Robert M. McCracken
Robert McDowell McCracken was a United States Representative from Idaho. McCracken served one term as a Republican in the House, from 1915 to 1917. Born in Vincennes, Indiana, McCracken was elected in 1914 as one of two at-large members from Idaho, representing the entire state alongside Addison T. Smith. In 1916 he was defeated for reelection in the Republican primary by former congressman Burton L. French. While campaigning for a return to Congress in 1934, McCracken died in an automobile accident near Emmett, his vehicle tumbled down Freezeout Hill. McCracken, age 60, was buried at Blackfoot Cemetery in Blackfoot. United States Congress. "Robert M. McCracken". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Political Graveyard – Robert M. McCracken Robert M. McCracken at Find a Grave
World Boxing Association
The World Boxing Association known as the National Boxing Association is the oldest and one of four major organizations which sanction professional boxing bouts, alongside the IBF, WBC, WBO. The WBA awards its world championship title at the professional level. Founded in the United States in 1921 by thirteen state representatives as the NBA, in 1962 it changed its name in recognition of boxing's growing popularity worldwide, began to gain other nations as members. By 1975, a majority of votes were held by Latin American nations, the organization headquarters were moved to Panama. After being located during the 1990s and early 2000s in Venezuela, the organization offices returned to Panama in 2007, it is the oldest of the four major organizations recognized by the International Boxing Hall of Fame, which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the World Boxing Council, International Boxing Federation, World Boxing Organization. The World Boxing Association can be traced back to the original National Boxing Association, organized in 1921.
The first bout it recognized was the Jack Dempsey–Georges Carpentier Heavyweight Championship bout in New Jersey. The NBA was formed by representatives from thirteen American states, including Sam Milner, to counterbalance the influence that the New York State Athletic Commission wielded; the NBA and the NYSAC sometimes crowned different world champions in the same division, leading to confusion about, the real champion. The International Boxing Research Organization describes the early NBA as follows: Originally more comparable to the present American Association of Boxing Commissions than to its offspring and successor, the NBA sanctioned title bouts, published lists of outstanding challengers, withdrew titular recognition, but did not attempt to appoint its own title bout officials or otherwise impose its will on championship fights, it did not conduct purse bids or collect "sanctioning fees." The NBA became the WBA on August 23, 1962. Gilberto Mendoza was the president of the WBA from 1982 until his death in 2016, after which Gilberto Mendoza Jr. took over as president.
In the 1990s, the WBA moved its central offices from Panama, to Caracas, Venezuela. In January 2007, it returned its offices to Panama; the WBA has been plagued with charges of corruption for years. In a 1981 Sports Illustrated article, a WBA judge claimed that he was influenced by the WBA president to support certain fighters; the same article discussed a variety of bribes paid to WBA officials to obtain title fights or rankings with the organization. In a 1982 interview, the promoter Bob Arum claimed that he had to pay off WBA officials to obtain rankings for his fighters. Though the "Super Champion" designation are for WBA champions who concurrently hold titles with the WBO, IBF and/or WBC, in some instances, the WBA has designated as "Super Champion" fighters with only the WBA title; this particular practice has come under scrutiny, as several boxing experts consider it a means for the organization to gain more sanctioning fees within each division. The WBA garnered some attention in 2015 when it continued ranking Ali Raymi in its flyweight rankings, despite Raymi, who worked as a colonel in the Yemeni military, having been killed by a Saudi airstrike that year.
Ali Raymi was ranked Number 6 at the time of Number 11 after his death. The WBA recognises the title holders from the WBC, WBO, IBF organisations; the WBA refers to a champion who holds two or more of these titles in the same weight class as a "Super Champion", "Unified Champion", or "Undisputed Champion". This applies if the WBA title is not one of the titles held by the "Undisputed Champion." In September 2008 for example, Nate Campbell was recognized as the WBA's "Undisputed Champion" at lightweight due to holding the WBO and IBF titles as well, while the WBA's "Regular" champion was Yusuke Kobori. If a fighter with multiple titles holds the WBA's title, the fighter is promoted to "Super Champion" and the WBA title—which is referred to as the "Regular" title—becomes vacant for competition by other WBA-ranked boxers; as a result, the WBA's official list of champions will show a "WBA Super World Champion" and a "WBA World Champion" for the same weight class, instead of "WBA Champion." The WBA has been known to recognize three different fighters as one form of champion or another in the same weight class, there have been occasions where two different WBA "World" champions have defended their own versions of the same title, in the same weight class, on the same night, in two different parts of the world.
A WBA champion may be promoted to "Super Champion" without winning another organization's title: Chris John, Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Anselmo Moreno are examples. The WBA will promote their titlist to a "Super" champion when he defends his title five times; as of 2017, the WBA continues to issue Regular titles, despite having stated that they would seek to reduce their number of titles to one per weight class. Since 2015, the WBA awards a customized version of their Super champion belt to big fights involving a WBA championship; the WBA called this the Man of Triumph belt, named after the trophy awarded to the winner of Mayweather-Pacquiao fight. The plate of the belt has the images of the two boxers fighting. Floyd Mayweather Jr. received the first Gold-plated version of the belt while Manny Pacquiao was awarded a one-time Rhodium-plated version. Other recipients of the custom Gold-plated belt are Anthony Joshua, Vasyl Lomachenko, Manny Pacquiao, Oleksandr Usyk, Canelo Alvarez, Callum Smith.
As of April 13, 2019
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
Lennox Claudius Lewis, is a former professional boxer who competed from 1989 to 2003. He is a three-time world heavyweight champion, a two-time lineal champion, remains the last heavyweight to hold the undisputed title. Holding dual British and Canadian citizenship, Lewis represented Canada as an amateur at the 1988 Summer Olympics, winning a gold medal in the super-heavyweight division after defeating Riddick Bowe in the final. In his first three years as a professional, Lewis won several regional heavyweight championships, including the European and Commonwealth titles. After winning his first 21 fights, he defeated Donovan Ruddock in 1992 to take over the number one position in the WBC rankings, he was declared WBC heavyweight champion that year after Riddick Bowe gave up the title to avoid defending it against Lewis. He defended the title three times before an upset knockout loss to Oliver McCall in 1994. Lewis avenged the loss in a 1997 rematch to win back the vacant WBC title. Lewis won the lineal title by defeating Shannon Briggs in 1998.
Two fights against Evander Holyfield in 1999 saw Lewis become undisputed heavyweight champion by unifying his WBC title with Holyfield's WBA and IBF titles, as well as the vacant IBO title. In 2000, the WBA stripped Lewis of their title when he opted to face Michael Grant instead of mandatory challenger John Ruiz. Lewis was knocked out by Hasim Rahman in a 2001 upset, but this defeat was avenged in the year. In 2002, Lewis defeated Mike Tyson in one of the most anticipated fights in boxing history. Prior to the event, Lewis was awarded the Ring magazine heavyweight title, discontinued in the late 1980s. In what would be his final fight, in 2003, Lewis defeated Vitali Klitschko in a bloody encounter, he vacated his remaining titles and retired from boxing in 2004. Lewis referred to himself as "the pugilist specialist", he was 6 ft 5 in tall, with an 84 in reach, weighed about 245 lb during his boxing prime. He is regarded by many as one of the greatest heavyweight boxers of all time, one of the greatest British fighters of all time.
He has the fourth longest combined title streak in post-war heavyweight history at 15 title bouts. In 1999 he was named Fighter of the Year by the Boxing Writers Association of America, BBC Sports Personality of the Year. BoxRec ranks Lewis as the 25th best heavyweight boxer of all time. Lewis was born on 2 September 1965, in England, to parents born in Jamaica. At birth he weighed 4.8 kg, was given the name Lennox by the doctor, who said he "looked like a Lennox." Lewis moved to Kitchener, Canada in 1977 at the age of 12. He attended Cameron Heights Collegiate Institute for high school, where he excelled in Canadian football and basketball. In the 1982–83 school year, he helped the school's AAA basketball team win the Ontario provincial championship. Lewis decided that his favourite sport was boxing, he became a dominant amateur boxer and won the gold medal at the Junior World Championships in 1983. At the age of 18, Lewis represented Canada in the super-heavyweight division at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
He advanced to the quarter-finals, where he lost by decision to Tyrell Biggs of the US, who went on to win the gold medal. Lewis chose not to turn professional after the Olympics, instead fought four more years as an amateur, hoping for a second chance to win a gold medal. At the 1986 World Championships, he lost in the preliminary round to Petar Stoymenov of Bulgaria; that year, Lewis won gold at the Commonwealth Games. After winning several more amateur titles in the following years, he traveled to Seoul, South Korea, for the 1988 Summer Olympics and achieved his goal. In the gold medal final, Lewis defeated. Lewis would go on to become the first super-heavyweight gold medallist to become world heavyweight champion as a professional. In the Games' closing ceremony, Lewis was Canada's flag bearer. Lewis finished his amateur career with a record of 7 losses, his amateur boxing coaches were Arnie Boehm and the late Adrian Teodorescu, who guided Lewis to the Olympic title in 1988. Notable wins 1983 Junior World Championships – gold medal, super-heavyweight Represented Canada as a super-heavyweight at the 1984 Summer Olympics: Defeated Muhammad Youssef.
He claimed he had always considered himself British, but many British fans regarded him as "a Canadian at heart and a Briton for convenience." In 2015 Lewis explained "When I turned pro, I had to go to the United Kingdom in order to pursue my career. The infrastructure to develop boxers wasn't in Canada then."Lewis signed with boxing promoter Frank Maloney and his early professional career was filled with knockouts of journeymen, as well as fighters such as Osvaldo Ocasio. After he signed with Am
Anthony Oluwafemi Olaseni Joshua, is a British professional boxer. He is a unified world heavyweight champion, holding three of the four major championships in boxing: the IBF title since 2016, the WBA title since 2017, the WBO title since 2018, he has held the IBO title since 2017, at regional level he held the British and Commonwealth heavyweight titles from 2014 to 2016. Joshua represented England at the 2011 World Championships as an amateur in the super-heavyweight division, winning a silver medal. In 2014, a year after turning professional, he was named Prospect of the Year by The Ring magazine. In 2017, his victorious fight against Wladimir Klitschko was named Fight of the Year by The Ring and the Boxing Writers Association of America. Joshua is the second British boxer, after James DeGale, to win both a gold medal at the Olympics and a world title by a major professional sanctioning body, as well as being the first British heavyweight to do so; as of September 2018, Joshua is ranked as the world's best active heavyweight by The Ring, the Transnational Boxing Rankings Board, BoxRec.
Known for his exceptional punching power, he has finished all but one of his fights to date by knockout. Anthony Oluwafemi Olaseni Joshua was born on 15 October 1989 in Watford, the son of Yeta and Robert Joshua, his mother is Nigerian, while his father is English with Irish ancestry. Joshua's specific Nigerian background can be traced back to the Yoruba people, his cousin, Ben Lleyemi, is a professional boxer. The pair made their professional debuts together in 2013. Joshua spent some of his early years in Nigeria as a boarding school student at Mayflower School, Ikenne. Following his parents' divorce when he was 12, he returned to the UK halfway through Year Seven to join Kings Langley Secondary School. Growing up on the Meriden Estate in Garston, Hertfordshire, he was called "Femi" by his friends and former teachers, due to his middle name, Oluwafemi, he excelled at football and athletics and broke his school's Year Nine 100 m record with a time of 11.6 seconds. A late starter in the sport, Joshua only began boxing in 2007, aged 18, when his cousin suggested he take it up.
His club, Finchley ABC in Barnet, North London, is home to professional heavyweight Dereck Chisora. Joshua won the 2010 Haringey Box Cup. Joshua won the senior ABA Championships in 2010, in only his 18th bout, turned down £50,000 to turn professional. "Turning down that £50,000 was easy. I didn't take up the sport for money, I want to win medals." He went on to win the same tournament the following year. In 2010 his domestic success earned him a place on the GB Boxing team and the same year he became British amateur champion at the GB Amateur Boxing Championships after defeating Amin Isa. In June 2011 at the 2011 European Amateur Boxing Championships he beat Eric Berechlin and Cathal McMonagle but was stopped by aggressive Romanian southpaw Mihai Nistor after receiving several standing counts. In October 2011 he was named Amateur Boxer of the Year by the Boxing Writers Club of Great Britain. Joshua had an amateur record of 40-3. During the 2011 World Amateur Boxing Championships in Baku, Joshua marked his sudden arrival on the world scene when he beat Italian reigning World & Olympic champion Roberto Cammarelle, went on to stop Erik Pfeifer of Germany in the semis before losing by a single point to local boxer, Magomedrasul Majidov winning a silver medal.
En route to the final, Joshua secured his place at the 2012 Olympic Games in the 91 kg+ division as a relative newcomer to the elite level of the sport. Joshua went into the 2012 London Olympics as a novice on the international scene, despite being a world silver medalist, he received a tough draw in the last 16 of the super heavyweight event in Cuban Erislandy Savón, ranked No. 4 in the world by AIBA and nephew of the three time Olympic champion Félix Savón. The home boxer battled through three tough rounds in his opening contest before being given the result 17:16; this decision caused some controversy with most observers believing Savon had won the bout whilst a few others taking the view that he had won on merit. In his next bout he fought 2008 Beijing Olympics silver medalist Zhang Zhilei, dropping his taller opponent in the middle round. In the semi-final Joshua met Kazakh boxer Ivan Dychko, despite Joshua's height disadvantage he won by 13:11 victory gaining a place in the Olympic final.
Joshua met 32-year-old reigning Olympic Champion and former twice World Champion, Roberto Cammarelle of Italy in the closing bout. After conceding the first two rounds to Cammarelle, an adversary he had beaten the previous year, Joshua grew into the fight and fought back to level the scores after the third round. Joshua was announced winner via the new Olympic champion; the final decision was criticised by some boxing experts, being defined as a "home decision". He was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2013 New Year Honours for services to boxing. 2009 as a Super Heavyweight. Results were: Lost to Dillian Whyte UD-3 2010 won the ABA National Championships 91 kg+ in Bethnal Green, London as a Super Heavyweight. Results were: Defeated Chris Duff WO Defeated Simon Hadden WO Defeated Dominic Winrow RSC-1 2010 won the Haringey International Tournament in Haringey, London as a Super Heavyweight. Results were: Defeated Otto Wallin PTS 2011 won the ABA National Championships 91 kg+ in Colchester, Essex as a Super Heavyweight.
Results were: Defeated Fayz Aboadi Abbas
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
International Boxing Federation
The International Boxing Federation is one of four major organizations recognized by the International Boxing Hall of Fame which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the World Boxing Association, World Boxing Council and World Boxing Organization. The IBF was preceded by the United States Boxing Association, a regional championship organization like the North American Boxing Federation, the North American Boxing Association. In 1983, at the WBA's annual convention, held in Puerto Rico, Robert W. "Bobby" Lee, Sr. president of the USBA, lost in his bid to become WBA president against Gilberto Mendoza. Lee and others withdrew from the convention after the election, decided to organize a third, world-level organization, to co-exist with the World Boxing Association and the World Boxing Council. Formed as USBA-International, the fledgling organization was renamed the International Boxing Federation, based in New Jersey, where its main offices remain. Bobby Lee had been a New Jersey boxing commissioner until 1985, according to news reports, "he was suspended and fined by the Ethical Standards Commission for accepting contributions from fight promoters and casino executives."The IBF's first world champion was Marvin Camel, a former World Boxing Council world cruiserweight champion who won the IBF's belt in the same division.
During its first year of existence, the IBF remained obscure. But by 1984, the IBF decided to recognize Larry Holmes, Aaron Pryor, Marvin Hagler and Donald Curry established champions from other organizations, as IBF world champions. In Holmes' case, he relinquished his WBC title to accept the IBF's recognition, it established the IBF as the third sanctioning body, a legitimate organization. Despite achieving an appearance of legitimacy, subsequent to a three-year investigation started by 1996 charges levied by former heavyweight champion Michael Moorer. Indicted on federal racketeering and racketeering conspiracy charges were "president, Robert W. Lee, 65. Lee was subsequently convicted of money-laundering and tax evasion in August 2000 sentenced, in 2001, to 22 months in prison and fined $25,000. In 2000, citing extortion. Arum was fined $125,000 by the Nevada State Athletic Commission. Boxing promoters Cedric Kushner and Dino Duva admitted to making similar payments to Lee. IBF was under federal observation from Lee's conviction through September 2004.
Former Michigan Boxing Commissioner, WBA vice-president, boxing safety advocate and IBF interim president Hiawatha Knight became president following Lee's conviction, was the first woman president of any world governing boxing organization. In 2001, Marian Muhammad assumed the presidency, followed by Daryl J. Peoples, who remains president as of 2018. IBF had "1st Annual Convention of IBF Muaythai" in Bangkok, Thailand on 20–21 December 2017. Daryl Peoples, IBF president, attended the convention; the new champions of IBF Muay Thai were crowned in three weight divisions. As of April 13, 2019. List of boxing organisations Don King List of IBF world champions List of IBF Muay Thai world champions Official website All-time IBF World champions - Reference book