James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde and is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses, a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in a variety of literary styles, most famously stream of consciousness. Other well-known works are the short-story collection Dubliners, the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Finnegans Wake, his other writings include three books of poetry, a play, his published letters and occasional journalism. Joyce was born in Dublin into a middle-class family. A brilliant student, he attended the Christian Brothers-run O'Connell School before excelling at the Jesuit schools Clongowes and Belvedere, despite the chaotic family life imposed by his father's alcoholism and unpredictable finances, he went on to attend University College Dublin. In 1904, in his early twenties, Joyce emigrated to continental Europe with his partner Nora Barnacle.
They lived in Trieste and Zurich. Although most of his adult life was spent abroad, Joyce's fictional universe centres on Dublin and is populated by characters who resemble family members and friends from his time there. Ulysses in particular is set with precision in the alleyways of the city. Shortly after the publication of Ulysses, he elucidated this preoccupation somewhat, saying, "For myself, I always write about Dublin, because if I can get to the heart of Dublin I can get to the heart of all the cities of the world. In the particular is contained the universal." On 2 February 1882, Joyce was born at 41 Brighton Square, Dublin, Ireland. Joyce's father was John Stanislaus Joyce and his mother was Mary Jane "May" Murray, he was the eldest of ten surviving siblings. James was baptised according to the Rites of the Catholic Church in the nearby St Joseph's Church in Terenure on 5 February 1882 by Rev. John O'Mulloy. Joyce's godparents were Ellen McCann. John Stanislaus Joyce's family came from Fermoy in County Cork, had owned a small salt and lime works.
Joyce's paternal grandfather, James Augustine Joyce, married Ellen O'Connell, daughter of John O'Connell, a Cork Alderman who owned a drapery business and other properties in Cork City. Ellen's family claimed kinship with Daniel O'Connell, "The Liberator"; the Joyce family's purported ancestor, Seán Mór Seoighe was a stonemason from Connemara. In 1887, his father was appointed rate collector by Dublin Corporation. Around this time Joyce was attacked by leading to his lifelong cynophobia, he suffered from astraphobia. In 1891 Joyce wrote a poem on the death of Charles Stewart Parnell, his father was angry at the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic Church, the Irish Home Rule Party and the British Liberal Party and the resulting collaborative failure to secure Home Rule for Ireland. The Irish Party had dropped Parnell from leadership, but the Vatican's role in allying with the British Conservative Party to prevent Home Rule left a lasting impression on the young Joyce. The elder Joyce had the poem printed and sent a part to the Vatican Library.
In November, John Joyce was suspended from work. In 1893, John Joyce was dismissed with a pension, beginning the family's slide into poverty caused by his drinking and financial mismanagement. Joyce had begun his education at Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit boarding school near Clane, County Kildare, in 1888 but had to leave in 1892 when his father could no longer pay the fees. Joyce studied at home and at the Christian Brothers O'Connell School on North Richmond Street, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits' Dublin school, Belvedere College, in 1893; this came about because of a chance meeting his father had with a Jesuit priest called John Conmee who knew the family and Joyce was given a reduction in fees to attend Belvedere. In 1895, now aged 13, was elected to join the Sodality of Our Lady by his peers at Belvedere; the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas continued to have a strong influence on him for most of his life. Joyce enrolled at the established University College Dublin in 1898, studying English and Italian.
He became active in literary circles in the city. In 1900 his laudatory review of Henrik Ibsen's When We Dead Awaken was published in The Fortnightly Review. Joyce wrote a number of at least two plays during this period. Many of the friends he made at University College Dublin appeared as characters in Joyce's works, his closest colleagues included leading figures of the generation, most notably, Tom Kettle, Francis Sheehy-Skeffington and Oliver St. John Gogarty. Joyce was first introduced to the Irish public by Arthur Griffith in his newspaper, United Irishman, in November 1901. Joyce had written an article on the Irish Literary Theatre and his college magazine refused to print it. Joyce had it distributed locally. Griffith himself wrote a piece decrying the censorship of the student James Joyce. In 1901, the National Census of Ireland lists James Joyce as an English- and Irish-speaking scholar living with his mother and father, six sisters and three brothers at Royal Terrace (now Inverness Ro
Eugene Gladstone O'Neill was an American playwright and Nobel laureate in Literature. His poetically titled plays were among the first to introduce into U. S. drama techniques of realism earlier associated with Russian playwright Anton Chekhov, Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen, Swedish playwright August Strindberg. The drama Long Day's Journey into Night is numbered on the short list of the finest U. S. plays in the 20th century, alongside Tennessee Williams's A Streetcar Named Desire and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. O'Neill's plays were among the first to include speeches in American English vernacular and involve characters on the fringes of society, they struggle to maintain their hopes and aspirations, but slide into disillusionment and despair. Of his few comedies, only one is well-known. Nearly all of his other plays involve some degree of tragedy and personal pessimism. O'Neill was born in a hotel, the Barrett House, at Broadway and 43rd Street, on what was Longacre Square. A commemorative plaque was first dedicated there in 1957.
The site is now occupied by 1500 Broadway, which houses offices and the ABC Studios. He was the son of Irish immigrant actor James O'Neill and Mary Ellen Quinlan, of Irish descent; because his father was on tour with a theatrical company, accompanied by Eugene's mother, O'Neill was sent to St. Aloysius Academy for Boys, a Catholic boarding school in the Riverdale section of the Bronx, where he found his only solace in books, his father suffered from alcoholism. The O'Neill family reunited for summers at the Monte Cristo Cottage in Connecticut, he briefly attended Betts Academy in Stamford. He attended Princeton University for one year. Accounts vary as to, he may have been dropped for attending too few classes, been suspended for "conduct code violations," or "for breaking a window", or according to a more concrete but apocryphal account, because he threw "a beer bottle into the window of Professor Woodrow Wilson", the future president of the United States. O'Neill spent several years at sea, during which he suffered from alcoholism.
Despite this, he had a deep love for the sea and it became a prominent theme in many of his plays, several of which are set on board ships like those on which he worked. O'Neill joined the Marine Transport Workers Union of the Industrial Workers of the World, fighting for improved living conditions for the working class using quick'on the job' direct action. O'Neill's parents and elder brother Jamie died within three years of one another, not long after he had begun to make his mark in the theater. After his experience in 1912–13 at a sanatorium where he was recovering from tuberculosis, he decided to devote himself full-time to writing plays. O'Neill had been employed by the New London Telegraph, writing poetry as well as reporting. In the fall of 1914, he entered Harvard University to attend a course in dramatic technique given by Professor George Baker, he did not complete the course. During the 1910s O'Neill was a regular on the Greenwich Village literary scene, where he befriended many radicals, most notably Communist Labor Party of America founder John Reed.
O'Neill had a brief romantic relationship with Reed's wife, writer Louise Bryant. O'Neill was portrayed about the life of John Reed, his involvement with the Provincetown Players began in mid-1916. O'Neill is said to have arrived for the summer in Provincetown with "a trunk full of plays." Susan Glaspell describes a reading of Bound East for Cardiff that took place in the living room of Glaspell and her husband George Cram Cook's home on Commercial Street, adjacent to the wharf, used by the Players for their theater: "So Gene took Bound East for Cardiff out of his trunk, Freddie Burt read it to us, Gene staying out in the dining-room while reading went on. He was not left alone in the dining-room when the reading had finished." The Provincetown Players performed many of O'Neill's early works in their theaters both in Provincetown and on MacDougal Street in Greenwich Village. Some of these early plays began downtown and moved to Broadway. One of these early one acts written by O'Neill was The Web.
Written in 1913, this is the first time O'Neill explores the famous themes he thrives in in his career. The Web was one of O'Neill's first dramas; this one act began his interesting inclusion of the brothel world. This can be showcased. We see O'Neill explore memorable avenues within this play such a including a baby, born out of prostitution; this was a huge stepping stone as O'Neill is exploring fields in which have never before been explored with such success. O'Neill's first published play, Beyond the Horizon, opened on Broadway in 1920 to great acclaim, was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, his first major hit was The Emperor Jones, which ran on Broadway in 1920 and obliquely commented on the U. S. occupation of Haiti, a topic of debate in that year's presidential election. His best-known plays include Anna Christie, Desire Under the Elms, Strange Interlude, Mourning Becomes Electra, his only well-known comedy, Ah, Wilderness!, a wistful re-imagining of his youth as he wished it had been.
In 1936 he received the
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
The Suicide Squad is the name of a fictional supervillain team appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The first version of the Suicide Squad debuted in The Brave and the Bold #25 and the second and modern version, created by John Ostrander, debuted in Legends #3. One of the two teams saves the world from a threatening race of savages; the modern incarnation of the Suicide Squad is Task Force X—a team of incarcerated supervillains who carry out secret missions in exchange for reduced prison sentences. The Suicide Squad's name alludes to the dangerous nature of their missions; the team is based out of Belle Reve Penitentiary under the directorship of Amanda Waller. Various incarnations of the Suicide Squad have existed throughout the years as depicted in several self-titled comic book series, from its origins in the Silver Age, to its modern-day Post-Crisis reimagining, to the current version, introduced in the 2016 DC Rebirth continuity reboot; the current incarnation of the team appears in the fifth volume of the Suicide Squad comic series, the recurring members include Captain Boomerang, Enchantress, Harley Quinn and Killer Croc.
The group has appeared in various adaptations, including television series and an eponymous 2016 feature film. Featured in The Brave and the Bold, the original Suicide Squad team included Rick Flag Jr. his girlfriend Karen Grace, Dr. Hugh Evans and Jess Bright; this team was created by artist Ross Andru. The Suicide Squad was revived in the Legends miniseries with writer John Ostrander at the helm; the renewed concept involved the government employing a group of supervillains to perform missions that were suicide runs, a concept popular enough for an ongoing series titled Suicide Squad. The squad was paired together with DC's other government agency, Checkmate—culminating in the Janus Directive crossover. While the Squad is depicted as succeeding on their missions, failure resulted. Ostrander remarked on how Squad stories sometimes purposefully brought in characters to be killed off; the team's name, Suicide Squad, relates to the idea that this group of characters is sent on dangerous and difficult missions—suicide missions.
Suicide Squad lasted 66 issues, along with one special. After the series' cancellation in 1992, the Squad went on to make several guest appearances in titles such as Superboy, Hawk & Dove and Adventures of Superman. Suicide Squad was published in 2001, written with art by Paco Medina. Though the series' first issue featured a Squad composed of Giffen's Injustice League members, the roster was promptly slaughtered, save for Major Disaster and Multi-Man; these developments prompt Sgt. Rock, by now written into the role of squad leader, to recruit new members—numerous of whom died during the missions they undertook. Suicide Squad was an eight-issue miniseries published in 2007, it featured the return of writer John Ostrander, with art by Javier Pina. The story focused on the return of Rick Flag Jr. and the formation of a new Squad for the purpose of attacking a corporation responsible for the development of a deadly bio-weapon. Suicide Squad debuted as part of DC Comics' line-wide New 52 continuity reboot in 2011.
The relaunched book was written by Adam Glass, with art by Ransom Getty. Amanda Waller once again directs the group from behind the scenes; this series concluded in 2014, with issue #30. New Suicide Squad was launched in July 2014. Written by Sean Ryan with art by Jeremy Roberts, the new series continues to feature Deadshot and Harley Quinn, with Deathstroke, Black Manta, Joker's Daughter added to the mix; the original Suicide Squad appeared in six issues of the Bold. Although this early incarnation of the team did not have the espionage trappings of Squads, it laid much of the groundwork for squad field leader Rick Flag Jr.'s personal history. The team's administrator Amanda Waller was introduced in the Legends miniseries, with the original Silver Age Squad's backstory fleshed out further in Secret Origins #14; the original Suicide Squad first appears in The Brave and the Bold #25. Team members appearing in the debut issue include physicist Jess Bright; the characters have follow-up appearances in issues #26, #27 and #37-#39.
The team's introductory story depicts them being called in to deal with a super-heated red-hued object, called the "Red Wave", heading toward a seaside resort and boiling the ocean along the way. They travel in a plane equipped with a analysis lab. Follow-up appearances show the team dealing with a variety of challenges: a meteor storm, a giant serpent in the Paris subway tunnels, a giant monster that captures Karin and a nuclear bomb. Issues # 38 and # 39 show the team meeting the leader of the Cyclops. In the midst of Darkseid's attempt to turn humanity against Earth's superheroes via his minion Glorious Godfrey, Amanda Waller assigns Rick Flag Jr. leadership of a reformed Task Force X. Blockbuster, Bronze Tiger, Captain Boomerang and Enchantress comprise Task Force X; the squad's first mission is to eliminate Darkseid's rampaging fire elemental Brimstone. Waller dismisses th
Black Canary is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by the writer-artist team of Robert Kanigher and Carmine Infantino, the character debuted in Flash Comics #86. One of DC's earliest super-heroines, Black Canary has appeared in many of the company's flagship team-up titles including Justice Society of America and Justice League of America. Since the late 1960s, the character has been paired with archer superhero Green Arrow and romantically. At her Golden Age debut, Black Canary was the alter ego of Dinah Drake and participated in crime-fighting adventures with her love interest, Gotham City detective Larry Lance; the character was a hand-to-hand fighter without superpowers who posed as a criminal to infiltrate criminal gangs. Stories depicted her as a world-class martial artist with a superpower: the "canary cry", a high-powered sonic scream which could shatter objects and incapacitate and kill powerful foes such as Superman; when DC Comics adjusted its continuity, Black Canary was established as two separate entities: mother and daughter, Dinah Drake-Lance and Dinah Laurel Lance.
Stories since the Silver Age focused on the younger Black Canary, ascribing her superhuman abilities to a genetic mutation. However, since the launch of the New 52, the two identities have been merged, with Dinah Drake possessing a metahuman cry. Black Canary has been adapted into various media, including direct-to-video animated films, video games, both live-action and animated television series, featuring as a main or recurring character in the shows Birds of Prey, Justice League Unlimited, Batman: The Brave and the Bold, Young Justice and Arrow. In Birds of Prey she was played by Rachel Skarsten, in Smallville she was played by Alaina Huffman. In Arrow and the Arrowverse shows the characters Dinah Laurel Lance, Sara Lance, Dinah Drake are portrayed by Katie Cassidy, Caity Lotz, Juliana Harkavy; the character will make her cinematic debut in the upcoming film Birds of Prey, portrayed by Jurnee Smollett-Bell. Robert Kanigher and Carmine Infantino created the character in 1947 to be featured in Flash Comics as a supporting character.
Appearing first as a clandestine crime-fighter who infiltrates criminal organizations to break them from the inside, Black Canary was drawn with fishnet stockings and a black leather jacket to connote images of a sexualized yet strong female character. She appeared as a character in a back-up story featuring "Johnny Thunder": I was drawing Johnny Thunder, not much of a character. I suppose he could have been better because his'Thunderbolt' was interesting, but the situations they were in were pretty juvenile. Bob Kanigher wrote those stories, he had no respect for the characters; these stories were nowhere near as good as'The Flash' stories. DC knew it—they knew'Johnny Thunder' was a loser, so Kanigher and I brought the Black Canary into the series, she got a good response, it was,'Bye, Johnny Thunder.' Nobody missed him." According to Amash & Nolen-Weathington, Black Canary is "really" Carmine Infantino's "first character." According to the artist: "When Kanigher gave me the script, I said,'How do you want me to draw her?'
He said,'What's your fantasy of a good-looking girl? That's what I want.' Isn't that a great line? So that's. I sexy in form; the funny part is that years while in Korea on a National Cartoonists trip, I met a dancer, the exact image of the Black Canary. And I went out with her for three years. Bob didn't ask me for a character sketch, he had a lot of respect for me, I must say that. He always trusted my work... Bob loved my Black Canary design." Dinah Drake made her debut in Flash Comics #86 as a supporting character in the "Johnny Thunder" feature, written by Robert Kanigher and drawn by Carmine Infantino. She appeared as a villain. Johnny is infatuated with her, is reproached by his Thunderbolt. Dinah is revealed to have been infiltrating a criminal gang. In Flash Comics #92 she has her own anthology feature, "Black Canary", replacing "Johnny Thunder"; the new series fleshed out Black Canary's backstory: Dinah Drake was a black-haired florist in love with Larry Lance, a Gotham City Police Department detective.
She first meets the Justice Society of America in All Star Comics #38, joining them in All Star Comics #41. Black Canary was revived with the other Golden Age characters during the 1960s. In these stories, it is retroactively established she lives on the parallel world of Earth-2. Married to Larry Lance since the 1950s, Dinah participates in annual team-ups between the Justice Society and Earth-1's Justice League of America. In a 1969 JLA/JSA team-up against the rogue star-creature Aquarius, who banished Earth-2's inhabitants to another dimension, Larry Lance is killed saving Dinah's life and Aquarius is defeated. Grief-stricken, Canary joins the Justice League, she begins a relationship with JLA colleague Green Arrow and discovers that she has developed an ultrasonic scream, the "canary cry."Black Canary teams with Batman five times in The Brave and the Bold and once with Superman in DC Comics Presents. Appearing as a guest in the "Green Arrow" backup feature of Action Comics, she was a backup feature in World's Finest Comics #244 to #256.
Black Canary's backstory was featured in DC Special Series #10. After the "B
All Star Comics
All Star Comics is an American comic book series from All-American Publications, one of three companies that merged with National Periodical Publications to form the modern-day DC Comics. While the series' cover-logo trademark reads All Star Comics, its copyrighted title as indicated by postal indicia is All-Star Comics, with a hyphen. With the exception of the first two issues, All Star Comics told stories about the adventures of the Justice Society of America, the first team of superheroes, introduced Wonder Woman; the original concept for All Star Comics was an anthology title containing the most popular series from the other anthology titles published by both All-American Publications and National Comics. All Star Comics #1 contained superhero stories that included All-American's Golden Age Flash, Ultra-Man, as well as National's Hour-Man and Sandman; the adventure strip "Biff Bronson" and the comedy-adventure "Red and Blue" premiered with the Summer 1940 cover date. Issue #3 depicted the first meeting of the Justice Society of America, with its members swapping stories of their exploits which were subsequently illustrated in the comic's array of solo adventures.
In addition to the Flash, Hour-Man, the Spectre, the Sandman were Doctor Fate from National's More Fun Comics. The Justice Society of America was a frame story used to present an anthology of solo stories about the individual characters, with each story handled by a different artist. Comic historian Les Daniels noted, "this was a great notion, since it offered readers a lot of headliners for a dime, the fun of watching fan favorites interact." The anthology format was dropped in 1947 and replaced with full issue stories featuring the heroes teaming up to fight crime. All Star Comics #8 featured the first appearance of Wonder Woman in an eight-page story written by William Moulton Marston, under the pen name of "Charles Moulton" with art by H. G. Peter; the insert story was included to test reader interest in the Wonder Woman concept. It generated enough positive fan response that Wonder Woman would be awarded the lead feature in the Sensation Comics anthology title starting from issue #1; that same issue saw the induction of Doctor Mid-Nite and Starman as members of the Justice Society as well.
Starting with issue #11, Wonder Woman would appear in All Star Comics as a member of the Justice Society as their secretary. With issue # 34, Gardner Fox left a new super-villain, the Wizard, was introduced; the Injustice Society first battled the JSA in issue #37 in a tale written by Robert Kanigher. The Black Canary guest starred in issue #38 and joined the team three issues in #41. All Star Comics increased its frequency from a quarterly to a bimonthly publication schedule, the JSA lasted through March 1951 with issue #57 in a story titled "The Mystery of the Vanishing Detectives". Superhero comics slumped in the early 1950s, All Star Comics was renamed All-Star Western in 1951 with issue #58. In this issue, the "Justice Society of America" feature was replaced by Western heroes. Artwork from an unpublished All Star Comics story titled "The Will of William Wilson" survived and was reprinted in various publications from TwoMorrows Publishing. In 1976, the name All Star Comics was resurrected for a series portraying the modern-day adventures of the JSA.
The new series dismissed the numbering from All-Star Western and continued the original numbering, premiering with All-Star Comics #58. Starting with issue #66, a hyphen was added to the title and the words "All-Star Comics" became a much smaller part of the cover; the 1970s series introduced the new characters Power Girl and the Helena Wayne version of the Huntress. This series ran for seventeen issues before it was abruptly canceled with issue #74 as part of the DC Implosion and the JSA's adventures were folded into Adventure Comics. After 23-year-old Gerry Conway became an editor at DC Comics, long-time JSA-fan Roy Thomas suggested to Conway that the JSA be given their own title again. Conway offered Thomas a chance to ghostwrite an issue of the revived All-Star Comics, but he declined as Thomas was under an exclusive contract with Marvel Comics at the time. However, in 1981 Thomas was able to work with the characters. A two-issue All-Star Comics series was published as a part of the "Justice Society Returns" storyline in May 1999.
All Star Comics Archives: Volume 0 collects #1–2, 144 pages, March 2006, ISBN 1-4012-0791-X Volume 1 collects #3–6, 272 pages, 1992, ISBN 1-5638-9019-4 Volume 2 collects #7–10, 256 pages, 1993, ISBN 0-9302-8912-9 Volume 3 collects #11–14, 240 pages, November 1997, ISBN 1-5638-9370-3 Volume 4 collects #15–18, 224 pages, December 1998, ISBN 1-5638-9433-5 Volume 5 collects #19–23, 224 pages, December 1999, ISBN 1-5638-9497-1 Volume 6 collects #24–28, 240 pages, October 2000, ISBN 1-5638-9636-2 Volume 7 collects #29–33, 216 pages, July 2001, ISBN 1-5638-9720-2 Volume 8 collects #34–38, 208 pages, August 2002, ISBN 1-5638-9812-8 Volume 9 collects #39–43, 192 pages, August 2003, ISBN 1-4012-0001-X Volume 10 collects #44–49, 216 pages, August 2004, ISBN 1-4012-0159-8 Volume 11 collects #50–57, 276 pages, March 2005, ISBN 1-4012-0403-1 Justice Society Volume 1 collects #58–67 and DC Special #29, 224 pages, August 2006, ISBN 1-4012-0970-X Volume 2 collects #68–74 and Adventure Comics #461–466, 224 pages, February 2007, ISBN 1-4012-1194-1 Showcase Presents: All-Star Comics collects issues #58–74 and Adventure Comics #461–466, 448 pages, September 2011, ISBN 1-4012-3303-1 In 2000 and 2001, DC Comics reprinted se
William Moulton Marston
William Moulton Marston known by the pen name Charles Moulton, was an American psychologist, inventor of an early prototype of the lie detector, self-help author, comic book writer who created the character Wonder Woman. Two women, his wife Elizabeth Holloway Marston, their polyamorous life partner, Olive Byrne influenced Wonder Woman's creation, he was inducted into the Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2006. Marston was born in the Cliftondale section of Saugus, the son of Annie Dalton and Frederick William Marston. Marston was educated at Harvard University, graduating Phi Beta Kappa and receiving his B. A. in 1915, an LL. B. in 1918, a PhD in Psychology in 1921. After teaching at American University in Washington, D. C. and Tufts University in Medford, Marston traveled to Universal Studios in California in 1929, where he spent a year as Director of Public Services. Marston had 2 children each with both partner Olive Byrne. Elizabeth supported the family financially while Olive Byrne stayed home to take care of all four children.
Marston was the creator of the systolic blood pressure test, which became one component of the modern polygraph invented by John Augustus Larson in Berkeley, California. Marston's wife, Elizabeth Holloway Marston, suggested a connection between emotion and blood pressure to William, observing that, "hen she got mad or excited, her blood pressure seemed to climb". Although Elizabeth is not listed as Marston's collaborator in his early work, Lamb and others refer directly and indirectly to Elizabeth's own work on her husband's research, she appears in a picture taken in his laboratory in the 1920s. Marston set out to commercialize Larson's invention of the polygraph, when he subsequently embarked on a career in entertainment and comic book writing and appeared as a salesman in ads for Gillette Razors, using a polygraph motif. From his psychological work, Marston became convinced that women were more honest than men in certain situations and could work faster and more accurately. During his lifetime, Marston championed the latent causes of the women of his day.
Marston was a writer of essays in popular psychology. In 1928, he published Emotions of Normal People. Marston viewed people behaving along two axes, with their attention being either passive or active, depending on the individual's perception of his or her environment as either favorable or antagonistic. By placing the axes at right angles, four quadrants form, with each describing a behavioral pattern: Dominance produces activity in an antagonistic environment Inducement produces activity in a favorable environment Submission produces passivity in a favorable environment Compliance produces passivity in an antagonistic environment. Marston posited that there is a masculine notion of freedom, inherently anarchic and violent and an opposing feminine notion based on "Love Allure" that leads to an ideal state of submission to loving authority. On October 25, 1940, an interview conducted by former student Olive Byrne was published in The Family Circle, in which Marston said that he saw "great educational potential" in comic books.
The interview caught the attention of comics publisher Max Gaines, who hired Marston as an educational consultant for National Periodicals and All-American Publications, two of the companies that would merge to form DC Comics. In the early 1940s, the DC Comics line was dominated by superpower-endowed male characters such as the Green Lantern and Superman, as well as Batman, with his high-tech gadgets. According to the Fall 2001 issue of the Boston University alumni magazine, it was the idea of Marston's wife, Elizabeth Holloway Marston, to create a female superhero. Marston recommended an idea for a new kind of superhero, one who would conquer not with fists or firepower, but with love. "Fine," said Elizabeth. "but make her a woman."Marston introduced the idea to Max Gaines, co-founder with Jack Liebowitz of All-American Publications. Given the go-ahead, Marston developed Wonder Woman, basing her character on the unconventional, powerful modern women of his day. Marston's pseudonym, Charles Moulton, combined Gaines's middle names.
In a 1943 issue of The American Scholar, Marston wrote: "Not girls want to be girls so long as our feminine archetype lacks force and power. Not wanting to be girls, they don't want to be tender, peace-loving as good women are. Women's strong qualities have become despised because of their weakness; the obvious remedy is to create a feminine character with all the strength of Superman plus all the allure of a good and beautiful woman."In 2017, a majority of Marston's personal papers arrived at the Schlesinger Library at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Marston's character was a native of an all-female utopia of Amazons who became a crime-fighting U. S. government agent, using her superhuman strength and agility, her ability to force villains to submit and tell the truth by binding them with her magic lasso. Her appearance was believed by some to be based somewhat on Olive Byrne, her heavy bronze bracelets were inspired by the jewelry bracelets worn by Byrne. After her name "Suprema