Principality of Sedan
The Principality of Sedan was an independent Protestant state centered on the Château de Sedan in the Ardennes. It was ruled by the Prince of Sedan, who belonged to the noble La Marck and La Tour d'Auvergne families; the Princes of Sedan asserted and acquired recognition of their sovereignty between the 1520s and 1580s by means of adopting the princely title, minting coin and signing treaties. In 1641, during the Thirty Years' War, the Prince submitted to France and his principality was occupied the following year. In 1651 the reduced principality was exchanged for other lands in France and was annexed to the crown; the following villages were located in the Principality of Sedan: Illy, Douzy, Pouru-Saint-Remy, Rubécourt-et-Lamécourt, Fleigneux, Bazeilles, La Chapelle, La Moncelle, Villers-Cernay, Raucourt-et-Flaba, Noyers-Pont-Maugis, Haraucourt, Thelonne and Angecourt. The history of Sedan begins in 1424, when Eberhard II von der Mark began construction of the Château de Sedan in the vicinity of the Benedictine Abbey of Mouzon.
Erard II von der Mark was the first ruler to style himself Lord of Sedan. In the following years, the town of Sedan grew up in the area between the Château de Sedan and the Meuse. In the wake of the Protestant Reformation, Henri Robert de la Marck and his wife Françoise de Bourbon-Vendôme were attracted to the Huguenot movement. In 1560, they declared Sedan's independence from the Kingdom of France. In the wake of the 1562 Massacre of Vassy, Sedan became one of the leading refuges for French speaking Protestants; the Academy of Sedan, founded in 1579, became one of the chief Huguenot academies. With the death of Guillaume Robert de la Marck in 1588, the principality passed to his daughter, Charlotte de La Marck. In 1591, she married Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, who thereupon assumed her titles, becoming Prince of Sedan and Duke of Bouillon; as such, the principality passed from the House of La Marck to the House of La Tour d'Auvergne. Charlotte died childless in 1594, the principality was inherited by Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne's son by his second marriage.
Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne was accused of participating in the 1602 plot to assassinate Henry IV of France led by Charles de Gontaut, duc de Biron and the 1604 intrigues involving Henry IV's former mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues. In 1604, Henry IV declared Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne's lands forfeit to the crown of France and led an expedition to Sedan in 1606, he participated in a 1613 noble revolt against the king. Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne's son, Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, shared his father's antipathy to royal power. In 1630, he participated in a revolt led by Duke of Orléans. Sedan lost its independence during the Thirty Years' War. In spite of a victory over French royal forces at the Battle of La Marfée, held 6 July 1641, it soon became obvious that Sedan could no longer resist the forces of Louis XIII of France. In 1642, Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne participated in the failed conspiracy led by Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars.
Sedan was thus annexed to the French crown in 1642. Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne's younger brother, Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne would go on to achieve fame as France's leading general. In 1709, at the request of Lord Chancellor of France Henri François d'Aguesseau, the Parlement of Paris passed a decree reaffirming the French crown's sovereignty over Sedan. Guido de Bres, 1562 Pierre Du Moulin, 1621–58 Pierre Jurieu, 1675–81The Princes of Sedan founded the Academy of Sedan for the training of Protestant pastors. Nicasius le Febure Philippe de Mornay Anne d'Alègre and her son Guy XX de Laval Elisabeth de Hauteville, wife of Odet de Coligny the daughters of Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully Jean Errard Pierre Pithou Louis, Count of Soissons Frederick V, Elector Palatine The Protestant Princes of Sedan were buried in the Protestant church in Sedan. Burials in the church include: Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne Louis Hanau son of Countess Catharina Belgica of Nassau Julienne Catherine de la Tour d'Auvergne Countess Elisabeth of Nassau John Philip Frederick of the Palatinate, son of Frederick V, Elector Palatine Henri de Roye de La Rochefoucauld, vidame of Laon, son of Julienne Catherine de la Tour d'Auvergne Guy de Roye de La Rochefoucauld, vidame of Laon, younger son of Julienne Catherine de la Tour Bernard Palissy, famous potter
Péronne is a commune of the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. It is close to where the 1916, first 1918 and second 1918 Battles of the Somme took place during the First World War; the Museum of the Great War is located in the château. Péronne is situated in the old region of home of the early French kings. Hidden in the Somme valley, between lakes and huge fields of crops, the town is known as a paradise for fishing and hunting; the autoroutes A1 and A16 pass close by. The national road, the N17, traverses. On a hill, dominating the Somme river and its lakes, Péronne was a well-fortified place during the early Middle Ages; the ramparts were built in the 9th century. All that remains today of the ancient fortress is the Porte de Bretagne. Few towns have been as involved in the history of France, few towns so devastated, as Péronne. Burned and pillaged in the time of the Normans. Péronne was awarded the Légion d'honneur. King Charles the Simple, prisoner of Rudolph, Duke of Burgundy died here, a captive in the dungeons, in 929.
He was buried in the abbey. In the 12th century, Philippe II built the towers of the château, surrounded by ditches, with a portcullis to defend the main gate. In 1468, Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy forced a treaty from Louis XI, held prisoner in the castle. Much land was ceded, but won back by Louis. In 1536, Charles Quint unsuccessfully besieged the town. Catherine of Poix known as “Marie Fouré" led the defence of the town, throwing a Spaniard off the top of the wall. On 14 September 1641, Louis XIII and Honoré II, Prince of Monaco signed a treaty at Péronne, placing the principality of Monaco under the protection of France. On 26 June 1815 following the Battle of Waterloo, a garrison of 1,500 National Guard in the town surrendered to the advancing Allied Army. Église Saint-Jean-Baptiste de Péronne: Destroyed between 1914 and 1918 slightly damaged in 1944, the west front, is built in "gothique flamboyant" style. In front of the church stands the statue of Marie Fouré, a local heroine; the Alfred Danicourt Museum, founded in the Hôtel-de-ville in 1877, is the only museum of the Somme to have been pillaged and destroyed by the Germans between 1916 and 1918.
It lost 98% of its collection. A few archeological treasures were saved by the museum curator, who hid them from the Germans when they took the town in 1914; these treasures were again subject to German interest in 1941. Overlooked by the first reconstruction in 1955, it was not until the second reconstruction of the building that the museum was back in use, its founder, the former mayor Charles Alfred Danicourt, created the museum as a cultural beacon of the Somme around 1900. Nowadays one can find one of the finest collections of early Gallic coins, antique gold jewelry, Merovingian funeral artefacts, a panorama of sand production during prehistoric times and some local examples of 19th- and 20th-century paintings; the city of Péronne is known for its "Monument to the Dead", the work of the architect Louis Faille, representing a Picardy woman with clenched fist raised above the body of her son or husband killed by the war. Monument of the Sailor Delpas, recalling the defence of the city and its fall at the time of the Franco-Prussian War in the winter 1870-1871.
The Australian Monument recalls the heroic actions in a neighbourhood of the town by Australian soldiers in 1918. The Brittany Gate, with its strengthened stonework, is reminiscent of the defensive aspect of Péronne The Château de Péronne is a ruined castle, classified as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. Within the walls of the ancient château, nowadays run by the Somme département, the "Historial de la Grande Guerre" museum is a ‘must visit’ for those interested in the Great War. Created in 1992, by architect Henri Ciriani, it illustrates the development of the conflict; the building is characterised by the stark whiteness of the cement, inset with small cylinders, symbolic of military graves. Saint Fursey, patron saint of the town. Louis Alexandre Vinchon Pierre Mac Orlan Béranger Hervé Hagard Louis XI Francis Tattegrain Hector Crinon Alfred Danicourt Louis-Mathieu Langlès Péronne is twinned with: Blackburn, England Altena, Germany Salobreña, Spain Albany, Australia Communes of the Somme department INSEE Tourism website Town Hall website World War I site Site of the municipal museum Péronne on the website of Quid Péronne and the Somme villages in pictures Views of Péronne on old post cards
Guillemette de Sarrebruck
Guillemette de Sarrebruck was a French court official. She served as Governess of the Children of France, Première dame d'honneur to the queen of France, Mary Stuart, from 1559 until 1560, she had the title comtesse de Braine de jure after 1525, when she inherited the County of Braine from her childless brother. Guillemette de Sarrebruck was the daughter of Marie d'Amboise, she married Robert III de La Marck in 1510, with whom she had a son, Robert IV de La Marck, Duke of Bouillon, Prince of Sedan and Marshal of France. Guillemette de Sarrebruck had a long career at the royal court of France, she served as dame or dame d'honneur to three queens of France, Anne de Bretagne, Eleanor of Austria, Catherine de Médici. She served as Governess of the Children of France to the children of Francis I. In 1559, she was appointed head lady-in-waiting or Première dame d'honneur to queen Mary Stuart of France, her tenure ended after Mary Stuart was widowed in 1560, returned to Scotland the following year. Alain Sartelet, La Principauté de Sedan, Éditions Terres Ardennaises, 1991, 180 p. p. 11
The Ardennes is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins. Geologically, the range is a western extension of the Eifel, both were raised during the Givetian age of the Devonian as were several other named ranges of the same greater range. Located in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching as well into Germany and France, geologically into the Eifel—the eastern extension of the Ardennes Forest into Bitburg-Prüm, most of the Ardennes proper consists of southeastern Wallonia, the southern and more rural part of the Kingdom of Belgium; the eastern part of the Ardennes forms the northernmost third of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg called "Oesling", on the southeast the Eifel region continues into the German state of the Rhineland-Palatinate. The trees and rivers of the Ardennes provided the charcoal industry assets that enabled the great industrial period of Wallonia in the 18th and 19th centuries, when it was arguably the second great industrial region of the world, after England.
The greater region maintained an industrial eminence into the 20th century, after coal replaced charcoal in metallurgy. Allied generals in World War II felt the region was impenetrable to massed vehicular traffic and armor, so the area was "all but undefended" during the war, leading to the German Army's twice using the region as an invasion route into Northern France and Southern Belgium, via Luxembourg in the Battle of France and the Battle of the Bulge. Much of the Ardennes is covered in dense forests, with the mountains averaging around 350–400 m in height but rising to over 694 m in the boggy moors of the Hautes Fagnes region of south-eastern Belgium; the region is typified by steep-sided valleys carved by swift-flowing rivers, the most prominent of, the Meuse. Its most populous cities are Verviers in Belgium and Charleville-Mézières in France, both exceeding 50,000 inhabitants; the Ardennes is otherwise sparsely populated, with few of the cities exceeding 10,000 inhabitants. The Eifel range in Germany adjoins the Ardennes and is part of the same geological formation, although they are conventionally regarded as being two distinct areas.
Signal de Botrange 694 m, highest peak in the High Fens, Province of Liège, Weißer Stein 692 m, Mürringen, Province of Liège, Baraque Michel 674 m, Province of Liège, Baraque de Fraiture 652 m, highest point of the Plateau des Tailles, Province of Luxembourg, Lieu-dit Galata 589 m, highest point on the Plateau de Saint-Hubert, Province of Luxembourg, Kneiff, 560 m, highest point of Luxembourg Buurgplaatz, 559 m, highest point in the Oesling section of the Ardennes, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Napoléonsgaard 547 m, near Rambrouch-Rammerech, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Croix-Scaille 504 m, hosting the Tour du Millénaire, Province of Namur, in Belgium on the border to France. N. B; the Belgian Province of Luxembourg in the above list is not to be confused with the country known as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The Ardennes is an old mountain range formed during the Hercynian orogeny; the low interior of such old mountains contains coal, plus iron and other metals in the sub-soil. This geologic fact explains the greatest part of the geography of its history.
In the North and West of the Ardennes lie the valleys of the Sambre and Meuse rivers, forming an arc going across the most industrial provinces of Wallonia, for example Hainaut, along the river Haine. The region was uplifted by a mantle plume during the last few hundred thousand years, as measured from the present elevation of old river terraces; this geological region is important in the history of Wallonia because this old mountain is at the origin of the economy, the history, the geography of Wallonia. "Wallonia presents a wide range of rocks of various ages. Some geological stages internationally recognized were defined from rock sites located in Wallonia: e.g. Frasnian, Tournaisian, Visean and Namurian". Except for the Tournaisian, all these rocks are within the Ardennes geological area; the Ardennes includes the greatest part of the Belgian province of Luxembourg, the south of the province of Namur and the province of Liège plus a small part of the province of Hainaut, as well as the northernmost third of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, called Oesling and the main part of the French department called Ardennes.
Before the 19th century industrialization, the first furnaces in the four Walloon provinces and in the French Ardennes used charcoal for fuel, made from harvesting the Ardennes forest. This industry was in the extreme south of the present-day Belgian province of Luxembourg (which until 1839 was part of the Grand Duchy of Luxe
Vercelli, is a city and comune of 46.552 inhabitants in the Province of Vercelli, northern Italy. One of the oldest urban sites in northern Italy, it was founded, according to most historians, around the year 600 BC; the city is situated on the river Sesia in the plain of the river Po between Turin. It is an important centre for the cultivation of rice, is surrounded by rice paddies, which are flooded in the summer; the climate is typical of the Po Valley with cold, foggy winters and oppressive heat during the summer months. Rainfall is most prevalent during the autumn; the languages spoken in Vercelli are Piedmontese. The world's first university funded by public money was established in Vercelli in 1228, but was closed in 1372. Today it has a university of literature and philosophy as a part of the Università del Piemonte Orientale and a satellite campus of the Politecnico di Torino. Vercellae was the capital of a Ligurian tribe; the imperial magister militum Flavius Stilicho annihilated the Goths there 500 years later.
It was half ruined in St. Jerome's time. After the Lombard invasion it belonged to the Duchy of Ivrea. From 885 it was under the jurisdiction of the prince-bishop, a Count of the Empire, it became an independent commune in 1120, joined the first and second Lombard leagues. Its statutes are among the most interesting of those of the medieval republics. In 1197 they abolished the servitude of the glebe. In 1228 the University of Pavia was transferred to Vercelli, where it remained till the fourteenth century, but without gaining much prominence. In 1307, Fra Dolcino, the leader of the Dulcinian burned at the stake. During the troubles of the 13th century it fell into the power of the Della Torre of Milan, of the Marquesses of Monferrato, who appointed Matteo I Visconti captain; the Tizzoni and Avogadri disputed the city from 1301 to 1334. The Guelphs were expelled several times, enabling the Marquess of Monferrato to take Vercelli, which voluntarily placed itself under the Viscount of Milan in 1334.
In 1373, Bishop Giovanni Fieschi expelled the Visconti. Facino Cane, profiting by the strife between Giovanni Maria and Filippo Maria Visconti, took Vercelli, but was driven out by Theodore II of Montferrat, from whom the city passed to the dukes of Savoy. In 1499 and 1553 Vercelli was captured by the French, in 1616 and 1678 by the Spaniards. In 1704 it sustained an energetic siege by the French, who failed to destroy the fortress, after which it shared the fortunes of Savoy. In 1821 Vercelli rose in favour of the Constitution. Vercelli is home to numerous relics of the Roman period, e.g. an amphitheatre, hippodrome and many important inscriptions, some of which are Christian. There are seven noteworthy towers in the town, most important are the Torre dell’Angelo, which rears up over the old market square, the Torre di Città in Via Gioberti. Vercelli Cathedral adorned with precious pillars and mosaics, was erected and enlarged by Saint Eusebius of Vercelli, to whom it was dedicated after his death.
It was remodeled as of the ninth century, radically changed in the eighteenth by Count Alfieri. Like the other churches in the city, it contains valuable paintings those of Gaudenzio Ferrari, Gerolamo Giovenone and Bernardino Lanino, who were natives of Vercelli; the cathedral's Capitulary Library contains valuable manuscripts. Its religious texts include an evangelarium of the fourth century, its secular texts include the Novels of Justinian. It contains the famous Vercelli Book — an Old English manuscript which includes the celebrated alliterative poem The Dream of the Rood; the civil archives are not less important, contain documents dating from 882. The Basilica di Sant'Andrea was erected by Cardinal Guala Bicchieri in 1219. Together with the old Cistercian monastery, it is one of the most beautiful and best-preserved Romanesque monuments in Italy. Among other noteworthy churches in the city is the Santa Maria Maggiore. Vercelli's synagogue, an example of Moorish Revival architecture, is located at Via Foà 70 and the city's Jewish cemetery at Corso Randaccio 24.
On 23 November 2013, after what was believed to be an antisemitic act, two swastikas were found sprayed on its walls. The Institute of the Beaux-Arts contains paintings by Vercellese artists. Ancient charitable institutions continue, such as the hospital founded by Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, which has an annual revenue of more than 600,000 lire. Vercelli is the seat of the Viotti International Music Competition. In 2007, 44,475 people were recorded as residing in Vercelli, of whom 47.3% were male and 52.7% were female. Minors totaled 14.41% of the population and pensioners 25.83%.
Angoulême is a commune, the capital of the Charente department, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Angoumoisines. Located on a plateau overlooking a meander of the Charente River, the city is nicknamed the "balcony of the southwest"; the city proper's population is a little less than 42,000 but it is the centre of an urban area of 110,000 people extending more than fifteen kilometres from east to west. The capital of Angoumois in the Ancien Régime, Angoulême was a fortified town for a long time, was coveted due to its position at the centre of many roads important to communication, so therefore it suffered many sieges. From its tumultuous past, the city, perched on a rocky spur, inherited a large historical and urban heritage which attracts a lot of tourists. Nowadays, Angoulême is at the centre of an agglomeration, one of the most industrialised regions between Loire and Garonne, it is a commercial and administrative city with its own university of technology, a vibrant cultural life.
This life is dominated by the Angoulême International Comics Festival, the FFA Angoulême Francophone Film Festival and the Musiques Métisses Festival that contribute to the international renown of the city. Moreover, Angoulême hosts 40 animation and video game studios that produce half of France's animated production; the city is developing filming for both French television and cinema. Wes Anderson chose Angoulême for his next movie at the end of 2018. Angoulême is called "Ville de l'Image" which means "City of the Image"; the commune has been awarded four flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Angoulême is an Acropolis city located on a hill overlooking a loop of the Charente limited in area upstream by the confluence of the Touvre and downstream by the Anguienne and Eaux Claires. Angoulême is located at the intersection of a major north-south axis: the N10 Paris-Bayonne. Angoulême is connected to Périgueux and Saint-Jean-d'Angely by the D939 and to Libourne by the D674.
By train: the Paris-Bordeaux line, served by TGV, passes through Angoulême and the TER Limoges-Saintes provides connections. By water: although the river Charente is only used for tourism, it was a communication channel for freight, until the 19th century and the port of l'Houmeau was busy; the Angoulême-Cognac International Airport is at Brie-Champniers. Old Angoulême is the old part between the ramparts and the town centre with winding streets and small squares; the city centre is located on the plateau and was portrayed by Honoré de Balzac in "The Lost Illusions" as "the height of grandeur and power". There is a Castle, a town hall, a prefecture, a cathedral with grand houses everywhere. Unlike Old Angoulême, the entire city centre was rebuilt in the 19th century. Surrounding the city were five old faubourgs: l'Houmeau, Saint-Cybard, Saint-Martin, Saint-Ausone, la Bussatte; the district of l'Houmeau was described by Balzac as "based on trade and money" because this district lived on trade and their scows.
The port of l'Houmeau was created in 1280 on the river bank. It marked the beginning of the navigable part from Angoulême to the sea. Saint-Cybard, on the bank of the Charente, was created around the Abbey of Saint-Cybard became an industrial area with papermills Le Nil. Saint-Martin - Saint-Ausone is a district composed of two former parishes outside the ramparts. At La Bussatte the Champ de Mars esplanade is now converted into a shopping mall, adjoins Saint-Gelais. Today the city has fifteen districts: Centre-ville Old Angoulême Saint-Ausone - Saint-Martin Saint-Gelais La Bussatte - Champ de Mars L'Houmeau Saint-Cybard Victor-Hugo, Saint-Roch is notable for its military presence. Basseau is a district, created in the 19th century with the port of Basseau, the explosives factory in 1821, the Laroche-Joubert papermill in 1842 the bridge in 1850. Sillac - La Grande-Garenne was a private housing estate was built up with HLM units. Bel-Air, la Grand Font in the railway station district with housing blocks from the 1950s at Grand Font.
La Madeleine, rebuilt after the bombings of 1944. Ma Campagne is a district, detached from Puymoyen commune in 1945 and built-up as a collective habitat from 1972. Le Petit Fresquet was detached from Puymoyen and is semi-rural. Frégeneuil was detached from Puymoyen and is semi-rural; the Port-l'Houmeau, the old port on the Charente located in the district of l'Houmeau is in a flood zone and during floods the Besson Bey Boulevard is cut. Geologically the town belongs to the Aquitaine Basin as does three quarters of the western department of Charente; the commune is located on the same limestone from the Upper Cretaceous period which occupies the southern half of the department of Charente, not far from Jurassic formations beginning at Gond-Pontouvre. The earliest Cretaceous period - the Cenomanian- is in the low areas, at an average altitude of 50m; the city was established on the Plateau that dominates the loop of the River Charente, a Turonian formation which forms a dissected plateau of parallel valleys and a cuesta facing north that extends towards La Couronne to the west and Garat to the east