Fordham University is a private research university in New York City. Founded by the Catholic Diocese of New York in 1841, it is the oldest Catholic university in the northeastern United States, the third-oldest university in New York, the only Jesuit university in New York City. Established as St. John's College by John Hughes a coadjutor bishop of New York, it was placed in the care of the Society of Jesus shortly thereafter, has since become a Jesuit-affiliated independent school under a lay board of trustees; the college's first president, John McCloskey, was the first Catholic cardinal in the United States. While governed independently of the Church since 1969, every president of Fordham University since 1846 has been a Jesuit priest, the curriculum remains influenced by Jesuit educational principles. Fordham enrolls 15,300 students from more than 65 countries, is composed of ten constituent colleges, four of which are undergraduate and six of which are postgraduate, across three campuses in southern New York State: the Rose Hill campus in the Bronx, the Lincoln Center campus in Manhattan's Upper West Side, the Westchester campus in West Harrison, New York.
In addition to these locations, the university maintains a study abroad center in London and field offices in Spain and South Africa. The university offers degrees in over 60 disciplines. Fordham's alumni and faculty include U. S. Senators and representatives, four cardinals of the Catholic Church, several theologians, several U. S. governors and ambassadors, a number of billionaires, two directors of the CIA, Academy Award and Emmy-winning actors, royalty, a foreign head of state, a White House Counsel, a vice chief of staff of the U. S. Army, a U. S. Postmaster General, a U. S. Attorney General, a U. S. vice-presidential candidate, a president of the United States, Donald Trump. The university's athletic teams, the Rams, include a football team that boasts a win in the Sugar Bowl, two Pro Football Hall of Famers, two All-Americans, two Canadian Football League All-Stars, numerous NFL players. Fordham's baseball team played the first collegiate baseball game under modern rules in 1859, has fielded 56 major league players, holds the record for most NCAA Division I baseball victories in history.
Fordham was founded as St. John's College in 1841 by the Irish-born coadjutor bishop of the Diocese of New York, John Hughes; this makes it the third-oldest university in the state of New York, the first Catholic institution of higher education in the northeastern United States. In 1839, Hughes 42 years old, had purchased the 106-acre Rose Hill Manor farm in the village of Fordham, New York for $29,750, his intent was to establish St. Joseph's Seminary following the model of Mount Saint Mary's University, of which he was an alumnus. "Rose Hill" was the name given to the site in 1787 by its owner, Robert Watts, a wealthy New York merchant, in honor of his family's ancestral home in Scotland. In 1840, St. Joseph's Seminary opened at Rose Hill; the seminary was paired with St. John's College, which opened at Rose Hill with a student body of six on June 24, 1841, the feast day of Saint John the Baptist; the Reverend John McCloskey was the school's first president, the faculty were secular priests and lay instructors.
The college presidency went through a succession of four diocesan priests in five years, including the Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley, a distant cousin of Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt and a nephew of St. Elizabeth Ann Seton. In 1845, the seminary church, Our Lady of Mercy, was built; the same year, Bishop Hughes convinced several Jesuit priests from the St. Mary's College in Kentucky to staff St. John's; the college received its charter from the New York State Legislature in 1846, the first Jesuits began to arrive about three months later. In 1846 Bishop Hughes sold St. John's College to the Jesuits for $40,000. Hughes deeded the college over but retained title to the seminary property, which totaled about nine acres. In 1847, Fordham's first school in Manhattan opened; the school became the independently chartered College of St. Francis Xavier in 1861, it was in 1847 that the American poet Edgar Allan Poe arrived in the village of Fordham and began a friendship with the college Jesuits that would last throughout his life.
In 1849, he published his famed work The Bells. Some traditions credit the college's church bells as the inspiration for this poem. Poe spent considerable time in the Fordham Library, occasionally stayed overnight. St. John's curriculum consisted of a junior division, requiring four years of study in Latin, grammar, history, geography and religion. Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, famed commander of the all-black 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry American Civil War regiment, attended the junior division. An Artium Baccalaureus degree was earned for completion of both curricula, an additional year of philosophy would earn a Magister Artium degree. There was a "commercial" track similar to a modern business school, offered as an alternative to the Classical curriculum and resulting in a certificate instead of a degree. In 1855, the first student stage production, Henry IV, was presented by the St. John's Dramatic Society; the seminary was closed in 1859. The Civil War was a significant time for the college.
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
George J. Hochbrueckner
George Joseph Hochbrueckner was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from New York. After graduating high school in 1956, Hochbrueckner served in the United States Navy as an Aviation Electronics Technician until he was honorably discharged in 1959, he attended college for 2-1/2 years, including the State University of New York at Stony Brook, Hofstra University, California State University, Northridge. He pursued on the job training as an engineer, working for Litton and Teledyne in California and Grumman in New York. Hochbrueckner was a member of the New York State Assembly from 1975 to 1984, sitting in the 181st, 182nd, 183rd, 184th and 185th New York State Legislatures, he was elected to Congress in 1986 and represented New York's 1st congressional district from January 3, 1987 until January 3, 1995. He lost his seat to Michael P. Forbes during the Republican Revolution of 1994, he is now a Senior Policy Advisor at Nossaman LLP, working out of their DC office.
Hochbrueckner and his wife Carol were married in 1961. They lived in California from 1961 to 1968 returned to Long Island, they have four children. United States Congress. "George J. Hochbrueckner". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Appearances on C-SPAN
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age
Dowling College was a private co-educational college in Long Island, New York, United States. It was established in 1968 and had its main campus was located in Oakdale, New York on the site of the William K. Vanderbilt's Idle Hour mansion. Dowling included a campus in Shirley, which contained the college's aviation program and athletic complexes, small campuses in Melville and Manhattan. Dowling was composed of four schools: the School of Arts & Sciences, the School of Education, the Townsend School of Business, the School of Aviation. Enrolling local Long Island students, the college offered a variety of bachelor's degree programs in the arts and business, master's degree programs in education and business, a doctorate in education. Dowling's athletic teams competed in the NCAA Division II East Coast Conference. After years of financial difficulties changing leadership, declining enrollment, a failed search to find an academic partner, Dowling’s accreditation was revoked by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and the college ceased operations on August 31, 2016.
Gilded Age estates were a feature of Oakdale's past and in 1882 Vanderbilt built the most noted one, Idle Hour, a 900-acre estate on the Connetquot River. The lavish, wooden 110-room home was destroyed by fire April 15, 1899, while his son, William Kissam Vanderbilt II, was honeymooning there. Willie and his new wife escaped, it was rebuilt with exquisite furnishings, for $3 million. The building at the time was considered among the finest homes in America, his daughter Consuelo honeymooned there when she married the Duke of Marlborough in 1895. After Vanderbilt's death in 1920, the mansion went through several phases and visitors, including a brief stay during Prohibition by gangster Dutch Schultz. Around that time, cow stalls, pig pens and corn cribs on the farm portion of Idle Hour were converted into a short-lived bohemian artists' colony that included figures such as George Elmer Browne and Roman Bonet-Sintas; the estate became home to Dowling College until it closed in August 2016. In 1955 Adelphi College began offering extension classes in Port Jefferson and Sayville, New York.
In 1959 Adelphi Suffolk became the first four-year, degree-granting liberal arts institution in Suffolk County, housed in an old public school building in Sayville. In January 1963, Adelphi purchased the former William K. Vanderbilt estate in Oakdale. Adelphi spun the campus off in 1968 as Dowling College, named after city planner and philanthropist Robert W. Dowling, who provided an endowment of over $3 million; the Racanelli Learning Resource Center was constructed in 1974 to house the library and additional classrooms. A month a fire damaged the Vanderbilt mansion; the Hunt Room, the Foyer and Ballroom were all damaged. A College committee, led by Alan Fortunoff, Dowling Trustee and son of Fortunoff founder Max Fortunoff, guided the restoration of the ornate woodwork, precious marble, the elaborately carved stonework; the mansion was renamed to Fortunoff Hall to honor Emily Fortunoff. Dr. Victor P. Meskill served in the position for 23 years. Dr. Meskill attempted to shift the focus of the college from a small, locally focused institution to a global university, with an emphasis on the aviation focused Brookhaven Campus which opened in October 1994.
A shakeup occurred in June 1999 when Meskill fired five top-ranking college officials on the same day as a cost cutting measure, after Dowling's debt had increased to $34 million and the school's credit rating had been downgraded. Meskill was one of the most compensated college presidents in the country. Months Meskill was forced to step down by trustees and the officials he fired were reinstated. Former Suffolk County Executive Robert Gaffney was made president in October 2006. Gaffney resigned in May 2010 later in 2014 the college paid Gaffney over $400,000 in a settlement. In August 2013, the Brookhaven Campus dormitory and cafeteria were closed due to the college's financial struggles. However, these facilities reopened in September 2014 following a deal with Stony Brook University which allowed Dowling students to live in the dormitory alongside Stony Brook students. After Gaffney stepped down, Dowling College went through a series of six presidents in five years, with the last being Albert Inserra, who became president in the fall of 2014.
As of 2016, the college enrolled 2,256 total students, down from a high of 6,746 in 1999. Dowling College was $54 million in debt with an endowment of under $2 million, its credit rating was "Ca", it was in default on bond payments. Dowling College was accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. In November 2015, Middle States required Dowling to show cause as to why the school's accreditation should not be revoked due to the college's finances, a final warning before such action would be taken. In March 2016 Dowling announced that they had secured a partnership with Global University Systems, allowing the college to continue operating. On May 23rd, five days before the Class of 2016's graduation ceremony, the agreement with Global University Systems stalled and Dowling needed an emergency infusion of cash to survive until graduation. In a total surprise to many students and staff, on May 31st Dowling announced that the school would be closing in three days. Nearly all employees were laid off.
The closing date was pushed back to June 8th. On that day, president Albert Inserra announced that negotiations had restarted and the motion to close the school was rescinded. A teach-out plan, required by Middle States, to help students transition to other institutions, was put into effect in
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
New York State Assembly
The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York State Legislature, the New York State Senate being the upper house. There are 150 seats in the Assembly, with each of the 150 Assembly districts having an average population of 128,652. Assembly members serve two-year terms without term limits; the Assembly convenes at the State Capitol in Albany. The Speaker of the Assembly presides over the Assembly; the Speaker is elected by the Majority Conference followed by confirmation of the full Assembly through the passage of an Assembly Resolution. In addition to presiding over the body, the Speaker has the chief leadership position, controls the flow of legislation and committee assignments; the minority leader is elected by party caucus. The majority leader of the Assembly is selected by, serves at the pleasure of, the Speaker; the current Speaker is Democrat Carl Heastie of the 83rd Assembly District. The Majority Leader is Crystal Peoples-Stokes of the 141st Assembly District The Minority Leader is Republican Brian Kolb of the 131st Assembly District.
As of July 23, 2018, the following is a list of Assembly committees and committee chairs. +Elected in a special election New York State Capitol New York Legislature New York State Senate Political party strength in New York New York Provincial Congress Official website