Emma of Normandy
Emma of Normandy was a queen consort of England and Norway. She was the daughter of Richard I, Duke of Normandy, his second wife, Gunnora. Through her marriages to Æthelred the Unready and Cnut the Great, she became the Queen Consort of England and Norway, she was the mother of three sons, King Edward the Confessor, Alfred Ætheling, King Harthacnut, as well as two daughters, Goda of England, Gunhilda of Denmark. After her husbands' deaths Emma remained in the public eye, continued to participate in politics, she is the central figure within the Encomium Emmae Reginae, a critical source for the history of early 11th-century English politics. As Catherine Karkov notes, Emma is one of the most visually represented early medieval queens. In an attempt to pacify Normandy, King Æthelred of England married Emma in 1002. Richard II, Duke of Normandy hoped to improve relations with the English in wake of recent conflict and a failed kidnapping attempt against him by Æthelred. Viking raids on England were based in Normandy in the late 10th century, for Æthelred this marriage was intended to unite against the Viking threat.
Upon their marriage, Emma was given the Anglo-Saxon name of Ælfgifu, used for formal and official matters, became Queen of England. She received properties of her own in Winchester, Devonshire and Oxfordshire, as well as the city of Exeter.Æthelred and Emma had two sons, Edward the Confessor and Alfred Ætheling, a daughter, Goda of England. When King Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark invaded and conquered England in 1013, Emma and her children were sent to Normandy, where Æthelred joined soon after, they returned to England after Sweyn's death in 1014. Emma and Æthelred's marriage ended with Æthelred's death in London in 1016. Æthelred's oldest son from his first marriage, Æthelstan, had been heir apparent until his death in June 1014. Emma's sons had been ranked after all of the sons from his first wife, the oldest surviving of whom was Edmund Ironside. Emma made an attempt to get her oldest son, recognized as heir. Although this movement was supported by Æthelred's chief advisor, Eadric Streona, it was opposed by Edmund Ironside, Æthelred's third oldest son, his allies, who revolted against his father.
In 1015, the son of Sweyn Forkbeard, invaded England. He was held out of London until the deaths of Æthelred and Edmund in April and November 1016, respectively. Queen Emma attempted to maintain Anglo-Saxon control of London until her marriage to Cnut was arranged; some scholars believe that the marriage saved her sons' lives, as Cnut tried to rid himself of rival claimants, but spared their lives. Cnut gained control of most of England after he defeated Edmund Ironside on 18 October at the Battle of Assandun, after which they agreed to divide the kingdom, Edmund taking Wessex and Cnut the rest of the country. Edmund died shortly afterwards on 30 November, Cnut became the king of all England. At the time of their marriage, Emma's sons from her marriage to Æthelred were sent to live in Normandy under the tutelage of her brother. At this time Emma became Queen of England, of Denmark, Norway; the Encomium Emmae Reginae suggests in its second book that Emma and Cnut's marriage, though begun as a political strategy, became an affectionate marriage.
During their marriage and Cnut had a son, a daughter, Gunhilda. In 1036, Alfred Aetheling and Edward the Confessor, Emma's sons with Æthelred, returned to England from their exile in Normandy in order to visit their mother. During their time in England, they were supposed to be protected by Harthacnut. However, Harthacnut was involved with his kingdom in Denmark. Alfred was blinded by holding a hot iron to his eyes, he died from his wounds. Edward escaped the attack, returned to Normandy, he returned. Encomium Emmae Reginae places the blame of Alfred's capture and murder on Harold Harefoot, thinking he intended to rid himself of two more potential claimants to the English throne by killing Edward and Alfred; some scholars make the argument that it could have been Godwin, Earl of Wessex, traveling with Alfred and Edward as their protector in passage. Harthacnut, Cnut's son, succeeded the throne of Denmark after the death of his father in 1035. Five years he and his brother, Edward the Confessor, shared the throne of England, after the death of Harold, Harthacnut's half brother.
Their reign was short. Emma played a role in this coordinated reign by being a common tie between the two kings; the Encomium of Queen Emma suggests that she herself may have had a significant role being an equal role in this co-leadership of the English kingdom. After her death in 1052 Emma was interred alongside Cnut and Harthacnut in the Old Minster, before being transferred to the new cathedral built after the Norman Conquest. During the English Civil War, their remains were disinterred and scattered about the Cathedral floor by parliamentary forces. In 2012 the Daily Mail reported that Bristol University archaeologists "will use the latest DNA techniques...to identify and separate the jumbled bones". Emma's issue with Æthelred the Unready were: Edward the Confessor Goda of England Alfred ÆthelingHer issue with Cnut the Great were Harthacnut Gunhilda of Denmark As Pauline Stafford noted, Emma is the “first of the early medieval queens” to be depicted through contemporary portraiture. To that end, Emma is the central figure within the Encomium Emmae Reginae a critical sour
Judith d'Évreux was a Norman noblewoman and Countess of Sicily. Judith was the daughter of widow of Robert I de Grantmesnil, she was second cousin of William the Conqueror her father being the son of Robert II Archbishop of Rouen, while her mother was the daughter of Giroie, Lord of Échauffour, a wealthy Norman baron. Her half-brother Robert de Grandmesnil, abbot of the Norman Abbey of Saint-Evroul, was her guardian. After quarreling with Duke William in January 1061, Robert fled Normandy with Judith, her brother and sister, to Rome, he turned to Robert Guiscard, Duke of Calabria, who treated the abbot with great respect and invited him and his monks to settle in Calabria. The Duke's brother Roger I of Sicily had known Judith from Normandy, his status and fortunes had now changed considerably. No longer the poor son of a lesser Norman family, when Count Roger heard that Judith was in Calabria he went to meet her, they were married and he took his bride to Mileto where the marriage was celebrated.
Roger soon returned to his campaigns in Sicily. The following summer he joined Judith and brought her with him to Sicily where he and his army of three hundred went to Troina. Leaving Judith in the care of his garrison he continued his campaign. Greek residents attacked his fortifications attempting to take Countess Judith prisoner and ransom her in exchange for the Norman's leaving Troina; the garrison held out until Roger rescued Judith and the troops guarding her. For four more months the Normans fought the Greeks. Judith shared the hardships with her husband and the Norman troops living in the cold with little food. Roger was able to overcome the Arabs and regain control of Tronia. Roger needed to return to the mainland to replenish their horses and supplies and left Judith once again; this time Judith took command of the citadel herself. Judith died, still a young woman, in Sicily in 1076. Judith bore Roger a daughter, who married Hugh of Jarzé. Other children of Judith were: Matilda, who married firstly Count of Eu.
Alan III, Duke of Brittany
Alan III of Rennes was Count of Rennes and duke of Brittany, by right of succession from 1008 to his death. He was Hawise of Normandy. Alan succeeded his father as Duke of Brittany in 1008; because he was still a minor at his father's death, his mother acted as regent of Brittany while her brother Richard II, Duke of Normandy assumed guardianship over Brittany. In 1018 Alan married Bertha of Blois, daughter of Odo II, Count of Blois and his second wife Ermengarde of Auvergne; when Richard III, Duke of Normandy died in August 1026, his brother Robert I succeeded him. Alan took advantage of the resulting turmoil to break free of Norman suzerainty. In the early 1030s Robert I attacked Dol and Alan's retaliatory raid on Avranches was repulsed causing continued raiding back and forth between them. Facing an invasion from Normandy via land and from Duke Robert's fleet, Archbishop of Rouen mediated a truce between his two great-nephews at Mont Saint-Michel where Alan swore fealty to his cousin Robert.
When he left Normandy for the Holy Land Robert I, Duke of Normandy appointed his cousin, Alan III, to be a guardian of his young son William. Alan III assisted Herbert I'Wake-Dog' in his wars with Avesgaud, Bishop of Le Mans and was with the count in his attack on Avesgaud's castle at La Ferté-Bernard destroying the castle and causing Avesgaud to flee. In 1037 at the death of Robert, Archbishop of Rouen, the protection of young William was now left to Alan III and his cousin Gilbert who tentatively held Normandy together, they appointed Mauger to the now vacant see of Rouen and his brother William as count of Arques, attempting to gain their support for Duke William. On 1 October 1040, while besieging a rebel castle near Vimoutiers in Normandy, Alan III died. According to Orderic, he was poisoned by unnamed Normans. By Bertha of Blois, he had three children: Conan II, succeeded his father. Emma of Brittany c 1034 Hawise of Brittany, who married Hoel of Cornouaille. After 14 May 1046 his widow Bertha married secondly Hugh Count of Maine.
Dukes of Brittany family tree
Duke of Normandy
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France. The duchy arose out of a grant of land to the Viking leader Rollo by the French king Charles III in 911. In 924 and again in 933, Normandy was expanded by royal grant. Rollo's male-line descendants continued to rule it down to 1135. In 1202 the French king Philip II declared Normandy a forfeited fief and by 1204 his army had conquered it, it remained a French royal province thereafter, still called the Duchy of Normandy, but only granted to a duke of the royal house as an apanage. There is no record of Rollo using any title, his son and grandson, William I and Richard I, used the titles "count" and "prince". Prior to 1066, the most common title of the ruler of Normandy was "Count of Normandy" or "Count of the Normans"; the title Count of Rouen was never used in any official document, but it was used of William I and his son by the anonymous author of a lament on his death. Defying Norman pretensions to the ducal title, Adhemar of Chabannes was still referring to the Norman ruler as "Count of Rouen" as late as the 1020s.
In the 12th century, the Icelandic historian Ari Thorgilsson in his Landnámabók referred to Rollo as Ruðu jarl, the only attested form in Old Norse, although too late to be evidence for 10th-century practice. The late 11th-century Norman historian William of Poitiers used the title "Count of Rouen" for the Norman rulers down to Richard II. Although references to the Norman rulers as counts of Rouen are sparse and confined to narrative sources, there is a lack of documentary evidence about Norman titles before the late 10th century; the first recorded use of the title duke is in an act in favour of the Abbey of Fécamp in 1006 by Richard II. Earlier, the writer Richer of Reims had called Richard I a dux pyratorum, but which only means "leader of pirates" and was not a title. During the reign of Richard II, the French king's chancery began to call the Norman ruler "Duke of the Normans" for the first time; as late as the reign of William II, the ruler of Normandy could style himself "prince and duke, count of Normandy" as if unsure what his title should be.
The literal Latin equivalent of "Duke of Normandy", dux Normanniae, was in use by 1066, but it did not supplant dux Normannorum until the Angevin period, at a time when Norman identity was fading. Richard I experimented with the title "marquis" as early as 966, when it was used in a diploma of King Lothair. Richard II used it, but he seems to have preferred the title duke, it is his preference for the ducal title in his own charters that has led historians to believe that it was the chosen title of the Norman rulers. It was not granted to them by the French king. In the twelfth century, the Abbey of Fécamp spread the legend that it had been granted to Richard II by Pope Benedict VIII; the French chancery did not employ it until after 1204, when the duchy had been seized by the crown and Normandy lost its autonomy and its native rulers. The actual reason for the adoption of a higher title than that of count was that the rulers of Normandy began to grant the comital title to members of their own family.
The creation of Norman counts subject to the ruler of Normandy necessitated the latter taking a higher title. The same process was at work in other principalities of France in the eleventh century, as the comital title came into wider use and thus depreciated; the Normans kept the title of count for the ducal family and no non-family member was granted a county until Helias of Saint-Saens was made Count of Arques by Henry I in 1106. From 1066, when William II conquered England, becoming King William I, the title Duke of Normandy was held by the King of England. In 1087, William died and the title passed to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, while his second surviving son, William Rufus, inherited England. In 1096, Robert mortgaged Normandy to William, succeeded by another brother, Henry I, in 1100. In 1106, Henry conquered Normandy, it remained with the King of England down to 1144, during the civil war known as the Anarchy, it was conquered by Geoffrey Plantagenet, the Count of Anjou. Geoffrey's son, Henry II, inherited Normandy and England, reuniting the two titles.
In 1202, King Philip II of France, as feudal suzerain, declared Normandy forfeit and by 1204 his armies had conquered it. Henry III renounced the English claim in the Treaty of Paris. Thereafter, the duchy formed an integral part of the French royal demesne; the kings of the House of Valois started a tradition of granting the title to their heirs apparent. The title was granted four times between the French conquest of Normandy and the dissolution of the French monarchy in 1792; the French Revolution brought an end to the Duchy of Normandy as a political entity, by a province of France, it was replaced by several départements. Kings of England indicated by an asterisk Rollo, 911–927 William I Longsword, 927–942 Richard I the Fearless, 942–996 Richard II the Good, 996–1027 Richard III, 1026–1027 Robert I the Magnificent, 1027–1035 William II the Conqueror*, 1035–1087 Robert II Curthose, 1087–1106 William Rufus*, as regent 1096–1100 William Clito, as claimant 1106–1134 Henry I Beauclerc*, 1106–1135 William III Atheling Stephen of Blois*, 1135–1144 House of PlantagenetGeoffrey Plantagenet, 1144–1150 Henry II*, 1150–1189 Henry the Young King*, as junior duke 1170–1183 Richard IV Lionheart*, 1189–1199 John I Lackland*
Richard II, Duke of Normandy
Richard II, called the Good, was the eldest son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora. He was a Norman nobleman of the House of Normandy, he was the paternal grandfather of William the Conqueror. Richard succeeded his father as Duke of Normandy in 996. During his minority, the first five years of his reign, his regent was Count Rodulf of Ivry, his uncle, who wielded the power and put down a peasant insurrection at the beginning of Richard's reign. Richard had deep religious interests and found he had much in common with Robert II of France, who he helped militarily against the duchy of Burgundy, he forged a marriage alliance with Brittany by marrying his sister Hawise to Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany and by his own marriage to Geoffrey's sister, Judith of Brittany. In 1000-1001, Richard repelled an English attack on the Cotentin Peninsula, led by Ethelred II of England. Ethelred had given orders that Richard be captured and brought to England, but the English had not been prepared for the rapid response of the Norman cavalry and were defeated at the Battle of Val-de-Saire.
Richard attempted to improve relations with England through his sister Emma of Normandy's marriage to King Ethelred. This marriage was significant in that it gave his grandson, William the Conqueror, the basis of his claim to the throne of England; the improved relations proved to be beneficial to Ethelred when in 1013 Sweyn Forkbeard invaded England. Emma with her two sons Edward and Alfred fled to Normandy followed shortly thereafter by her husband king Ethelred. Soon after the death of Ethelred, King of England forced Emma to marry him while Richard was forced to recognize the new regime as his sister was again Queen. Richard had contacts with Scandinavian Vikings throughout his reign, he employed Viking mercenaries and concluded a treaty with Sweyn Forkbeard, en route to England. Richard II commissioned his clerk and confessor, Dudo of Saint-Quentin, to portray his ducal ancestors as morally upright Christian leaders who built Normandy despite the treachery of their overlords and neighboring principalities.
It was a work of propaganda designed to legitimize the Norman settlement, while it contains numerous unreliable legends, as respects the reigns of his father and grandfather, Richard I and William I it is reliable. In 1025 and 1026 Richard confirmed gifts of his great-grandfather Rollo to Saint-Ouen at Rouen, his other numerous grants to monastic houses tends to indicate the areas over which Richard had ducal control, namely Caen, the Éverecin, the Cotentin, the Pays de Caux and Rouen. Richard II died 28 Aug 1026, his eldest son, Richard becoming the new Duke. He married firstly, c.1000, daughter of Conan I of Brittany, by whom he had the following issue: Richard, duke of Normandy Robert, duke of Normandy Alice of Normandy, married Renaud I, Count of Burgundy William, monk at Fécamp, d. 1025, buried at Fécamp Abbey Eleanor, married to Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders Matilda, nun at Fecamp, d. 1033. She died unmarried. Secondly he married Poppa of Envermeu, by whom he had the following issue: Mauger, Archbishop of Rouen William, count of Arques
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments. The term is historically used to refer to excommunications from the Catholic Church, but it is used more to refer to similar types of institutional religious exclusionary practices and shunning among other religious groups. For instance, many Protestant denominations, such as the Lutheran Churches, have similar practices of excusing congregants from church communities, while Jehovah's Witnesses, as well as the Churches of Christ, use the term "disfellowship" to refer to their form of excommunication; the Amish have been known to excommunicate members that were either seen or known for breaking rules, or questioning the church. The word excommunication means putting a specific group out of communion. In some denominations, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the group.
Excommunication may involve banishment and shaming, depending on the group, the offense that caused excommunication, or the rules or norms of the religious community. The grave act is revoked in response to sincere penance, which may be manifested through public recantation, sometimes through the Sacrament of Confession, piety or through mortification of the flesh. Within the Catholic Church, there are differences between the discipline of the majority Latin Church regarding excommunication and that of the Eastern Catholic Churches. In Latin Catholic canon law, excommunication is a applied censure and thus a "medicinal penalty" intended to invite the person to change behaviour or attitude and return to full communion, it is not an "expiatory penalty" designed to make satisfaction for the wrong done, much less a "vindictive penalty" designed to punish: "excommunication, the gravest penalty of all and the most frequent, is always medicinal", is "not at all vindictive". Excommunication can be either latae ferendae sententiae.
According to Bishop Thomas J. Paprocki, "excommunication does not expel the person from the Catholic Church, but forbids the excommunicated person from engaging in certain activities..." These activities are listed in Canon 1331 §1, prohibit the individual from any ministerial participation in celebrating the sacrifice of the Eucharist or any other ceremonies of worship. Under current Catholic canon law, excommunicates remain bound by ecclesiastical obligations such as attending Mass though they are barred from receiving the Eucharist and from taking an active part in the liturgy. "Excommunicates lose rights, such as the right to the sacraments, but they are still bound to the obligations of the law. They are urged to retain a relationship with the Church, as the goal is to encourage them to repent and return to active participation in its life; these are the only effects for those. For instance, a priest may not refuse Communion publicly to those who are under an automatic excommunication, as long as it has not been declared to have been incurred by them if the priest knows that they have incurred it.
On the other hand, if the priest knows that excommunication has been imposed on someone or that an automatic excommunication has been declared, he is forbidden to administer Holy Communion to that person.. In the Catholic Church, excommunication is resolved by a declaration of repentance, profession of the Creed and an Act of Faith, or renewal of obedience by the excommunicated person and the lifting of the censure by a priest or bishop empowered to do this. "The absolution can be in the internal forum only, or in the external forum, depending on whether scandal would be given if a person were absolved and yet publicly considered unrepentant." Since excommunication excludes from reception of the sacraments, absolution from excommunication is required before absolution can be given from the sin that led to the censure. In many cases, the whole process takes place on a single occasion in the privacy of the confessional. For some more serious wrongdoings, absolution from excommunication is reserved to a bishop, another ordinary, or the Pope.
These can delegate a priest to act on their behalf. Interdict is a censure similar to excommunication, it too excludes from ministerial functions in public worship and from reception of the sacraments, but not from the exercise of governance. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, excommunications is imposed only by decree, never incurred automatically by latae sententiae excommunication. A distinction is made between major excommunication; those on whom minor excommunication has been imposed are excluded from receiving the Eucharist and can be excluded from participating in the Divine Liturgy. They can be excluded from entering a church when divine worship is being celebrated there; the decree of excommunication must indicate the precise effect of the excommunication and, if required, its duration. Those under major excommunication