Robert Cardillo is the sixth Director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and was sworn in October 3,2014. He was previously selected by Director of National Intelligence James Clapper to serve as the first Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Intelligence Integration in September 2010. Clapper said in a statement that the position would elevate information sharing, Cardillo previously served as Deputy Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency. Prior to that, he served as the Deputy Director for Analysis, DIA, Cardillo earned a Bachelor of Arts in Government from Cornell University in 1983 and a Master of Arts in National Security Studies from Georgetown University in 1988. He is an alumnus of the Council for Excellence in Government, the Joint Chiefs of Staff Capstone Course, a runner who has completed five Marine Corps Marathons, Cardillo resides in Alexandria, Virginia. Cardillo began his career with DIA in 1983 as an imagery analyst, in May 2000 he was selected to the Defense Intelligence Senior Executive Service.
Throughout his career, he has served in a variety of positions within the Intelligence Community. In the summer of 2009, Cardillo served as the Acting J2, a first for a civilian, in support of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
NGA was known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency until 2003. NGA headquarters is located at Fort Belvoir in Springfield, the NGA campus, at 2.3 million square feet, is the third-largest government building in the Washington metropolitan area after The Pentagon and the Ronald Reagan Building. U. S. mapping and charting efforts remained relatively unchanged until World War I, using stereo viewers, photo-interpreters reviewed thousands of images. Many of these were of the target at different angles and times, giving rise to what became modern imagery analysis. The Engineer Reproduction Plant was the Army Corps of Engineerss first attempt to centralize mapping production, printing and it was located on the grounds of the Army War College in Washington, D. C. Previously, topographic mapping had largely been a function of individual field engineer units using field surveying techniques or copying existing or captured products, in addition, ERP assumed the supervision and maintenance of the War Department Map Collection, effective April 1,1939.
With the advent of the Second World War aviation, field surveys began giving way to photogrammetry, photo interpretation, during wartime, it became increasingly possible to compile maps with minimal field work. Out of this emerged AMS, which absorbed the existing ERP in May 1942 and it was located at the Dalecarlia Site on MacArthur Blvd. just outside Washington, D. C. in Montgomery County and adjacent to the Dalecarlia Reservoir. AMS was designated as an Engineer field activity, effective July 1,1942, by General Order 22, OCE, the Army Map Service combined many of the Armys remaining geographic intelligence organizations and the Engineer Technical Intelligence Division. The agencys credit union, Constellation Federal Credit Union, was chartered during the Army Map Service era and it has continued to serve all successive legacy agencies employees and their families. After the war, as capacity and range improved, the need for charts grew. The Army Air Corps established its map unit, which was renamed ACP in 1943 and was located in St.
Louis, ACP was known as the U. S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center from 1952 to 1972. A credit union was chartered for the ACP in 1948, called Aero Chart Credit Union and it was renamed Arsenal Credit Union in 1952, a nod to the St. Louis sites Civil War-era use as an arsenal. Shortly before leaving office in January 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the creation of the National Photographic Interpretation Center, combining Central Intelligence Agency, Army and Air Force assets to solve national intelligence problems. NPIC was a component of the CIAs Directorate of Science and Technology, NPIC first identified the Soviet Unions basing of missiles in Cuba in 1962. The Defense Mapping Agency was created on January 1,1972, dMAs birth certificate, DoD Directive 5105.40, resulted from a formerly classified Presidential directive and Management of the U. S. Foreign Intelligence Community, which directed the consolidation of mapping functions previously dispersed among the military services, DMA became operational on July 1,1972, pursuant to General Order 3, DMA.
On Oct.1,1996, DMA was folded into the National Imagery, DMA was first headquartered at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C, at Falls Church, Virginia
Central Intelligence Agency
As one of the principal members of the U. S. Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President. Though it is not the only U. S. government agency specializing in HUMINT and it exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA has increasingly expanded its roles, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations, when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events, with Pakistan described as an intractable target.
Counterintelligence, with China, Iran, the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, and cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day to day operation of the CIA, each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Directorate has four regional groups, six groups for transnational issues. There is a dedicated to Iraq, regional analytical offices covering the Near East and South Asia and Europe, and the Asian Pacific, Latin American. The Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting intelligence. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U. S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence, philosophy, in spite of this, the Department of Defense recently organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency.
This Directorate is known to be organized by regions and issues. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research, many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the U-2s original mission was clandestine imagery intelligence over denied areas such as the Soviet Union. It was subsequently provided with signals intelligence and measurement and signature intelligence capabilities, subsequently, NPIC was transferred to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
Robert B. Murrett
Murrett was the fourth Director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, from 7 July 2006 through July 2010. In 2011, Murrett joined the Institute for National Security and Counterterrorism at Syracuse University where he now serves as deputy director and he is a faculty member of the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. From 1983 to 1985, he served as Assistant Intelligence Officer for Commander and he participated in deployments to the North Atlantic, the European theater, and Caribbean aboard Mount Whitney and Nassau. Between 1986 and 1989, Murrett was assigned as Assistant Naval Attaché to the U. S. Embassy in Oslo, in 1989, Murrett reported to Commander in Chief, U. S. Pacific Fleet, where he was assigned as Operational Intelligence Officer, from 1992 to 1995, he served as Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence for Commander, Carrier Group Eight, and deployed to the European and Central Command theaters aboard Theodore Roosevelt. Murrett was assigned as J2 CJTF120 aboard Wasp for operations in the Caribbean, between 1995 and 1997, Murrett was Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence for Commander, Second Fleet and served concurrently as N2 for NATOs Striking Fleet Atlantic and as J2 for U. S.
From June 1997 until September 1998, he was assigned to the Chief of Naval Operations Staff as Executive Assistant to the Director of Naval Intelligence, Murrett was assigned as Director, Intelligence Directorate, Office of Naval Intelligence in September 1998. Murrett assumed the duties of Commander, Atlantic Intelligence Command on 12 August 1999 and he was responsible for the transition of AIC to Joint Forces Intelligence Command in October 1999. Murrett served as the Director for Intelligence, U. S, Joint Forces Command, from 10 August 2000 through 25 January 2002. From 31 January 2002 through March 2005, Murrett was assigned as the Vice Director for Intelligence, J2 and he served as the Director of Naval Intelligence from 1 April 2005 to 7 July 2006, when he became the director for the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. This article contains information from the United States Federal Government and is in the public domain
She currently is the Chairman of the Board for the Intelligence and National Security Alliance. Long earned a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from Virginia Tech in 1982 and she began her career in the U. S. Navy in 1978 as a civilian intern developing capabilities for the submarine force. She transitioned to Naval Intelligence program management in the mid-1990s, detailed to the Defense Intelligence Agency ] in 1995, she managed defense-wide intelligence funding programs and was named the first Chief Information Officer for the agency. The Community Management Staff was part of the effort to more effectively manage the Intelligence Community in the pre-9/11 period. Returning to the Navy in July 2000, she became the first female Deputy Director of Naval Intelligence working for RADM Richard B, Director of Naval Intelligence. Naval Intelligence lost eight members in the September 11,2001 attack on the Pentagon and she joined the newly established office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence in June 2003 as the Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence until May 2006.
Prior to taking over as the NGA director on August 9,2010, during her tenure at NGA, she led efforts to establish the agency’s first ‘Map of the World’, for intelligence users. NGA became the first U. S. agency to adopt open-source software development to deliver its software to first responders for collaboration and after natural disasters. She led the agency as it provided support to the SEAL Team Six operation that led to the death of Osama bin Laden in May 2011. Long currently sits on the boards of Raytheon Company, Urthecast Corporation and Noblis and she is on the board of the Virginia Tech School of Public and International Affairs and the United States Geospatial Intelligence Foundation. In 2015, she received the Engineering Distinguished Alumni Award from the Catholic University School of Engineering
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
James Robert Jim Clapper Jr. is a retired lieutenant general in the United States Air Force and is the former director of national intelligence. He served as director of the Defense Intelligence Agency from 1992 until 1995 and he was the first director of defense intelligence within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and simultaneously the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence. Clapper has held key positions within the United States Intelligence Community. He served as the director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency from September 2001 until June 2006, on June 5,2010, President Barack Obama nominated Clapper to replace Dennis C. Blair as United States Director of National Intelligence. Clapper was unanimously confirmed by the Senate for the position on August 5,2010, one senator asked for his resignation, and a group of 26 senators complained about Clapper’s responses under questioning. Media observers have described Clapper as having lied under oath, having obstructed justice, in November 2016, Clapper resigned as director of national intelligence, effective at the end of President Obamas term.
Clapper was born in Fort Wayne, the son of Anne Elizabeth and his father worked in signals intelligence during World War II. His maternal grandfather, James McNeal Wheatley, was an Episcopal minister, Clapper earned a bachelor of science degree in political science from the University of Maryland in 1963 and a master of science degree in political science from St. Marys University in Texas in 1970. After a brief enlistment in the United States Marine Corps Reserve and he was commissioned in 1963 as a distinguished military graduate from the University of Maryland. Meade and the Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick Air Force Base, Clapper became director of the Defense Intelligence Agency in November 1991 and retired from active duty in September 1995. He spent six years in private industry, for the 2006–2007 academic year, Clapper held the position of Georgetown University’s Intelligence and National Security Alliance Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Intelligence. He worked closely with the director of national intelligence.
”On August 5,2010, lawmakers approved his nomination after the Senate Intelligence Committee backed him with a 15–0 vote. Robert Cardillo, the deputy director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, was tapped to fill the new post, in an agreement between Defense Secretary Robert Gates and Clapper his office assumed administrative control over the National Intelligence Program. Previously the NIP was itemized within the Defense Department budget to keep the line item, former Defense Intelligence Agency chief Lt. Gen. Ronald Burgess told senators Iran is unlikely to initiate or intentionally provoke a conflict. Clapper said it’s “technically feasible” that Tehran could produce a weapon in one or two years, if its leaders decide to build one, “but practically not likely. ”Both men said they do not believe Israel has decided to strike Iran. On March 12,2013, during a United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence hearing, alexander’s keynote speech at the 2012 DEF CON. Alexander had stated that job is foreign intelligence” and that “those who would want to weave the story that we have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people, is absolutely false.
From my perspective, this is absolute nonsense. ”Wyden asked Clapper, “Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans. ”There are cases where they could inadvertently, collect, but not wittingly
National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal
The National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal is a decoration awarded for service to the United States Intelligence Community. The National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal was once considered junior to the older National Security Medal, an update to the NIA program added awards and changed precedence, with the NIDSM being succeeded by the Intelligence Community Medal for Valor in the order of precedence. The National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal is a gold colored medal 1 5⁄8 inches across, the obverse design consists of a white 16 pointed star surmounted by a gold heraldic rose. In the center of the rose is a blue disc bearing an eight pointed compass rose in gold. The reverse bears the words NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE DISTINGUISHED SERVICE, one word on each line, the medals ribbon, which is from the original, is 1 3⁄8 inches wide. The ribbon is white with 1⁄8 inch blue stripes at both edges, in the center is a 1⁄8 inch scarlet stripe flanked by 1⁄8 inch yellow stripes.
Symbolically, the rose is a symbol of secrecy and confidence. That symbol has traditionally used to describe something to be kept secret. Blue represents loyalty, and is taken from the seal of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the compass rose in the center of the medal symbolizes the world-wide mission of the organization, while the points of the white star allude to compass points. The white color represents honesty and optimism, Distinguished Service Medal Awards and decorations of the United States government
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. In 1960s, UC Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. S, Department of Energy, and is home to many world-renowned research institutes and organizations including Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory. Faculty member J. R. Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, Lawrence Livermore Lab discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of California, third in the world overall, in 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869, billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley.
In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, with the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students and held its first classes. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, by the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958, by 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. During World War II, following Glenn Seaborgs then-secret discovery of plutonium, UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose.
In 1917, Berkeleys ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from UC Berkeleys ROTC program, earning B. A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, in 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962, during the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay, in 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War.
In the highly publicized Peoples Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land, governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus a haven for communist sympathizers and sex deviants. Modern students at Berkeley are less active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives