46th United States Congress
The Forty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1879, to March 4, 1881, during the last two years of Rutherford Hayes's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870; the Senate had a Democratic majority. The Democrats were still able to control the House, with the help of the Independent politicians who caucused with them. President: William A. Wheeler President pro tempore: Allen G. Thurman Democratic Caucus Chairman: William A. Wallace Republican Conference Chairman: Henry B. Anthony Speaker: Samuel J. Randall Democratic Caucus Chairman: John Ford House Republican Conference Chair: William P. Frye Depression of 1873–79 March 18, 1879: Samuel J. Randall was elected in one of the most fought contests for the speakership after the Civil War.
Randall, who favored the protective tariff and "hard money," drew his greatest strength from northern cities and greatest opposition from the west and south. The midterm elections of 1878 had gone badly for the Democrats, with the Greenback Party making inroads in key districts; this emboldened Randall's opponents. In the end, Randall prevailed in the Democratic caucus to receive the nomination, with 75 votes to Blackburn's 57 and a scattering of 9 votes to three other candidates. Blackburn, in moving to make Randall's nomination unanimous, steered his supporters away from the nomination of Hendrick B. Wright, a Democrat from Pennsylvania, nominated by the Greenbacks. In the eventual vote in the House to elect the Speaker, Randall prevailed with 144 votes, to 125 for James Garfield, 13 for Wright, one for William "Pig Iron" Kelley. November 2, 1880: U. S. presidential election, 1880: James Garfield defeated Winfield S. Hancock February 19, 1881: Kansas became the first state to prohibit alcohol.
This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1880; the names of members are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 4 Democratic: no net change Republican: no net change deaths: 3 resignations: 1 interim appointments: 2 Total seats with changes: 5 replacements: 8 Democratic: 1 seat net gain Republican: 1 seat net loss deaths: 4 resignations: 3 contested election: 2 Total seats with changes: 11 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Additional Accommodations for the Library of Congress Agriculture Appropriations Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Cabinet Officers on the Floor of the Senate Civil Service and Retrenchment Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Education and Labor Elections of 1878 Emigration of Negroes from the South to North Engrossed Bills Enrolled Bills Epidemic Diseases Examine the Several Branches in the Civil Service Finance Foreign Relations Freedman's Savings and Trust Company Indian Affairs Indian Territory Manufactures Military Affairs Mines and Mining Mississippi River and its Tributaries Naval Affairs Nicaraguan Claims Ordnance and War Ships Patents Pensions Plueropneumonia among Animals Post Office and Post Roads Private Land Claims Privileges and Elections Public Lands Railroads Revision of the Laws Revolutionary Claims Rules Tariff Regulation Tenth Census Territories Transportation Routes to the Seaboard Treasury Department Account Discrepancies Whole Accounts Alcoholic Liquor Traffic Agriculture Appropriations Banking and Currency Claims Coinage and Measures Commerce District of Columbia Education and Labor Elections Enrolled Bills Expenditures in the Interior Department Expenditures in the Justice Department Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Judiciary Levees and Improvements of the Mississippi River Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Mines and Mining Naval Affairs Pacific Railroads Patents Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Pub
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Robert R. Hitt
Robert Roberts Hitt was an Assistant Secretary of State and a member of the United States House of Representatives. He was born in Ohio, to Reverend Thomas Smith Hitt and Emily John Hitt, he and his parents moved to Mount Morris, Illinois in 1837. There he was educated at Rock River Seminary and at DePaul University. An expert shorthand writer, he became a close friend of future President of the United States Abraham Lincoln, during the famous Lincoln–Douglas debates of 1858, at the request of Lincoln, Hitt served as a shorthand note-taker. During Lincoln's legal days in Chicago, he had first employed Hitt as such. In 1872, Hitt was a personal secretary for Indiana Senator Oliver P. Morton, In December 1874, President Ulysses S. Grant appointed him First Secretary of the American Legation in Paris, he was United States Assistant Secretary of State under James G. Blaine during President James A. Garfield and President Chester A. Arthur's Administrations in 1881 and was elected to represent Illinois' 5th district in the United States House of Representatives in 1882.
Hitt became Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs at the beginning of the Fifty-first Congress and from the Fifty-fourth to Fifty-ninth Congresses. When the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 came up for renewal in 1892, he argued against the alien documentation provisions of the bill: "Never before in a free country was there such a system of tagging a man, like a dog to be caught by the police and examined, if his tag or collar is not all right, taken to the pound or drowned and shot. Never before was it applied by a free people to a human being, with the exception of the sad days of slavery. …"He was appointed in July 1898 by President William McKinley as a member of the commission created by the Newlands Resolution to establish government in the Territory of Hawaii. During the last years of his life, he was Regent of the Smithsonian Institution, he died on September 20, 1906. He is buried in Oakwood Cemetery in Mount Morris, along with his parents. Hitt is the namesake of the community of Missouri.
List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "Robert R. Hitt". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Robert Roberts Hitt, late a representative from Illinois, Memorial addresses delivered in the House of Representatives and Senate frontispiece 1907
During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic; the Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts. To this end, the Union Army fought and triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. Over the course of the war, 2,128,948 men enlisted in the Union Army, including 178,895 colored troops. Of these soldiers, 596,670 were wounded or went missing; the initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,367 men in the U.
S. Army, including 1,108 commissioned officers. 20% of these officers, most of them Southerners, choosing to tie their lives and fortunes to the Army of the Confederacy. In addition 200 West Point graduates who had left the Army, including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, Braxton Bragg, would return to service at the outbreak of the war; this group's loyalties were far more divided, with 92 donning Confederate gray and 102 putting on the blue of the Union Army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, three of mounted infantry; the regiments were scattered widely. Of the 197 companies in the army, 179 occupied 79 isolated posts in the West, the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi River along the Canada–United States border and on the Atlantic coast. With the Southern slave states declaring secession from the Union, with this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75,000 men for three months to put down this subversive insurrection.
Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. It turned out that the war itself proved to be much longer and far more extensive in scope and scale than anyone on either side, Union North or Confederate South, expected or imagined at the outset on the date of July 22, 1861; that was the day that Congress approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up to 500,000 men to the cause. The call for volunteers was met by patriotic Northerners and immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals. Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania responded to Lincoln's call, the French were quick to volunteer; as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Between April 1861 and April 1865, at least 2,128,948 men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers, it is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army.
At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S. Military Academy on the active list. Of the 900 West Point graduates who were civilians, 400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283; the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers did not have this right. While the total number of those is unknown, only 26 enlisted men and non-commissioned officers of the regular army are known to have left the army to join the Confederate army when the war began; the Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were organized geographically. Military division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the more modern term Theater. Department An organization that covered a defined region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein and for the field armies within their borders.
Those named for states referred to Southern states, occupied. It was more common to name departments for regions. District A subdivision of a Department
47th United States Congress
The Forty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1881, to March 4, 1883, during the first and only year of James Garfield's presidency, the first two years of his successor, Chester Arthur's tenure. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870; the House had a Republican majority. The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. President: Chester A. Arthur, until September 19, 1881. Anthony Speaker: J. Warren Keifer Republican Conference Chair: George M. Robeson March 4, 1881: James A. Garfield became President of the United States September 19, 1881: President Garfield died.
Vice President Chester A. Arthur became President of the United States February 25, 1882: Apportionment of the Tenth Census, ch. 20, 22 Stat. 5 May 6, 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act, 22 Stat. 58 August 2, 1882: Rivers and Harbors Act January 16, 1883: Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, ch. 27, 22 Stat. 403 March 3, 1883: Tariff of 1883 This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. Members' names are preceded by their district numbers; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress. Deaths: 2 Resignations: 8 Interim appointments: 1 Total replacements: 8 Democratic: no net change Republican: no net change Total seats with changes: 10 Deaths: 6 Resignations: 9 Contested elections: 8 Total replacements: 14 Democratic: 1 seat net gain Republican: 1 seat net loss Total seats with changes: 22 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Additional Accommodations for the Library of Congress Agriculture Appropriations Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Cabinet Officers on the Floor of the Senate Civil Service and Retrenchment Claims Commerce Distilled Spirit Tax Bill Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Education and Labor Engrossed Bills Enrolled Bills Epidemic Diseases Examine the Several Branches in the Civil Service Finance Foreign Relations Indian Affairs Judiciary Manufactures Memorial on Services Rendered by Carlisle P. Patterson Military Affairs Mines and Mining Mississippi River and its Tributaries Naval Affairs Nicaraguan Claims Ordnance and Gunnery Ordnance and Projectiles Ordnance and War Ships Patents Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Potomac River Front Private Land Claims Privileges and Elections Public Lands Railroads Revenue Collections in North Carolina Revision of the Laws Revolutionary Claims Rules Sioux and Crow Indians Tariff Regulation Tenth Census Territories Transportation Routes to the Seaboard Whole Woman Suffrage Accounts Alcoholic Liquor Traffic Agriculture Appropriations Banking and Currency Claims Coinage and Measures Commerce District of Columbia Education and Labor Elections Enrolled Bills Expenditures in the Interior Department Expenditures in the Justice Department Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Levees and Improvements of the Mississippi River Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Mines and Mining Naval Affairs Pacific Railroads Patents Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Lands Railways and Canals Revision of Laws Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories War Claims Ways and Means Whole American Shipbuilding Budget Control Conditions of Indian Tribes State and Navy Department Building Democratic Democratic Architect of the Capitol: Edward Clark Librarian of Congress: Ainsworth Rand Spofford Public Printer of the United States: John D. Defrees, Sterling P. Rounds Secretary: John C.
Burch, elected March 24, 1879, died July 28, 1881 Francis E. Shober, elected October 25, 1881 Sergeant at Arms: Richard J. Bright Chaplain: Joseph
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Horatio C. Burchard
Horatio Chapin Burchard was a U. S. Representative from Illinois, 15th Director of the United States Mint, member of the International Statistical Institute, father of the Consumer Price Index. Born in Marshall, New York, Burchard attended private preparatory schools, he was graduated from Hamilton College, New York, in 1850. He was a member of the Chi Psi Fraternity at Hamilton, he studied law. He commenced practice in Freeport, Illinois, he served as member of the Illinois House of Representatives 1863-1866. Burchard was elected as a Republican to the Forty-first Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Elihu B. Washburne, he was reelected to the Forty-second and to the three succeeding Congresses and served from December 6, 1869 to March 3, 1879. During his time in the U. S. House of Representatives, he was appointed a member of the powerful Ways and Means Committee where he was made Chairman of the Subcommittee on Internal Revenue. Under his Chairmanship of the Subcommittee on Internal Revenue, the first legislation proposing a peacetime income tax was sponsored and debated.
However, no income tax legislation was successful. He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1878, he served as director of the United States Mint 1879-1885. During his tenure as the Director of the U. S. Mint, he created the Consumer Price Index, a measurement tool that has become ubiquitous in business and economics, he resumed the practice of law in Freeport. He served as member of the commission to revise the State revenue laws in 1885 and 1886, he was placed in charge of the jury of awards of the mining department of the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893. He died in Freeport, was interred in Oakland Cemetery. United States Congress. "Horatio C. Burchard". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Raum, Green. "Horatio Chapin Burchard", History of Illinois Republicanism. Chicago: Rollins Publishing. Co; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov