. The Duke, filled with lust, could only agree, in a few days, dressed in the finest her father could provide, and sitting on a white horse, rode proudly through the front gate, her head held high. This gave Herleva a semi-official status as the Dukes concubine and she gave birth to his son, William, in 1027 or 1028. Some historians suggest Herleva was first the mistress of Gilbert of Brionne with whom she had a son and it was Gilbert who first saw Herleva and elevated her position and Robert took her for his mistress. Herleva married Herluin de Conteville in 1031, some accounts maintain that Robert always loved her, but the gap in their social status made marriage impossible, so, to give her a good life, he married her off to one of his favourite noblemen.
From her marriage to Herluin she had two sons, who became Bishop of Bayeux, and Robert, who became Count of Mortain, both became prominent during Williams reign. They had at least two daughters, who married Richard le Goz, Viscount of Avranches, and a daughter of unknown name who married William, lord of la Ferté-Macé. According to Robert of Torigni, Herleva was buried at the abbey of Grestain and this would put Herleva in her forties around the time of her death. The Normans, From Raiders to Kings, harper-Bill, Christopher, ed. EN NUL LEU NEL TRUIS ESCRIT, RESEARCH AND INVENTION IN BENOIT DE SAINT MAURES CHRONIQUE DES DUCS DE NORMANDIE
William Longsword, was the second ruler of Normandy, from 927 until his assassination in 942. He is sometimes anachronistically dubbed Duke of Normandy, even though the duke did not come into common usage until the 11th century. Longsword was known at the time by the title Count of Rouen, flodoard—always detailed about titles—consistently referred to both Rollo and his son William as principes of the Norse. William Longsword was born overseas to the Viking Rollo and his Christian wife Poppa of Bayeux, dudo of Saint-Quentin in his panegyric of the Norman dukes describes Poppa as the daughter of a Count Beranger, the dominant prince of that region. In the 11th century Annales Rouennaises, she is called the daughter of Guy, Count of Senlis, despite the uncertainty of her parentage she was undoubtedly a member of the Frankish aristocracy. According to the Longswords planctus, he was baptized a Christian probably at the time as his father. Longsword succeeded Rollo in 927 and, early in his reign, faced a rebellion from Normans who felt he had become too Gallicised, according to Orderic Vitalis, the leader was Riouf of Evreux, who was besieging Longsword in Rouen.
Sallying forth, Longsword won a battle, proving his authority to be Duke. At the time of this 933 rebellion Longsword sent his pregnant wife by custom, Sprota, in 933 Longsword recognized Raoul as King of Western Francia, who was struggling to assert his authority in Northern France. In turn Raoul gave him lordship over much of the lands of the Bretons including Avranches, the Cotentin Peninsula, alan fleeing to England and Beranger seeking reconciliation. In 935, Longsword married Luitgarde, daughter of Count Herbert II of Vermandois whose dowry gave him the lands of Longueville, Longsword contracted a marriage between his sister Adela and William, Count of Poitou with the approval of Hugh the Great. In addition to supporting King Raoul, he was now an ally of his father-in-law, Herbert II. In January 936 King Raoul died and the 16 year old Louis IV, the Bretons returned to recover the lands taken by the Normans, resulting in fighting in the expanded Norman lands. Arnulf captured the castle of Montreuil-sur-Mer expelling Herluin and Longsword cooperated to retake the castle.
Longsword was excommunicated for his actions in attacking and destroying several estates belonging to Arnulf, Longsword pledged his loyalty to King Louis IV when they met in 940 and, in return, he was confirmed in lands that had been given to his father, Rollo. In 941 a peace treaty was signed between the Bretons and Normans, brokered in Rouen by King Louis IV which limited the Norman expansion into Breton lands. The following year, on 17 December 942 at Picquigny on an island on the Somme, Longswords son, Richard becoming the next Duke of Normandy. Longsword had no children with his wife Luitgarde and he fathered his son, Richard the Fearless, with Sprota who was a Breton captive and his concubine
The ancient city is located within the modern Turkish city of İznik, and is situated in a fertile basin at the eastern end of Lake Ascanius, bounded by ranges of hills to the north and south. It is situated with its west wall rising from the lake itself, the lake is large enough that it could not be blockaded from the land easily, and the city was large enough to make any attempt to reach the harbour from shore-based siege weapons very difficult. The ancient city is surrounded on all sides by 5 kilometres of walls about 10 metres high and these are in turn surrounded by a double ditch on the land portions, and included over 100 towers in various locations. Large gates on the three sides of the walls provided the only entrance to the city. Today the walls have been pierced in places for roads. The version however was not widespread even in Antiquity, Antigonus is known to have established Bottiaean soldiers in the vicinity, lending credence to the tradition about the citys founding by Bottiaeans.
Following Antigonus defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, the city was captured by Lysimachus, who renamed it Nicaea, in tribute to his wife Nicaea, who had recently died. Sometime before 280 BC, the city came under the control of the dynasty of the kings of Bithynia. This marks the beginning of its rise to prominence as a seat of the royal court, the two cities dispute over which one was the pre-eminent city of Bithynia continued for centuries, and the 38th oration of Dio Chrysostom was expressly composed to settle the dispute. Along with the rest of Bithynia, Nicaea came under the rule of the Roman Republic in 72 BC. The geographer Strabo described the city as built in the typical Hellenistic fashion with great regularity, in the form of a square, measuring 16 stadia in circumference, i. e. approx. This monument stood in the gymnasium, which was destroyed by fire but was restored with increased magnificence by Pliny the Younger, in his writings Pliny makes frequent mention of Nicaea and its public buildings.
Emperor Hadrian visited the city in 123 AD after it had been damaged by an earthquake. The new city was enclosed by a wall of some 5 kilometres in length. Reconstruction was not completed until the 3rd century, and the new set of walls failed to save Nicaea from being sacked by the Goths in 258 AD, by the 4th century, Nicaea was a large and prosperous city, and a major military and administrative centre. Emperor Constantine the Great convened the First Ecumenical Council there, the city remained important in the 4th century, seeing the proclamation of Emperor Valens and the failed rebellion of Procopius. During the same period, the See of Nicaea became independent of Nicomedia and was raised to the status of a metropolitan bishopric, many of its grand civic buildings began to fall into ruin, and had to be restored in the 6th century by Emperor Justinian I. Nicaea became the capital of the Opsician Theme in the 8th century and remained a center of administration, a Jewish community is attested in the city in the 10th century
Wace, sometimes referred to as Robert Wace, was a Norman poet, who was born in Jersey and brought up in mainland Normandy, ending his career as Canon of Bayeux. All that is known of Waces life comes from references in his poems. He neglected to mention his birthdate, sometime between 1099 and 1111 is the most commonly accepted year of his birth, the name Wace, used in Jersey until the 16th century, appears to have been his only name, surnames were not universally used at that time. It was quite a common first name in the Duchy of Normandy, the spelling and the pronunciation of this name were rendered different ways in the texts, according to the place where the copyists were from. In the various versions of the Roman de Rou, his name five times as Wace. Until the 11th century, the w spelling corresponded to the pronunciation in Northern Normandy, south to an isogloss corresponding more or less to the Ligne Joret, had been turned to and later. Today the name survives as the patronymic surname Vasse in Normandy and in the North of France and it is speculated that he may have been of aristocratic origin, as he was sent to Caen to be educated, which would have been virtually impossible for most.
His detailed writing on maritime matters may have stemmed from his island upbringing, around 1130 Wace returned to Caen and took ecclesiastical work, possibly as a teacher. The date of Waces death is uncertain, the most recent event described in the Roman de Rou may be dated to 1174. In the Rou, Wace mentions Henry the Young King as living, the latter lived until 1183, which means that Wace probably did not revise the Rou after that date. His extant works include the Roman de Brut, a history of Britain, the Roman de Rou. Roman de Brut was based on the Historia Regum Britanniae of Geoffrey of Monmouth and it cannot be regarded as a history in any modern sense, although Wace often distinguishes between what he knows and what he does not know, or has been unable to find out. Wace narrates the founding of Britain by Brutus of Troy to the end of the legendary British history created by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the popularity of this work is explained by the new accessibility to a wider public of the Arthur legend in a vernacular language.
The Roman de Brut became the basis, in turn, for Layamons Brut, an alliterative Middle English poem and his work, the Roman de Rou, according to Wace, commissioned by King Henry II of England. A large part of the Roman de Rou is devoted to William the Conqueror, the Roman de Rou includes a mention of the appearance of Halleys Comet. The Romance language Wace wrote in is variously regarded as an Old Norman dialect of the Norman language, Wace is the earliest known Jersey writer. Although the name Robert has been ascribed to Wace, this is a tradition resting on little evidence and it is generally believed nowadays that Wace only had one name. As a clerc lisant, he was proud of his title of Maistre and is sometimes referred to as Maistre Wace
Norman conquest of England
Williams claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor, who may have encouraged Williams hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson, within days, William landed in southern England. Harold marched south to confront him, leaving a significant portion of his army in the north, Harolds army confronted Williams invaders on 14 October at the Battle of Hastings, Williams force defeated Harold, who was killed in the engagement. Although Williams main rivals were gone, he faced rebellions over the following years and was not secure on his throne until after 1072. The lands of the resisting English elite were confiscated, some of the elite fled into exile, to control his new kingdom, William granted lands to his followers and built castles commanding military strongpoints throughout the land. More gradual changes affected the classes and village life, the main change appears to have been the formal elimination of slavery.
There was little alteration in the structure of government, as the new Norman administrators took over many of the forms of Anglo-Saxon government. In 911 the Carolingian French ruler Charles the Simple allowed a group of Vikings under their leader Rollo to settle in Normandy as part of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for the land, the Norsemen under Rollo were expected to provide protection along the coast against further Viking invaders and their settlement proved successful, and the Vikings in the region became known as the Northmen from which Normandy and Normans are derived. The Normans quickly adopted the culture, renouncing paganism and converting to Christianity. They adopted the langue doïl of their new home and added features from their own Norse language, in 1002 King Æthelred the Unready married Emma of Normandy, the sister of Richard II, Duke of Normandy. Their son Edward the Confessor, who spent many years in exile in Normandy and embroiled in conflict with the formidable Godwin, Earl of Wessex and his sons, Edward may have encouraged Duke William of Normandys ambitions for the English throne.
When King Edward died at the beginning of 1066, the lack of a clear heir led to a succession in which several contenders laid claim to the throne of England. Edwards immediate successor was the Earl of Wessex, Harold Godwinson, Harold was immediately challenged by two powerful neighbouring rulers. William and Harald at once set about assembling troops and ships to invade England, in early 1066, Harolds exiled brother, Tostig Godwinson, raided southeastern England with a fleet he had recruited in Flanders, joined by other ships from Orkney. Threatened by Harolds fleet, Tostig moved north and raided in East Anglia and Lincolnshire, but he was back to his ships by the brothers Edwin, Earl of Mercia. Deserted by most of his followers, he withdrew to Scotland, King Harald Hardrada invaded northern England in early September, leading a fleet of more than 300 ships carrying perhaps 15,000 men. Haralds army was augmented by the forces of Tostig, who threw his support behind the Norwegian kings bid for the throne