Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile
Eleanor of England, was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. She was the sixth child and second daughter of Henry II, King of England, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Eleanor was born in the castle at Domfront, Normandy c.1161, as the second daughter of Henry II, King of England and his wife Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, was baptised by Henry of Marcy. Her half-siblings were Countess Marie and Countess Alix, her full siblings were Henry the Young, Duchess Matilda, King Richard, Duke Geoffrey, Queen Joan and King John. Eleanor had an older brother, William the first son of Henry II, Eleanor of Aquitaine, he died of a seizure at Wallingford Castle, he was buried in Reading Abbey at the feet of his great-grandfather Henry I. In 1170 Eleanor married King Alfonso VIII of Castile in Burgos, her parents' purpose in arranging the marriage was to secure Aquitaine's Pyrenean border, while Alfonso was seeking an ally in his struggles with Sancho VI of Navarre. In 1177, this led to Henry overseeing arbitration of the border dispute.
Around the year 1200, Alfonso began to claim that the duchy of Gascony was part of Eleanor's dowry, but there is no documented foundation for that claim. It is unlikely that Henry II would have parted with so significant a portion of his domains. At most, Gascony may have been pledged as security for the full payment of his daughter's dowry, her husband went so far on this claim as to invade Gascony in her name in 1205. In 1206, her brother John granted her safe passage to visit him to try opening peace negotiations. In 1208, Alfonso yielded on the claim. Decades their great-grandson Alfonso X of Castile would claim the duchy on the grounds that her dowry had never been paid. Of all Eleanor of Aquitaine's daughters, her namesake was the only one, enabled, by political circumstances, to wield the kind of influence her mother had exercised. In her own marriage treaty, in the first marriage treaty for her daughter Berengaria, Eleanor was given direct control of many lands and castles throughout the kingdom.
She was as powerful as Alfonso, who specified in his will in 1204 that she was to rule alongside their son in the event of his death, including taking responsibility for paying his debts and executing his will. It was she. Troubadours and sages were present in Alfonso VIII's court due to Eleanor's patronage. Eleanor took particular interest in supporting religious institutions. In 1179, she took responsibility to support and maintain a shrine to St. Thomas Becket in the cathedral of Toledo, she created and supported the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, which served as a refuge and tomb for her family for generations, its affiliated hospital. When Alfonso died, Eleanor was so devastated with grief that she was unable to preside over the burial, their eldest daughter Berengaria instead performed these honours. Eleanor went sick and died only twenty-six days after her husband, was buried at Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas. Eleanor was praised for her beauty and regal nature by the poet Ramón Vidal de Besalú after her death.
Her great-grandson Alfonso X referred to her as "noble and much loved". Eleanor was played by Ida Norden in the silent film The Jewess of Toledo. Cerda, José Manuel, La dot gasconne d'Aliénor d'Angleterre. Entre royaume de Castille, royaume de France et royaume d'Angleterre, Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, ISSN 0007-9731, Vol. 54, Nº 215, 2011. Cerda, José Manuel. "Leonor Plantagenet y la consolidación castellana en el reinado de Alfonso VIII". Anuario de Estudios Medievales. 42.2. ISSN 0066-5061. Cerda, José Manuel, Matrimonio y patrimonio. La carta de arras de Leonor Plantagenet, reina consorte de Castilla, Anuario de Estudios Medievales, vol. 2. Cerda, José Manuel, Leonor Plantagenet and the cult of Thomas Becket in Castile, The cult of St Thomas Becket in the Plantagenet World, ed. P. Webster and M. P. Gelin, Boydell Press. Cerda, José Manue, The marriage of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonor Plantagenet: the first bond between Spain and England in the Middle Ages, Les stratégies matrimoniales dans l’aristocratie, ed. Martin Aurell.
Fraser, Antonia. The Middle Ages, A Royal History of England. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22799-9. Gillingham, John. "Events and Opinions: Norman and English Views of Aquitaine, c.1152–c.1204". In Bull, Marcus; the World of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Literature and Society in Southern France between the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-114-7. Mila y Fontanels, Manuel. "De los trovadores en España". In Martinez, C.. 2. CSIC, Barcelona. Osma, Juan. "Chronica latina regum Castellae". In Brea, Luis Charlo. Chronica Hispana Saeculi XIII. Turnhout: Brepols. Rada Jiménez, Rodrigo. Historia de los hechos de España. Shadis, Miriam. Berenguela of Castile and Political Women in the High Middle Ages. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-23473-7. Vann, Theresa M. ed.. Queens and Potentates. Vol. I. Boydell Press. Wheeler, Bonnie. Eleanor of Aquitaine: Lord and Lady. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-230-60236-3. Adrian Fletcher’s Paradoxplace – Leonora’s Tomb in the Cistercian Nunnery of Santa Maria de Real Huelgas in Burgos, Spain Eight hundredth anniversary of Alfonso and Leonor's deaths
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Louis VI of France
Louis VI, called the Fat or the Fighter, was King of the Franks from 1108 to 1137, the fifth from the House of Capet. Chronicles called him "roi de Saint-Denis". Louis was the first member of his house to make a lasting contribution to the centralizing institutions of royal power, he spent all of his twenty-nine-year reign fighting either the "robber barons" who plagued Paris or the Norman kings of England for their continental possession of Normandy. Nonetheless, Louis VI managed to reinforce his power and became one of the first strong kings of France since the death of Charlemagne in 814. Louis was a warrior king but by his forties his weight had become so great that it was difficult for him to lead in the field. A biography - The Deeds of Louis the Fat, prepared by his loyal advisor Abbot Suger of Saint Denis - offers a developed portrait of his character, in contrast to what little historians know about most of his predecessors. Louis was born around the son of Philip I and Bertha of Holland.
Suger tells us: "In his youth, growing courage matured his spirit with youthful vigour, making him bored with hunting and the boyish games with which others of his age used to enjoy themselves and forget the pursuit of arms." And..."How valiant he was in youth, with what energy he repelled the king of the English, William Rufus, when he attacked Louis' inherited kingdom."Louis married Lucienne de Rochefort, the daughter of his father's seneschal, in 1104, but repudiated her three years later. They had no children. On 3 August 1115 Louis married Adelaide of Maurienne, daughter of Humbert II of Savoy and of Gisela of Burgundy, niece of Pope Callixtus II, they had eight children. Adelaide was one of the most politically active of all France's medieval queens, her name appears on 45 royal charters from the reign of Louis VI. During her time as queen, royal charters were dated with both that of the king. Suger became Louis's adviser before he succeeded his father as king at the age of 26 on 29 July 1108.
Louis's half-brother prevented him from reaching Rheims, so Daimbert, Archbishop of Sens, crowned him in the cathedral of Orléans on 3 August. Ralph the Green, Archbishop of Rheims, sent envoys to challenge the validity of the coronation and anointing, but to no avail; when Louis ascended the throne the Kingdom of France was a collection of feudal principalities. Beyond the Isle de France the French Kings had little authority over the great Dukes and Counts of the realm but Louis began to change this and assert Capetian rights; this process would take two centuries to complete but began in the reign of Louis VI. The second great challenge facing Louis was to counter the rising power of the Anglo-Normans under their capable new King, Henry I of England. From early in his reign Louis faced the problem of the robber barons who resisted the King's authority and engaged in brigandry, making the area around Paris unsafe. From their castles, such as Le Puiset and Montlhery, these barons would charge tolls, waylay merchants and pilgrims, terrorize the peasantry and loot churches and abbeys, the latter deeds drawing the ire of the writers of the day, who were clerics.
In 1108, soon after he ascended the throne, Louis engaged in war with Hugh of Crecy, plaguing the countryside and had captured Eudes, Count of Corbeil, imprisoned him at La Ferte-Alais. Louis besieged. In early 1109, Louis besieged his half-brother, the son of Bertrade de Montfort, involved in brigandry and conspiracies against the King, at Mantes-la-Jolie. Philip's plots included the lords of Montfort-l'Amaury. Amaury III of Montfort held many castles which, when linked together, formed a continuous barrier between Louis and vast swathes of his domains, threatening all communication south of Paris. In 1108-1109 a seigneur named Aymon Vaire-Vache seized the lordship of Bourbon from his nephew, Archambaud, a minor. Louis demanded the boy be restored to his rights but Aymon refused the summons. Louis raised his army and besieged Aymon at his castle at Germigny-sur-l'Aubois, forcing its surrender and enforcing the rights of Archambaud. In 1121, Louis established the marchands de l'eau. In 1122, Bishop of Clermont, appealed to Louis after William VI, Count of Auvergne, had driven him from his episcopal town.
When William refused Louis' summons, Louis raised an army at Bourges, marched into Auvergne, supported by some of his leading vassals, such as the Counts of Anjou and Nevers. Louis seized the fortress of Pont-du-Chateau on the Allier attacked Clermont, which William was forced to abandon. Aimeri was restored. Four years William rebelled again and Louis, though his increasing weight made campaigning difficult, marched again, he burned Montferrand and seized Clermont a second time, captured William, brought him before the court at Orleans to answer for his crimes. Some of the outlaws became notorious for their cruelty, the most notable being Thomas, Lord of Coucy, reputed to indulge in torture of his victims, including hanging men by their testicles, cutting out eyes, chopping off feet. Guibert of Nogent noted of him, "No one can imagine the number of those who perished in his dungeons, from starvation, from torture, from filth."Another notable brigand was Hugh, Lord of Le Puiset, ravaging the lands around Chartres.
In March 1111, Louis heard charges against Hugh at his court at Melun from Theobald II, Count of Champagne, the Archbishop of Sens, from bishops and abbots. Louis commanded Hugh to appear before him to answer these charges. Lou
Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, the seventh from the House of Capet. His predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself "King of France"; the son of King Louis VII and his third wife, Adela of Champagne, he was nicknamed Dieudonné because he was a first son and born late in his father's life. Philip was given the epithet "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the crown lands of France so remarkably; the only known description of Philip describes him as "a handsome, strapping fellow, bald but with a cheerful face of ruddy complexion, a temperament much inclined towards good-living and women. He was generous to his friends, stingy towards those who displeased him, well-versed in the art of stratagem, orthodox in belief and stubborn in his resolves, he made judgements with great exactitude. Fortune's favorite, fearful for his life excited and placated, he was tough with powerful men who resisted him, took pleasure in provoking discord among them.
Never, did he cause an adversary to die in prison. He liked to employ humble men, to be the subduer of the proud, the defender of the Church, feeder of the poor". After a twelve-year struggle with the Plantagenet dynasty in the Anglo-French War of 1202–14, Philip broke up the large Angevin Empire presided over by the crown of England and defeated a coalition of his rivals at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214; this victory would have a lasting impact on western European politics: the authority of the French king became unchallenged, while the English King John was forced by his barons to sign Magna Carta and deal with a rebellion against him aided by Philip, the First Barons' War. The military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals and knights to help carry it out. Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe.
He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority, granting privileges and liberties to the emergent bourgeoisie. He built a great wall around Paris, re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country. Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165. King Louis VII intended to make his son Philip co-ruler with him as soon as possible, in accordance with the traditions of the House of Capet, but these plans were delayed when Philip, at the age of thirteen, was separated from his companions during a royal hunt and became lost in the Forest of Compiègne, he spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold and fatigue, he was discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner, but his exposure to the elements meant he soon contracted a dangerously high fever, his father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philip's recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered.
However, on his way back to Paris, the king suffered a stroke. In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Reims on 1 November 1179 by Archbishop William of the White Hands, he was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all real power was transferred to Philip, as his father descended into senility; the great nobles were discontented with Philip's advantageous marriage, while his mother and four uncles, all of whom exercised enormous influence over Louis, were unhappy with his attainment of the throne, which caused a diminution of their power. Louis died on 18 September 1180. While the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished under Louis VII. In April 1182 to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne and confiscated their goods.
Philip's eldest son Louis was born on 5 September 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died. The main source of funding for Philip's army was from the royal demesne. In times of conflict, he could call up 250 knights, 250 horse sergeants, 100 mounted crossbowmen, 133 crossbowmen on foot, 2,000 foot sergeants, 300 mercenaries. Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights, 9,000 sergeants, 6,000 urban militiamen, thousands of foot sergeants. Using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men. Within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones. In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wife's dowry and the Count was unwilling to give up; the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin.
Notified of Philip's impending approach with 2,000 knights, he turned around and headed back to Flanders. Philip chased him, the two armies confronted each other near Amiens. By this stage, Philip had managed to counter the ambitions of the count by breaking his alliances with Henry I, Duke of Brabant, Philip of Heinsberg, Archbishop of Cologne. This, together with an uncertain outcome were he to engage the French in battle, forced the Count to conclude a peace. In July 11
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Maria of Swabia
Maria of Hohenstaufen was a member of the powerful Hohenstaufen dynasty of German kings which lasted from 1138 to 1254. She is known to history as Marie of Swabia. Maria of Hohenstaufen was born in Arezzo, Italy on 3 April 1201, she was the second daughter of Irene Angelina of Byzantium. In 1208, at the age of seven, Maria was left an orphan by the unexpected deaths of her parents. On 21 June, her father was murdered by Otto of Wittelsbach, two months her mother died after giving birth to a daughter, who did not live beyond early infancy. Sometime before 22 August 1215, she married heir to the Duchy of Brabant and Lothier, they had: Matilda of Brabant, married firstly, Robert I of Artois, by whom she had two children, Robert II of Artois and Blanche of Artois. Beatrix of Brabant, married firstly Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia, secondly William III of Dampierre, she died childless. Maria of Brabant, married Louis II, Duke of Bavaria, she was beheaded by her husband on suspicion of infidelity.
Margaret of Brabant, Abbess of Herzogenthal. Henry III, Duke of Brabant, married Adelaide of Burgundy, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, by whom he had issue, including Henry IV, Duke of Brabant, John I, Duke of Brabant, Maria of Brabant, Queen consort of King Philip III of France. Philip of Brabant, died young. Maria of Hohenstaufen died on 29 March 1235 in Leuven, five days before her thirty-fourth birthday. Less than six months her husband succeeded his father as Duke of Brabant and Lothier. In 1241, Henry married his second wife, Sophie of Thuringia, the daughter of Ludwig IV of Thuringia and Elisabeth of Hungary; the marriage produced two children: Henry I, Landgrave of Hesse and Elizabeth of Brabant, who married Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Sophie was the only wife of Henry to be styled Duchess of Lothier. Baldwin, Philip B.. Pope Gregory X and the Crusades; the Boydell Press. Dunbabin, Jean; the French in the Kingdom of Sicily, 1266–1305. Cambridge University Press
Louis VIII of France
Louis VIII, called the Lion, was King of France from 1223 to 1226, the eighth from the House of Capet. From 1216 to 1217, he claimed to be King of England. Louis was the only surviving son of King Philip II of France by his first wife, Isabelle of Hainaut, from whom he inherited the County of Artois. While Louis VIII only reigned as king of France, he was an active leader in his years as crown prince. During the First Barons' War of 1215–17 against King John of England, his military prowess earned him the epithet the Lion. After his victory at the Battle of Roche-au-Moine in 1214, he invaded southern England and was proclaimed "King of England" by rebellious barons in London on the 2 June 1216, he was never crowned and renounced his claim after being excommunicated and repelled. In 1217, Louis started the conquest of Guyenne, leaving only a small region around Bordeaux to Henry III of England. Louis's short reign was marked by an intervention using royal forces into the Albigensian Crusade in southern France that decisively moved the conflict towards a conclusion.
He was the first Capetian king to grant appanages to his younger sons on a large scale. He died in 1226 and was succeeded by his son Louis IX. In summer 1195, a marriage between Louis and Eleanor of Brittany, niece of Richard I of England, was suggested for an alliance between Philip II and Richard, but it failed, it is said that the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI opposed the marriage, that its failure was a sign that Richard would name his brother John as heir to the English throne instead of Eleanor's younger brother Arthur of Brittany, whom Richard had designated earlier as heir presumptive. This led to a sudden deterioration in relations between Philip. On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England, the sister of King Richard I and King John of England; the marriage could only be concluded after prolonged negotiations between King Philip II of France and Blanche's uncle John. In 1214, King John of England began his final campaign to reclaim the Duchy of Normandy from Philip II.
John was optimistic, as he had built up alliances with Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, Count Renaud of Boulogne and Count Ferdinand of Flanders. John's plan was to split Philip's forces by pushing north-east from Poitou towards Paris, while Otto and Ferdinand, supported by the Earl of Salisbury, marched south-west from Flanders. Whereas Philip II took personal command of the northern front against the emperor and his allies, he gave his son Louis the command of the front against the Plantagenet possessions in middle France; the first part of the campaign went well for the English, with John outmanoeuvring the forces under the command of Prince Louis and retaking the county of Anjou by the end of June. John besieged the castle of Roche-au-Moine, a key stronghold, forcing Louis to give battle against John's larger army; the local Angevin nobles refused to advance with the king. Shortly afterwards, Philip won the hard-fought Battle of Bouvines in the north against Otto and John's other allies, bringing an end to John's hopes of retaking Normandy.
In 1215, the English barons rebelled against the unpopular King John in the First Barons' War. The barons offered the throne to Prince Louis, who landed unopposed on the Isle of Thanet in eastern Kent, England, at the head of an army on 21 May 1216. There was little resistance when the prince entered London, Louis was proclaimed king at Old St Paul's Cathedral with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Though he was not crowned, many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland on behalf of his English possessions, gathered to give homage. On 14 June 1216, Louis soon controlled over half of the English kingdom, but just when it seemed that England was his, King John's death in October 1216 caused many of the rebellious barons to desert Louis in favour of John's nine-year-old son, Henry III. With the Earl of Pembroke acting as regent, a call for the English "to defend our land" against the French led to a reversal of fortunes on the battlefield. After his army was beaten at the Battle of Lincoln on 20 May 1217 and his naval forces were defeated at the Battle of Sandwich on 24 August 1217, Louis was forced to make peace on English terms.
In 1216 and 1217, Prince Louis tried to conquer Dover Castle, but without success. The principal provisions of the Treaty of Lambeth were an amnesty for English rebels, a pledge from Louis not to attack England again, 10,000 marks to be given to Louis. In return for this payment, Louis agreed. Louis VIII succeeded his father on 14 July 1223; as King, he continued seizing Poitou and Saintonge from them. On 1 November 1223, he issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, thus reversing the policies set by his father Philip II Augustus. Usury was illegal for Christians to practise. Since Jews were not Christian, they could not be excommunicated and thus fell into a legal grey area that secular rulers would sometimes exploit by allowing Jews to provide usury services for personal gain to the secular ruler and to the discontent of the Church. Louis VIII's prohibition was one attempt at resolving this legal problem, a co