Port Waikato is on the south bank of the Waikato River at its outflow into the Tasman Sea, in northern New Zealand. It is a village of several hundred people. Port Waikato was an important port during the New Zealand Wars of the 19th century, it was the first of the colonial settlements to be constructed after the wars, being started in 1863. It had until been called Putataka, but soon the present name was in general use; the Māori name remains for the 354 m hill above the town. For many years Port Waikato was the transhipment point between ships of the Northern Steamship Co and the river steamers of the Waikato Shipping Co, run by Caesar Roose; the frequency increased to twice a week in 1924. At the same time a Cambridge to Port Waikato excursion was being run 2 or 3 times a year, taking 12 to 14 hours downstream and a few hours longer upstream. Port Waikato is a popular holiday spot. Fish can be caught off the rocks and surf beach, off the sand dunes that border the river mouth. Flounder and mullet are plentiful using drag nets.
Port Waikato is a location where sedimentary rock formations of 65–85 million years' antiquity are found, a Jurassic-period dinosaur fossil was found there. Weathertop footage from the Lord of the Rings was filmed in limestone outcrops just south of the town; the Port has a Wharf Store, established 1893, a take-away shop, café, library, community hall, fire station, surf lifesaving club, yachting club and an active fishing club. A school camp was established near the town in the 1920s. Port Waikato serves as a popular wedding destination; the local Ōraeroa Marae and its Whareroa meeting house is meeting place for the Waikato Tainui hapū of Ngāti Tāhinga and Ngāti Tiipa. Port Waikato electorate
Book of Common Prayer
The Book of Common Prayer is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by other Christian churches related to Anglicanism. The original book, published in 1549 in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome; the work of 1549 was the first prayer book to include the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English. It contained Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, the Litany, Holy Communion and the occasional services in full: the orders for Baptism, Marriage, "prayers to be said with the sick", a funeral service, it set out in full the "propers": the introits and epistle and gospel readings for the Sunday service of Holy Communion. Old Testament and New Testament readings for daily prayer were specified in tabular format as were the Psalms; the 1549 book was soon succeeded by a more reformed revision in 1552 under the same editorial hand, that of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury.
It was used only for a few months, as after Edward VI's death in 1553, his half-sister Mary I restored Roman Catholic worship. Mary died in 1558 and, in 1559, Elizabeth I reintroduced the 1552 book with modifications to make it acceptable to more traditionally-minded worshippers and clergy. In 1604, James I ordered some further changes, the most significant being the addition to the Catechism of a section on the Sacraments. Following the tumultuous events surrounding the English Civil War, when the Book was again abolished, another modest revision was published in 1662; that edition remains the official prayer book of the Church of England, although through the twentieth century alternative forms which were technically supplements displaced the Book of Common Prayer for the main Sunday worship of most English parish churches. A Book of Common Prayer with local variations is used in churches around, or deriving from, the Anglican Communion in over 50 different countries and in over 150 different languages.
In some parts of the world, the 1662 Book remains technically authoritative but other books or patterns have replaced it in regular worship. Traditional English Lutheran and Presbyterian prayer books have borrowed from the Book of Common Prayer and the marriage and burial rites have found their way into those of other denominations and into the English language. Like the King James Version of the Bible and the works of Shakespeare, many words and phrases from the Book of Common Prayer have entered common parlance; the full name of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer is The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, according to the use of the Church of England, Together with the Psalter or Psalms of David, pointed as they are to be Sung or said in churches: And the Form and Manner of Making and Consecrating of Bishops and Deacons. The forms of parish worship in the late medieval church in England, which followed the Latin Roman Rite, varied according to local practice.
By far the most common form, or "use", found. There was no single book; the chant for worship was contained in the Roman Gradual for the Mass and in the Antiphoner for the offices. The Book of Common Prayer has never contained prescribed chant; the work of producing a liturgy in the English language books was done by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, starting cautiously in the reign of Henry VIII, more radically under his son Edward VI. In his early days Cranmer was somewhat conservative: an admirer, of John Fisher, it may have been his visit to Germany in 1532. In 1538, as Henry began diplomatic negotiations with Lutheran princes, Cranmer came face to face with a Lutheran embassy; the Exhortation and Litany, the earliest English-language service of the Church of England, was the first overt manifestation of his changing views. It was no mere translation from the Latin: its Protestant character is made clear by the drastic reduction of the place of saints, compressing what had been the major part into three petitions.
Published in 1544, it borrowed from Martin Luther's Litany and Myles Coverdale's New Testament and was the only service that might be considered to be "Protestant" to be finished within the lifetime of King Henry VIII. It was only on Henry's death in 1547 and the accession of Edward VI that revision could proceed faster. Cranmer finished his work on an English Communion rite in 1548, obeying an order of Convocation of the previous year that communion was to be given to the people as both bread and wine; the ordinary Roman Rite of the Mass had made no provision for any congregation present to receive communion in both species. So, Cranmer composed in English an additional rite of congregational preparation and communion, to be undertaken
Adam Matthew Digital
Adam Matthew Digital is an academic publisher based in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has been an independent subsidiary of Sage Publications since 2012; the company specializes in online primary source databases and curated collections for the humanities and social sciences. Its corporate offices are in Wiltshire. Adam Matthew Publications was founded in 1990 by William Pidduck; the company focused on publishing microfilm collections with a back list of over 600 titles until publishing their first ‘digital’ collections in the late 1990s on CD-ROM, releasing its first online resources in the early 2000s. By the mid-2000s, the company directors – now including Khal Rudin - founded Adam Matthew Digital to focus on the development and production of digital collections, began trading as a separate entity from 1 January 2007. On 5 October 2012, the company was acquired by SAGE Publications; the company publishes collections of digitized primary source materials from different historical eras.
For example, Empire Online covers the histories of colonial era United States, India, South Africa, Britain. Other collection topics include gender studies, American history and consumer culture, Victorian England, Asian history, the First World War, others. Adam Matthew have collaborated with various source archives and institutions including the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Newberry Library and The National Archives. An explanation of their relationship with The National Archives has been recorded in a short video which covers the process of selection and digitisation of materials required to produce resources on topics such as Apartheid South Africa, Confidential Print: Middle East and The Nixon Years. In January 2016, Adam Matthew partnered with Jisc to provide all UK Higher and Further Education institutions with access to their nineteenth century collection on global immigration, Migration to New Worlds. To gain permanent access without payment, UK institutions can register with Jisc to receive access details for their entire staff and students.
In 2013, the company entered into an agreement with the Texas State Libraries and Archives Commission to provide permanent access to two Adam Matthew digital collection via the TexShare consortium. The agreement allows the provision of access to rare and unique materials for the study of American history, to close to two thousand individual institutions across Texas, from K-12 to 4-year colleges, public libraries and community colleges. Official website
Parnell, New Zealand
Parnell is an upmarket suburb in Auckland, New Zealand. It is one of New Zealand's most affluent suburbs ranked within the top three wealthiest, is billed as Auckland's "oldest suburb" since it dates from the earliest days of the European settlement of Auckland in 1841, it is characterised by its mix of tree lined streets with large estates. To its west lies the Auckland Domain, to the south Newmarket, to the north the Ports of Auckland. Parnell Rise and Parnell Road make up the main road through Parnell. Parnell Rise leads to the central business district to the west. Parnell Road ends at the intersection of Sarawia Streets, where it becomes Broadway. Early European settlers knew Parnell Road as "Manukau Road" until well after the formation of Khyber Pass Road in 1845. Ngāti Whātua occupied the Parnell area prior to European settlement; the Government acquired the area from Ngāti Whātua as part of a 3,000-acre land deal in 1840. Robert Tod purchased 3 acres from the Government on 1 September 1841.
He subdivided it into 36 sections, which he advertised for sale on 4 September 1841 as the "Village of Parnell". In the early 1830s Tod had supplied copies of the Bible to a Plymouth Brethren mission in Baghdad, one of whose members was John Vesey Parnell. Streets in the village of Parnell were named Groves and Calman after other missionaries to Baghdad, Anthony Norris Groves, Edward Cronin and Erasmus Scott Calman; these were renamed Eglon and Marston Streets. The Borough of Parnell, established in 1877, was amalgamated into the Auckland City Council area in 1913 or 1915; the Parnell Road Board administered the area before the Borough was established. The following served as Mayors of the Borough of Parnell until its incorporation into Auckland City: 1877–1877 Henry Matthew Nation 1877–1878 J. W. Melton 1878–1879 William Coleman 1879–1880 J. W. Robinson 1880–1881 J. Friar Clark 1881–1883 Robert Walker 1883–1885 D. H. McKenzie 1885–1887 Jonathan Winks 1887–1888 Seymour Thorne George 1888–1891 H.
B. Sealy 1891–1892 Seymour Thorne George 1892–1894 John McCabe 1894–1895 George S. Kissling 1895–1896 Spencer Von Sturmer 1896–1897 Joseph Thornes 1897–1898 N. W. Pollard 1898–1903 Hugh Campbell 1903–1906 John Fitt 1906–1909 George W. Basley 1909–1913 Richard Stevenson Briggs Parnell forms part of the Hobson Ward for council representation within Auckland City. Parnell represents 20% of the population in the ward; the serving city councillors for the Hobson Ward all stood on the Citizens and Ratepayers Now ticket. Parnell forms part of the Epsom Electorate for parliamentary representation. Parnell represents 20% of the population in the electorate; the current Member of Parliament for Epsom, David Seymour, represents ACT New Zealand. The Swan Hotel, 31-35 Parnell Rise – constructed prior to 1856 and is one of the earliest timber public houses surviving in Auckland. Additions to the building were designed by Edward Bartley; this building stood directly on the foreshore. This cove had been used by Maori to beach their waka.
Parnell Rail Bridge – 19th century metal rail bridge on massive volcanic basalt rock piers. This structure allows the rail line to cross over Parnell Road without disrupting traffic. Mayfair Apartments – 1930s brick Neo-Georgian highrise apartment block. Windsor Castle Hotel, 144 Parnell Road – this hotel dates from the 1850s; the hotel was remodelled in the 1880s, when the architect, R. MacKay Fripp, was commissioned to create a large Victorian corner pub of urban type. Former Heard Factory – three storeyed art-deco style industrial building built for a confectionery manufacturer. Heard Park – this land was donated to the city in 1953 by the Heard family, the owners of Heards Candy, the adjacent large Art-Deco Heards building. Church of St John the Baptist, 204 Parnell Road – this church was designed by Edward Mahoney and formally instituted by Bishop Pompallier in 1861; the Sisters of Mercy had a convent here and a Catholic primary school ran for a century, until it closed due to falling rolls in the 1950s.
Whitby Lodge, 330 Parnell Road – erected by the early 1870s, Whitby Lodge is one of few surviving colonial dwellings in Auckland constructed of the local volcanic stone basalt. Erected as early as 1848 or 1852, it is possible that Fraser erected a building on the site at the time of his purchase in 1864, or improved an existing structure. The roof beams are not supported by the masonry walls, suggesting this is an earlier wooden structure, subsequently clad in stone; the building was occupied by the Consulate General of the Cook Islands as an Embassy from 1978 until 1 December 1994. Hulme Court, 350 Parnell Road – a stone-built, Regency-style house surrounded by trellised verandahs, was built in 1843 for Sir Fredrick Whitaker.
Māori King Movement
The Māori King Movement or Kīngitanga is a movement that arose among some of the Māori tribes of New Zealand in the central North Island in the 1850s, to establish a role similar in status to that of the monarch of the British colonists, as a way of halting the alienation of Māori land. The Māori monarch operates in a non-constitutional capacity with no legal or judicial power within the New Zealand government. Reigning monarchs retain the position of paramount chief of several tribes and wield some power over these within Tainui where the monarchy is exclusively associated; the current Māori monarch, Tūheitia Paki, was elected in 2006 and his official residence is Tūrongo House at Tūrangawaewae marae in the town of Ngāruawāhia. Tūheitia is the seventh monarch since the position was created and is the continuation of a dynasty that reaches back to the inaugural king, Pōtatau Te Wherowhero; the use of the title of "Māori King" has been challenged by various Māori leaders, namely by those of the north.
In his discourse, David Rankin, a leader of the Ngāpuhi iwi of Northland, explains that the monarch is not the king of all Māori. The argument states that by the kīngitanga claiming ownership of such a title, the rangatiratanga and mana of iwi not associated with the movement is thereby diminished, infringing therefore upon their identity and autonomy as Māori and iwi; the movement arose among a group of central North Island iwi in the 1850s as a means of attaining Māori unity to halt the alienation of land at a time of rapid population growth by European colonists. The movement sought to establish a monarch who could claim status similar to that of Queen Victoria and thus allow Māori to deal with Pākehā on equal footing, it took on the appearance of an alternative government with its own flag, councillors and law enforcement. But it was viewed by the colonial government as a challenge to the supremacy of the British monarchy, leading in turn to the 1863 invasion of Waikato, motivated by a drive to neutralise the Kīngitanga's power and influence.
Following their defeat at Ōrākau in 1864, Kīngitanga forces withdrew into dense forest in an area of the North Island that became known as the King Country. From the early 1850s, North Island Māori came under increasing pressure to satisfy the demand of European settler farmers for arable land. While Māori cultivated small areas, relying on extensive forests for berry and roots, settlers expanded their production capacity by burning forest and fern and planting grass seed in the ashes; some influential chiefs including Te Rauparaha opposed land sales in the 1840s, the view became more widespread in the following decade, as Pakeha outnumbered Māori and the colonial government's Native Land Purchase Department adopted unscrupulous methods to take ownership, which included offers to chiefs or small groups of owners. Deals with individual Māori or groups that did not represent majority interests dragged Māori into disputes with one another; as the white frontier encroached further on their land, many became concerned that their land, race, would soon be overrun.
From about 1853 Māori began reviving the ancient tribal runanga or chiefly war councils where land issues were raised and in May 1854 a large meeting—attracting as many as 2000 Māori leaders—was held at Manawapou in south Taranaki where speakers urged concerted opposition to selling land. The meetings provided an important forum for Te Rauparaha's son, Christian convert Tamihana Te Rauparaha, who in 1851 had visited England where he was presented to Queen Victoria. Tamihana Te Rauparaha had returned to New Zealand with the idea of forming a Māori kingdom, with one king ruling over all tribes, used the runanga to secure the agreement of influential North Island chiefs to his idea; the kotahitanga or unity movement was aimed at bringing to Māori the unity, an obvious strength among the Europeans. It was believed that by having a monarch who could claim status similar to that of Queen Victoria, Māori would be able to deal with Pākehā on equal footing, it was intended to establish a system of law and order in Māori communities to which the Auckland government had so far shown little interest.
A Bible is traditionally used during the crowning of a monarch. Several North Island candidates who were asked to put themselves forward declined. After declining—he was unwilling to undertake new ventures at his age and was described by a European visitor as blind and decrepit, "on the brink of his grave"—Te Wherowhero agreed in September 1857 to accept the kingship and in June 1858 he was crowned at Ngāruawāhia adopting the name Pōtatau Te Wherowhero or Pōtatau. In his acceptance speech Pōtatau stressed the spirit of unity symbolised by the kingship and called on his people to "hold fast to love, to the law, to faith in God." Over time the King Movement came to have a flag, a council of state, a code of laws, a "King's Resident Magistrate", police, a surveyor and a newspaper, Te Hokioi, all of which gave the movement the appearance of an alternative government. The lives of his followers were given new purpose with the lawmaking and lengthy meetings and debates. Historian Michael King noted: "In the eyes of his supporters, the chiefs who had raised him up had made him a repository for their own mana and tapu and for that of their lands.
Pōtatau was now a man of intensif
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New Zealand Church Missionary Society
The New Zealand Church Missionary Society is a mission society working within the Anglican Communion and Protestant, Evangelical Anglicanism. The parent organisation was founded in England in 1799; the Church Missionary Society sent missionaries to settle in New Zealand. The Revd Samuel Marsden, the Society's Agent and the Senior Chaplain to the New South Wales government, officiated at its first service on Christmas Day in 1814, at Oihi Bay in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. In 1892, Mr. Eugene Stock and the Rev. Robert Stewart were sent to Australia and New Zealand by the parent CMS organisation to facilitate the formation of Church Missionary Associations in both Australia and New Zealand, in order that those associations would select and send out missionaries. In 1892 the New Zealand Church Missionary Association was formed in a Nelson church hall. Funding from the UK stopped in 1903; the association was established under the sanction of the Bishops of Waiapu and Nelson, with the Rev. Frederick William Chatterton as Clerical Secretary, Mr. J. Holloway as Lay Secretary and Treasurer.
The association provided workers for the Maori Mission, for the Melanesian Mission, for the CMS Missions in China, Japan and Africa, for the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society. In 1893 Miss Marie Louise Pasley, the first missionary candidate, was selected, and, subsequently sent to Japan; the association subsequent changed its name to the New Zealand Church Missionary Society in 1916. In 2000 the NZCMS amalgamated with the South American Missionary Society of New Zealand; the NZCMS works with the Anglican Missions Board, concentrating on mission work outside New Zealand and has been involved in Pakistan, East Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, South America and East Asia. It is the global network of mission agencies Faith2Share; the CMS founded its first mission at Rangihoua in the Bay of Islands in 1814 and over the next decade established farms and schools in the area. Thomas Kendall and William Hall were directed to proceed to the Bay of Islands in the Active, a vessel purchased by Samuel Marsden for the service of the mission, there to reopen communication with Ruatara, a local chief.
Kendall and Hall left New South Wales on 14 March 1814 on the Active for an exploratory journey to the Bay of Islands. They met rangatira of the Ngāpuhi including his uncle Hongi Hika. Kendall and John King, returned to the Bay of Islands on the Active on 22 December 1814 to establish the Oihi Mission; the protector of the Kerikeri mission station was the chief Ruatara and following his death in 1815, Hongi Hika accepted responsibility for the protection of the mission. In April 1817 William Carlisle and his brother-in-law Charles Gordon, joined the mission, from New South Wales. Carlisle was engaged as a schoolteacher and Gordon is engaged for the purpose of teaching agriculture, they remained at the mission until 1819. In 1819 Marsden made his second visit to New Zealand, bringing with him John Gare Butler as well as Francis Hall and James Kemp as lay settlers. William Puckey, a boatbuilder and carpenter, came with his family, including William Gilbert Puckey to assist in putting up the buildings at Kerikeri.
In 1820, Marsden paid his third visit, on HMS Dromedary. Butler and Kemp took charge of the Kerikeri mission, but proved unable to develop a harmonious working relationship, from 1822 to 1823 Butler was in dispute with Marsden. In 1823, Marsden paid his fourth visit, bringing with him Henry Williams and his wife Marianne as well as Richard Davis, a farmer, William Fairburn, a carpenter, their respective families. In 1826 Henry's brother William and his wife Jane joined the CMS mission and settled at Paihia in the Bay of Islands; the immediate protector of the Paihia mission was the chief, Te Koki, his wife Ana Hamu, a woman of high rank and the owner of the land occupied by the mission. The CMS Mission House in Kerikeri, completed in 1822, ranks as New Zealand's oldest surviving building. In the early days the CMS funded its activities through trade. Thomas Kendall sold weapons to Māori people, with muskets being the primary item traded by whaling and sealing ships for food. Kendall brought Māori war-chief Hongi Hika to London in 1820.
When Henry Williams became the leader of the missionaries at Paihia in 1823, he stopped the trade in muskets. The mission schools provided religious education and literacy skills in the Māori language, as well as English language skills. Karaitiana Rangi was the first person baptised, which occurred in 1825; however the evangelical mission of the CMS achieved success only after the baptism of Ngāpuhi chief Rawiri Taiwhanga in 1830. His example influenced others to be baptised into the Christian faith; the CMS established farms at Kerikeri and at Te Waimate mission and engaged workers from Sydney to assist in the farming. In 1833 a mission was established at Kaitaia in Northland as well as a mission at Puriri on the Waihou River. In 1835 missions were established in the Bay of Plenty and Waikato regions at Tauranga and Rotorua; the possessions of these missions were plundered during an inter-tribal war between the Māori people of Matamata and the Waikato river. In 1836 a mission was open in the Manukau Harbour region.
In 1832 the salary of single laymen or catechist was £30 p