The Advocate was a newspaper published in Pittsburgh, under several title variants from 1832 to 1844. It was the second daily newspaper issued in the city, the first being its eventual purchaser, the Gazette. Politically, the paper supported the principles of the Whig Party. On 13 August 1832, The Pennsylvanian Advocate was started by James Wilson of Steubenville, Ohio. Wilson announced in his prospectus that as editor, he would promote protectionism, internal improvements, a sound currency, the independence of Congress and the preservation of the Union, which, at that time, was threatened by a faction in South Carolina and elsewhere in the South. Important to all of these missions, Wilson believed, was to defeat the re-election of President Andrew Jackson; the first few issues were printed on a weekly basis at Steubenville and sent to Pittsburgh for distribution. Soon, Wilson had a press set up in a Pittsburgh office and began turning out a tri-weekly edition. According to William Bayard Hale, the press was the first west of the Allegheny Mountains that could print a double-page form at one impression.
Born during Andrew Jackson's Bank War, the paper met controversy early on when Jacksonian newspapers accused it of accepting payments from the United States Bank to publish pro-Bank propaganda. It was reported that a letter intended for James Wilson was mistakenly received by another man of the same name, who opened it and found a $580 check from Nicholas Biddle, the Bank's president. Wilson published an affidavit denying that he had been corrupted. With the Advocate about a year old and on its feet, Wilson left the paper to be carried on by his eldest son William Duane Wilson, at first in partnership with Alfred W. Marks. Upon this change, the paper issued its first daily edition, under the name Pennsylvania Advocate and Pittsburgh Daily Advertiser; this was the second daily newspaper published in Pittsburgh, debuting just nine weeks after the Pittsburgh Gazette went daily. In keeping with its founding political views, the Advocate became an organ of the newly formed Whig Party. In 1836 it absorbed another Whig paper, the weekly Statesman, established over thirty years earlier as the Commonwealth.
Control of the paper passed in 1837 to Robert M. Riddle, who would be Whig mayor of Pittsburgh and editor of the Commercial Journal. In 1839 George Parkin merged his weekly Western Emporium into the Advocate and joined Riddle as co-editor. Parkin assumed sole editorship; the last editor-proprietor of the Advocate, Judge Thomas H. Baird, who took over from Parkin in 1843, sold the paper a year to be merged with the Gazette; the titles of the daily editions of the two papers, Pittsburgh Daily Gazette and Daily Advocate and Advertiser, were combined as Pittsburgh Daily Gazette and Advertiser. In his farewell address, Baird wrote, "Thus two of the oldest papers in the Western country will be coalesced in the support of Henry Clay and the American system; this consummation has been desired for some time, by many leading Whigs of the District, to their wishes I have yielded." The full title of the Advocate varied between editions. Because of gaps in the survival of the newspaper, the following list is not complete.
This article incorporates text from Standard History of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, by Erasmus Wilson, a publication from 1898 now in the public domain in the United States
Andrew Fulton (mayor)
Andrew Fulton was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1884 to 1887. The son of Samuel Magee and Agnes Rebecca Fulton, he was born in 1850 into a foundry family, he was outgoing and affable and preferred the less formal "Andy Fulton", this charismatic charm as well as his tall stature served him well in a career of politics. In 1879, Fulton was elected to the City Council followed soon by his election to the mayor's office in 1887. Mayor Fulton oversaw the completion of the Western Penitentiary during his term. After leaving office he continued to stay active in Pittsburgh politics working on both the city and county levels, with the exception of an absence to Colorado to raise horses for a number of years, he died in 1925 of pneumonia.
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
John Herron (Pittsburgh)
John Herron, served as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1849 to 1850. He was the son of the well-known Presbyterian Minister; the Herrons were among the founding families of Pittsburgh. He captained the Duquesne Grays in the Mexican War during the Siege of Veracruz, his war feats enhanced his electability and President Zachary Taylor visited the city during Mayor Herron's term. List of Mayors of Pittsburgh South Pittsburgh Development Corporation Political Graveyard
Robert W. Lyon
Robert W. Lyon was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1881 to 1884. Mayor Lyon was born in Butler County, Pennsylvania north of Pittsburgh in 1842, he joined the 102nd Pennsylvania Volunteers during the American Civil War. When he came home from war Lyon made a small fortune in the petroleum industry. Mayor Lyon won election in 1881 and was best known as "the working man's mayor." He guided city hall into the completion of the Smithfield Street Bridge and the successful annexation of the Garfield neighborhood. The AFL, forerunner to the AFL-CIO, was founded in Pittsburgh under his administration. In 1884, he went to work in a steel mill and worked in county government until his death in 1904, he was buried in Calvary Cemetery in the west suburb of McKees Rocks. List of mayors of Pittsburgh
Henry I. Gourley
Henry I. Gourley was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1890 to 1893. Henry Irvin Gourley was born in Pennsylvania in 1838 to a peasant family; because of his families inability to support themselves he was sent early in life to a farm in Pine Township, Pennsylvania in Allegheny County, where he displayed a great work ethic and became a school teacher. In 1876 he was elected to the City Council. Mayor Gourley took office in 1890 and his reputation for hard and honest work served him well in city hall, his term was noted for the trust. After he left office he served as city controller before his death in 1899, he is buried in Homewood Cemetery