International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers is a labor union that represents nearly 750,000 workers and retirees in the electrical industry in the United States, Panama and several Caribbean island nations. The union represents some workers in the computer, telecommunications and other fields related to electrical work, it was founded in 1891, two years before George Westinghouse won the electric current wars by lighting up the Chicago worlds fair with AC current, before homes and businesses in the United States began receiving electricity. It is an international organization, based on the principle of collective bargaining, its international president is Lonnie R. Stephenson, is affiliated with the AFL-CIO; the beginnings of the IBEW were in Linemen's Union No. 5221, founded in St. Louis, Missouri in 1890. By 1891, after sufficient interest was shown in a national union, a convention was held on November 21, 1891 in St. Louis. At the convention, the IBEW known as the National Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, was formed.
The American Federation of Labor gave the NBEW a charter as an AFL affiliate on December 7, 1891. The union's official journal, The Electrical Worker, was first published on January 15, 1893, has been published since. At the 1899 convention in Pittsburgh, the union's name was changed to the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; the union went through lean times in its early years struggled through six years of schism during the 1910s, when two rival groups each claimed to be the duly elected leaders of the union. In 1919, as many employers were trying to drive unions out of the workplace through a national open shop campaign, the union agreed to form the Council on Industrial Relations, a bipartite body made up of equal numbers of management and union representatives with the power to resolve any collective bargaining disputes; that body still functions today, has resolved strikes in the IBEW's jurisdiction in the construction industry. In September 1941, the National Apprenticeship Standards for the Electrical Construction Industry, a joint effort among the IBEW, the National Electrical Contractors Association, the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship, were established.
The IBEW added additional training programs and courses as needed to keep up with new technologies, including an industrial electronics course in 1959 and an industrial nuclear power course in 1966. Today, the IBEW conducts apprenticeship programs for electricians, VDV installers, in conjunction with the National Electrical Contractors Association, under the auspices of the National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee, which allows apprentices to "earn while you learn." In Canadian jurisdictions, the IBEW does not deliver apprenticeship training, but does conduct supplemental training for government trained apprentices and journeypersons at little or no cost to its members. The IBEW local 353 Toronto requires all apprentices to be registered with the JAC for a number of safety courses, pre-apprenticeship training, pre-trade school courses, supplementary training, pre-exam courses; the IBEW's membership peaked in 1972 at 1 million members. The membership numbers were in a slow decline throughout the rest of the 1970s and the 1980s, but have since stabilized.
One major loss of membership for the IBEW came about because of the court-ordered breakup at the end of 1982 of AT&T, where the IBEW was organized among both telephone workers and in AT&T's manufacturing facilities. Membership as of 2013 stands according to their official website. Henry Miller Queren Jansen H. W. Sherman J. H. Maloney Thomas Wheeler W. A. Jackson Frank Joseph McNulty – first full-time, paid president of the union. 14 cubic feet. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections. Henry Andes Papers. 2003.03 cu. ft. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Canada – Canadian Labour Unions – Web Archive created by the University of Toronto Libraries
Hollywood Boulevard is a major east–west street in Los Angeles, California. It begins in the west as a winding residential street at Sunset Plaza Drive in the Hollywood Hills West district. After crossing Laurel Canyon Boulevard, it proceeds due east as a major thoroughfare through Hollywood, Little Armenia and Thai Town to Vermont Avenue, it runs southeast to its eastern terminus at Sunset Boulevard in the Los Feliz district. Parts of the boulevard are popular tourist destinations the fifteen blocks between La Brea Avenue east to Gower Street where the Hollywood Walk of Fame is located. Hollywood boulevard was named Prospect Avenue until 1910, when the town of Hollywood, created by H. J. Whitley, was annexed by the neighboring City of Los Angeles. After annexation, the street numbers changed from 100 Prospect Avenue, at Vermont Avenue, to 6400 Hollywood Boulevard. In the early 1920s, real estate developer Charles E. Toberman envisioned a thriving Hollywood theatre district. Toberman was involved in 36 projects while building the Max Factor Building, Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel and the Hollywood Masonic Temple.
With Sid Grauman, he opened the three themed theatres: Egyptian, El Capitan, Chinese. In 1946, Gene Autry, while riding his horse in the Hollywood Christmas Parade — which passes down Hollywood Boulevard each year on the Sunday after Thanksgiving — heard young parade watchers yelling, "Here comes Santa Claus, here comes Santa Claus!" and was inspired to write "Here Comes Santa Claus" with Oakley Haldeman. In 1958, the Hollywood Walk of Fame, which runs from La Brea Avenue east to Gower Street, was created as a tribute to artists working in the entertainment industry. In 1985, a portion of Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood was listed in the National Register of Historic Places as part of the "Hollywood Boulevard Commercial and Entertainment District". In 1992, the street was paved with glittery asphalt between La Brea Boulevard; the El Capitan Theatre was refurbished in 1991 damaged in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The full El Capitan building was restored and upgraded in December 1997; the Hollywood Entertainment District, a self-taxing business improvement district, was formed for the properties from La Brea to McCadden on the boulevard.
The Hollywood extension of the Metro Red Line subway was opened in June 1999, running from Downtown Los Angeles to the San Fernando Valley. Stops on Hollywood Boulevard are located at Western Avenue, Vine Street, Highland Avenue. Metro Local lines 180, 181, 217, Metro Rapid line 780 serve Hollywood Boulevard. An anti-cruising ordinance prohibits driving on parts of the boulevard more than twice in four hours. Beginning in 1995 Los Angeles City Council member Jackie Goldberg initiated efforts to clean up Hollywood Boulevard and reverse its decades-long slide into disrepute. Central to these efforts was the construction of the Hollywood and Highland Center and adjacent Dolby Theatre in 2001. In early 2006, the city made revamping plans on Hollywood Boulevard for future tourists; the three-part plan was to exchange the original streetlights with red stars into two-headed old-fashioned streetlights, put in new palm trees, put in new stoplights. The renovations were completed in late 2006. In the few years leading up to 2007, more than $2 billion was spent on projects in the neighborhood, including mixed-use retail and apartment complexes and new schools and museums.
Advocates promote the idea of closing Hollywood Boulevard to traffic and create a Pedestrian zone from La Brea Avenue to Highland Avenue citing an increase in tourism, movie premier and award shows show closures, including 10 days for the Academy Award ceremony at the Dolby Theater. Similar to Third Street Promenade, Fremont Street or similar to some street closures in Times Squares Pedestrian Plaza's created in 2015. A popular event that takes place on the Boulevard is the complete transformation of the street to a Christmas theme. Shops and department stores attract customers by lighting their stores and the entire street with decorated Christmas trees and Christmas lights; the street becomes "Santa Claus Lane." List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood Hollywood Chamber of Commerce
A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments. A pension may be a "defined benefit plan" where a fixed sum is paid to a person, or a "defined contribution plan" under which a fixed sum is invested and becomes available at retirement age. Pensions should not be confused with severance pay; the terms "retirement plan" and "superannuation" tend to refer to a pension granted upon retirement of the individual. Retirement plans may be set up by employers, insurance companies, the government or other institutions such as employer associations or trade unions. Called retirement plans in the United States, they are known as pension schemes in the United Kingdom and Ireland and superannuation plans in Australia and New Zealand. Retirement pensions are in the form of a guaranteed life annuity, thus insuring against the risk of longevity. A pension created by an employer for the benefit of an employee is referred to as an occupational or employer pension.
Labor unions, the government, or other organizations may fund pensions. Occupational pensions are a form of deferred compensation advantageous to employee and employer for tax reasons. Many pensions contain an additional insurance aspect, since they will pay benefits to survivors or disabled beneficiaries. Other vehicles may provide a similar stream of payments; the common use of the term pension is to describe the payments a person receives upon retirement under pre-determined legal or contractual terms. A recipient of a retirement pension is known as a retiree. A retirement plan is an arrangement to provide people with an income during retirement when they are no longer earning a steady income from employment. Retirement plans require both the employer and employee to contribute money to a fund during their employment in order to receive defined benefits upon retirement, it is a tax deferred savings vehicle that allows for the tax-free accumulation of a fund for use as a retirement income. Funding can be provided in other ways, such as from labor unions, government agencies, or self-funded schemes.
Pension plans are therefore a form of "deferred compensation". A SSAS is a type of employment-based Pension in the UK; some countries grant pensions to military veterans. Military pensions are overseen by the government. Ad hoc committees may be formed to investigate specific tasks, such as the U. S. Commission on Veterans' Pensions in 1955–56. Pensions may extend past the death of the veteran himself, continuing to be paid to the widow. Many countries have created funds for their citizens and residents to provide income when they retire; this requires payments throughout the citizen's working life in order to qualify for benefits on. A basic state pension is a "contribution based" benefit, depends on an individual's contribution history. For examples, see National Insurance in the UK, or Social Security in the United States of America. Many countries have put in place a "social pension"; these are tax-funded non-contributory cash transfers paid to older people. Over 80 countries have social pensions.
Some are universal benefits, given to all older people regardless of income, assets or employment record. Examples of universal pensions include New Zealand Superannuation and the Basic Retirement Pension of Mauritius. Most social pensions, are means-tested, such as Supplemental Security Income in the United States of America or the "older person's grant" in South Africa; some pension plans will provide for members in the event they suffer a disability. This may take the form of early entry into a retirement plan for a disabled member below the normal retirement age. Retirement plans may be classified as defined benefit or defined contribution according to how the benefits are determined. A defined benefit plan guarantees a certain payout at retirement, according to a fixed formula which depends on the member's salary and the number of years' membership in the plan. A defined contribution plan will provide a payout at retirement, dependent upon the amount of money contributed and the performance of the investment vehicles utilized.
Hence, with a defined contribution plan the risk and responsibility lies with the employee that the funding will be sufficient through retirement, whereas with the defined benefit plan the risk and responsibility lies with the employer or plan managers. Some types of retirement plans, such as cash balance plans, combine features of both defined benefit and defined contribution plans, they are referred to as hybrid plans. Such plan designs have become popular in the US since the 1990s. Examples include Cash Pension Equity plans. A traditional defined benefit plan is a plan in which the benefit on retirement is determined by a set formula, rather than depending on investment returns. Government pensions such as Social Security in the United States are a type of defined benefit pension plan. Traditionally, defined benefit plans for employers have been administered by institutions which exist for that purpose, by large businesses, or, for government workers, by the government itself. A traditional form
Franklin Avenue (Los Angeles)
Franklin Avenue is a street in Los Angeles. It is the northernmost thoroughfare in Hollywood, north of Hollywood Boulevard, the southern border of the Hollywood Hills, it is the center of the stylish neighborhood of Franklin Village. Franklin Avenue begins as a residential street off Sierra Bonita Avenue. Continuing East, Franklin is the southern border of Whitley Heights and turns into a major east–west thoroughfare in the Hollywood Hills, it ends in Los Feliz. Listing landmarks from west to east on Franklin, The Magic Castle is furthest west; the first house in the Hollywood area, built by Tomás Urquidez in 1854, was at the intersection of what would become Franklin Avenue and Outpost Drive. The corner of Franklin and Gower Street is cited as one of the better places to photograph the Hollywood Sign; the Château Élysée, a former residential apartment house for movie stars is located in the Franklin Village neighborhood, as is The Upright Citizens Brigade Theatre. The Shakespeare Bridge is located further east near the intersection of Franklin with St. George Street in the Franklin Hills area of the Los Feliz district of Los Angeles
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Saint John, New Brunswick
Saint John is the coastal port city of the Bay of Fundy in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The port is Canada’s third largest port by tonnage with a cargo base that includes dry and liquid bulk, break bulk and cruise. In 2016, after more than 40 years of population decline, the city became the second most populous city in the province for the first time, with a population of 67,575 over an area of 315.82 square kilometres. Greater Saint John covers a land area of 3,362.95 square kilometres across the Caledonia Highlands, with a population of 126,202. After the partitioning of the colony of Nova Scotia in 1784, the new colony of New Brunswick was thought to be named'New Ireland' with the capital to be in Saint John before being vetoed by Britain's King George III. Saint John is the oldest incorporated city in Canada. During the reign of George III, the municipality was created by royal charter in 1785. Saint John is the oldest of five chartered cities in Canada along with Montreal, Winnipeg and Lloydminster.
French colonist Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour on June 24, 1604 and is where the Saint John River gets its name although Mi'kmaq and Maliseet peoples lived in the region for thousands of years prior calling the river Wolastoq. After over a century of ownership disputes over the land surrounding Saint John between the French and English, the English deported the French colonists in 1755 and constructed Fort Howe above the harbour in 1779. Saint John, as a major settlement, was established by refugees of the American Revolution when two fleets of vessels from Massachusetts, one in the spring and a second in the fall, arrived in the harbour; these Loyalist refugees wished to remain living under Great Britain and were forced to leave their U. S. homes during the American Revolution. In 1785, the City of Saint John was formed from the union of Carleton. Over the next century, waves of Irish immigration, namely during the Great Famine via Partridge Island, would fundamentally change the city's demographics and culture.
Predated by the Maritime Archaic Indian civilization, the northwestern coastal regions of the Bay of Fundy is believed to have been inhabited by the Passamaquoddy Nation several thousand years ago, while the Saint John River valley north of the bay became the domain of the Maliseet Nation. The Mi'kmaq ventured into the territory and named the area"Měnagwĕs", which means "where they collect the dead seals."Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour in 1604, though he did not settle the area. The region was conquered by the British by the end of the Seven Years' War. After being incorporated as a city in 1785 with an influx of Loyalists from the northern of the former Thirteen Colonies and immigrants from Ireland, the city grew as a global hub for shipping and shipbuilding. In 1851 the city cemented itself as a global shipbuilding hub when the Marco Polo, built from a Saint John yard, became the fastest in the world. However, the city would struggle with its success. From 1840 to 1860 sectarian violence was rampant in Saint John resulting in some of the worst urban riots in Canadian history.
The city experienced a cholera outbreak in 1854 with the death over 1,500 people, as well as a great fire in 1877 that destroyed 40% of the city and left 20,000 people homeless. 1785: Saint John becomes the first incorporated city in what would become Canada. 1785: First quarantine station in North America, Partridge Island, established by the city's charter. In the early 19th century, it greeted sick and dying Irish immigrants arriving with inhospitable conditions. 1820: The first chartered bank in Canada, the Bank of New Brunswick. Canada's oldest publicly funded high school, Saint John High School 1838: The first penny newspaper in the Empire, the tri-weekly Saint John News, was established. 1842: Canada's first public museum known as the Gesner Museum, named after its Nova Scotian founder Abraham Gesner, the first modern commercial producer of kerosene. The museum is now known as the New Brunswick Museum. 1851: Marco Polo ship launched. She carried emigrants and passengers to Australia from England and was the first vessel to make the trip in under six months.
1849: Canada’s first labour union, the Laborer’s Benevolent Association was formed when Saint John’s longshoremen banded together to lobby for regular pay and a shorter workday. One of their first resolutions was to apply to the city council for permission to erect the bell, which would announce the beginning and end of the labourer’s 10-hour workday. 1854: The automated steam foghorn was invented by Robert Foulis. 1867: Saint John's Paris Crew rowing team became Canada's first international sporting champions when they defeated England at the International Regatta in Paris, France. 1870: Canada's first Y. W. C. A. was established. 1870: First Knights of Pythias in British Empire. 1872: Monitor top railroad cars in the world invented by James Ferguson. The original model is in the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John. 1880: First clockwork time bomb developed in 1880. 1906: The first public playground in Canada was inaugurated. 1907: The first orchestra to accompany a silent moving picture, on the North American continent, was in the old nickel theatre.
1918: One of the first police unions in Canada, the Saint John Police Protective Association, was formed in Saint John. 2010: Stonehammer UNESCO Geopark, the first Geopark in North America and centred around Saint John is formed. Situated in the south-central portion of the province, along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy at the mouth of the Saint John River, the city is split by the south-flowing river and
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho