San Jose, California
San Jose the City of San José, is an economic and political center of Silicon Valley, the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,035,317, it is the third-most populous city in California and the tenth-most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States. San Jose is the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. San Jose is a global city, notable as a center of innovation, for its affluence, Mediterranean climate, high cost of living. San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry, as a cultural and economic center has earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley".
San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. With a median home price of $1,085,000, San Jose has the most expensive housing market in the country and the fifth most expensive housing market in the world, according to the 2017 Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Samsung, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Western Digital maintain their headquarters in San Jose, in the center of Silicon Valley. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Tamien nation of the Ohlone peoples of California. San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias, it became a part of Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.
Following the American Conquest of California during the Mexican–American War, the territory was ceded to the United States in 1848. After California achieved statehood two years San Jose became the state's first capital. Following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 1960s; the rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California. By the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries, making it California's fastest-growing economy; the Santa Clara Valley has been home to the Tamyen group of the Ohlone people since around 4,000 BCE. The Tamyen spoke Tamyen language of the Ohlone language family.
With the Spanish colonization of California, the majority of the Tamyen came to inhabit Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San José. California was claimed as part of the Spanish Empire in 1542, when explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo charted the Californian coast. During this time and Baja California were administered together as Province of the California. For nearly 200 years, the Californias were sparsely populated and ignored by the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. Only in 1769 was Northern California surveyed by Spanish authorities, with the Portolá Expedition. In 1776, the Californias were included as part of the Captaincy General of the Provincias Internas, a large administrative division created by José de Gálvez, Spanish Minister of the Indies, in order to provide greater autonomy for the Spanish Empire's populated and ungoverned borderlands; that year, King Carlos III of Spain approved an expedition by Juan Bautista de Anza to survey the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to choose the sites for two future settlements and their accompanying mission.
First he chose the site for a military settlement in San Francisco, for the Royal Presidio of San Francisco, Mission San Francisco de Asís. On his way back to Mexico from San Francisco, de Anza chose the sites in Santa Clara Valley for a civilian settlement, San Jose, on the eastern bank of the Guadalupe River, a mission on its western bank, Mission Santa Clara de Asís. San Jose was founded as California's first civilian settlement on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain. San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network. In 1791, due to the severe flooding which characterized the pueblo, San Jose's settlement was moved a mile south, centered on the Pueblo Plaza. In 1800, due to the growing population in the northern part of the Californias, Diego de Borica, Governor of the Californias split the province into two parts: Alta California, which would become a U.
S. state, Baja California, which would become two Mexican states. San Jose became part of the First M
Peter Anthony DeFazio is the U. S. Representative for Oregon's 4th congressional district, serving since 1987, he is a member of the Democratic Party. The district includes Eugene, Corvallis, Coos Bay and Florence, he is the dean of Oregon's House of Representatives delegation and a founder of the Congressional Progressive Caucus. A native of Massachusetts and a veteran of the United States Air Force Reserves, he served as a county commissioner in Lane County, Oregon. DeFazio was born in 1947 in a suburb of Boston, he credits his great-uncle with shaping his politics. He served in the United States Air Force Reserves from 1967 to 1971, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Tufts University in 1969 and a Master of Arts degree from the University of Oregon in 1977. From 1977 to 1982, DeFazio worked as an aide for U. S. Representative Jim Weaver, he was elected as a Lane County Commissioner in 1983 and served as chairman from 1985 to 1986. In 1986, DeFazio ran for Oregon's 4th congressional district, vacated by retiring incumbent Democratic congressman Jim Weaver.
DeFazio narrowly won in a competitive three-way primary against State Senators Bill Bradbury and Margie Hendriksen 34%-33%-31%. He won the general election with 54% of the vote, he did not face another contest nearly that close until 2010, winning every election before with at least 61 percent of the vote. He has forged a nearly unbreakable hold on a district, only marginally Democratic on paper. 2008 DeFazio won 82% of the vote over two minor party candidates. Earlier, he considered and re-considered running against Gordon H. Smith in the 2008 Senate election. On April 20, 2007, DeFazio announced. After Barack Obama was elected president in 2008, it was reported that DeFazio was under consideration for nomination as Obama's Secretary of Transportation. However, fellow U. S. Representative Ray LaHood, a Republican, was named to the post in December 2008. 2010 In 2010, DeFazio was challenged by Republican Art Robinson and Pacific Green candidate Michael Beilstein. As a result of the SCOTUS decision on Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, a so-called Super PAC group called The Concerned Taxpayers of America paid $300,000 for ads attacking De Fazio and $150,000 for ads attacking Frank Kratovil of Maryland.
It was not revealed until the mid-October 2010 quarterly FEC filings that the group was funded by $300,000 from Daniel G. Schuster Inc. a concrete firm in Owings Mills, $200,000 from New York hedge fund executive Robert Mercer, the co-head of Renaissance Technologies of Setauket, New York. The FEC filings prior to listed only a Capitol Hill address and Republican political consultant Jason Miller as treasurer. According to Dan Eggen at The Washington Post, the group claims "it was formed in September'to engage citizens from every walk of life and political affiliation' in the fight against'runaway spending.'" The only expenditures were for these ads. DeFazio won with 54.5% of the vote, his lowest winning percentage since he was first elected in 1986. The Oregonian stated that the reelection of DeFazio to his 13th term was more notable for the amount of outside money spent on the campaign than the candidates themselves. 2012 In September 2011, the National Journal cited DeFazio as an example of "swing-district Democrats seeking reelection in 2012," and who, in "begin to focus on their reelection bids after Labor Day...are calculating how close is too close to an unpopular President Obama."
It noted that DeFazio's district "nearly went for Republican George W. Bush in 2004."Redistricting made the 4th friendlier for DeFazio. He picked up all of Benton County, including all of Corvallis, home to Oregon State University. DeFazio has a progressive voting record. In 1992, DeFazio was a co-founder of the Congressional Progressive Caucus along with Bernie Sanders, Ron Dellums, Lane Evans, Thomas Andrews, Maxine Waters, was its chairman from 2003 to 2005. During the 1999 World Trade Organization meetings in Seattle, DeFazio marched with protesters, many of whom committed acts of violence and looting. In October 2011, DeFazio demanded that the U. S. Department of Labor strengthen restrictions on the hiring of foreign guest workers for forestry jobs intended for unemployed U. S. citizens. “Over the past year it has come to light that several contractors exploited loopholes in the H-2B visa process to intentionally hire foreign workers, rather than available Americans, for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-funded jobs on Forest Service lands in Oregon.
This is unacceptable,” DeFazio wrote to the Secretary of Labor. “Taxpayer money was spent to hire foreign workers while unemployed Oregonians were denied these jobs. The Department of Labor owes it to the American taxpayer and the over 13 million unemployed Americans to make sure this can never occur again."DeFazio issued a statement condemning President Trump's January 2017 executive order restricting visits to the U. S. from certain Muslim countries. “President Trump's ill-conceived and unlawful executive order uses false rhetoric and preys upon Americans' fears without doing anything to address the real terrorist threats facing our nation,” said DeFazio. “Instead, it sends a dangerous message that Muslims are not welcome in America, alienates our allies, serves as a recruiting tool for ISIS and other terrorists groups. This irresponsible action puts our nation at risk and stands in oppos
Citizens United v. FEC
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 558 U. S. 310, is a landmark U. S. constitutional law, campaign finance, corporate law case dealing with regulation of political campaign spending by organizations. The United States Supreme Court held on January 21, 2010, that the free speech clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution prohibits the government from restricting independent expenditures for communications by nonprofit corporations, for-profit corporations, labor unions, other associations. In the case, the conservative non-profit organization Citizens United sought to air a film critical of Hillary Clinton and to advertise the film during television broadcasts shortly before the 2008 Democratic primary election in which Clinton was running for U. S. President; the federal law, prohibited any corporation from making an "electioneering communication" within 30 days of a primary or 60 days of an election, or making any expenditure advocating the election or defeat of a candidate at any time.
The court found. The court upheld requirements, for public disclosure by sponsors of advertisements; the case did not affect the federal ban on direct contributions from corporations or unions to candidate campaigns or political parties. The decision was controversial and remains a subject of widespread public discussion. In the case, No. 08-205, 558 U. S. 310, the non-profit organization Citizens United wanted to air a film critical of Hillary Clinton and to advertise the film during television broadcasts, a violation of the 2002 Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act known as the McCain–Feingold Act or "BCRA". Section 203 of BCRA defined an "electioneering communication" as a broadcast, cable, or satellite communication that mentioned a candidate within 60 days of a general election or 30 days of a primary, prohibited such expenditures by corporations and unions; the United States District Court for the District of Columbia held that §203 of BCRA applied and prohibited Citizens United from advertising the film Hillary: The Movie in broadcasts or paying to have it shown on television within 30 days of the 2008 Democratic primaries.
The Supreme Court reversed this decision, striking down those provisions of BCRA that prohibited corporations and unions from making independent expenditures for "electioneering communications". The majority decision overruled Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce and overruled McConnell v. Federal Election Commission; the Court, upheld requirements for public disclosure by sponsors of advertisements. The case did not involve the federal ban on direct contributions from corporations or unions to candidate campaigns or political parties, which remain illegal in races for federal office. Section 203 of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 modified the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, 2 U. S. C. § 441b to prohibit corporations and unions from using their general treasury to fund "electioneering communications" within 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election. During the 2004 presidential campaign, Citizens United, a nonprofit 501 organization, filed a complaint before the Federal Election Commission charging that advertisements for Michael Moore's film Fahrenheit 9/11, a docudrama critical of the Bush administration's response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, produced and marketed by a variety of corporate entities, constituted political advertising and thus could not be aired within the 30 days before a primary election or 60 days before a general election.
The FEC dismissed the complaint after finding no evidence that broadcast advertisements featuring a candidate within the proscribed time limits had been made. The FEC dismissed a second complaint which argued that the movie itself constituted illegal corporate spending advocating the election or defeat of a candidate, illegal under the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 and the Federal Election Campaign Act Amendments of 1974. In dismissing that complaint, the FEC found that: The complainant alleged that the release and distribution of FAHRENHEIT 9/11 constituted an independent expenditure because the film expressly advocated the defeat of President George W. Bush and that by being or responsible for the film's release, Michael Moore and other entities associated with the film excessive and/or prohibited contributions to unidentified candidates; the Commission found no reason to believe the respondents violated the Act because the film, associated trailers and website represented bona fide commercial activity, not "contributions" or "expenditures" as defined by the Federal Election Campaign Act.
In response, Citizens United produced the documentary Celsius 41.11, critical of both Fahrenheit 9/11 and 2004 Democratic presidential nominee John Kerry. The FEC, held that showing the movie and advertisements for it would violate the Federal Election Campaign Act, because Citizens United was not a bona fide commercial film maker. In the wake of these decisions, Citizens United sought to establish itself as a bona fide commercial film maker before the 2008 elections, producing several documentary films between 2005 and 2007. By early 2008, it sought to run television commercials to promote its political documentary Hillary: The Movie and to air the movie on DirecTV. In December 2007, Citizens United filed a complaint in U. S. District C
Park51 is a development, envisioned as a 13-story Islamic community center and mosque in Lower Manhattan. The developers hoped to promote an interfaith dialogue within the greater community. Due to its proposed location two blocks from the World Trade Center site, it was and controversially referred to as the "Ground Zero mosque"; the project would replace an existing 1850s building of Italianate style, damaged in the September 11 attacks. The original design was by Michel Abboud, principal of SOMA Architects, who wrestled for months with the challenge of making the building fit into its lower Manhattan surroundings: on the one hand, it should have a contemporary design, and, at the same time, it should look Islamic, his design included a 500-seat auditorium, performing arts center, fitness center, swimming pool, basketball court, childcare area, culinary school, art studio, food court, memorial to the victims of the September 11 attacks. It included a prayer space for the Muslim community, which would accommodate 1,000–2,000 people.
In late September 2011, a temporary 4,000-square-foot Islamic center opened in renovated space at the Park51 location. In summer 2014, it was announced that there would instead be a 3-story museum with a prayer space, as well as condos, at 49-51 Park Place; the plans were changed again in September 2015, when the owner announced a 667-foot, 70-story luxury condominium building at the site. In May 2016, financing was secured for a 43-story condominium building with room for an Islamic cultural museum. Plans to build then-named Cordoba House were reported in The New York Times in December 2009, at a location, in use for Muslim worship. Early response to the project was not pronounced, one libertarian commentator provided positive coverage; the plans were reviewed by the local community board in May 2010, at which time they attracted some national media attention. Protests were sparked by a campaign launched by conservative bloggers Pamela Geller and Robert Spencer, founders of the group Stop Islamization of America, who dubbed the project the "Ground Zero mosque", a national controversy ensued.
Some opponents have said. Supporters have said that arguments against the building are based on the notion that Islam, rather than Islamic radicals, is responsible for the terrorist attack; the New York Times reported that Muslim religious facilities existed at the World Trade Center itself before the attacks. Opponents have argued that the project should not be built because polls have shown that most Americans, including most residents of New York State and New York City, oppose it. Most Americans do, believe the Park51 developers have a legal right to proceed with the project; the project's organizers state. It will strive to promote inter-community peace and understanding locally in New York City, nationally in America, globally," and have stated that it is modeled on the noted Manhattan Jewish Community Center, the 92nd Street Y; the proposal triggered an intense nationwide controversy, with opponents of the project objecting to its proximity to the site of the September 11 attacks, its scale, sources of funding, or expressing concern that the project's name was intended as a reference to the Islamic conquest of the Christian city of Córdoba.
Supporters have appealed to the First Amendment as well as the opportunity for Muslims to demonstrate peaceful Islamic values and for Americans to reassert their commitment to tolerance and diversity. The project was called Cordoba House renamed Park51, in reference to the street address on Park Place; the Imam leading the project introduced some ambiguity by again referring to the project as "Cordoba House". The Park51 website clarified that Park51 is the community center, while Cordoba House is the "interfaith and religious component of the center". Cordoba Initiative said the name "Cordoba House" was meant to invoke 8th–11th century Córdoba, which they called a model of peaceful coexistence among Muslims and Jews. According to The Economist, the name was chosen because Muslims and Christians created a center of learning in Córdoba together; the name was criticized. Raymond Ibrahim, a former associate director of the Middle East Forum, said the project and name were not "a gesture of peace and interfaith dialogue" but were "allusive of Islamic conquest and consolidation" and that Americans should realize that mosques are not "Muslim counterparts to Christian churches" but rather, "are symbols of domination and centers of radicalization".
The opposition to Park51 believes that Islam builds mosques on "conquered territory" as symbols of "territory" and "conquest". Park51 is referred to as the "Ground Zero mosque". Since it is neither located directly on the former World Trade Center site, Ground Zero, nor a mosque, some news media have advised against the use of this term; the Associated Press suggested several alternate terms including "mosque 2 blocks from WTC site", "Muslim center near WTC site", "mosque near ground zero", "mosque near WTC site". Cordoba Initiative says the building is not a mosque. Anushay Hossain in The Huffington Post criticises the use of the name Ground Zero mosque, says it is "Not a mosque but a
Analytics is the discovery and communication of meaningful patterns in data. In other words, analytics can be understood as the connective tissue between data and effective decision making, within an organization. Valuable in areas rich with recorded information, analytics relies on the simultaneous application of statistics, computer programming and operations research to quantify performance. Organizations may apply analytics to business data to describe and improve business performance. Areas within analytics include predictive analytics, prescriptive analytics, enterprise decision management, descriptive analytics, cognitive analytics, Big Data Analytics, retail analytics, supply chain analytics, store assortment and stock-keeping unit optimization, marketing optimization and marketing mix modeling, web analytics, call analytics, speech analytics, sales force sizing and optimization and promotion modeling, predictive science, credit risk analysis, fraud analytics. Since analytics can require extensive computation, the algorithms and software used for analytics harness the most current methods in computer science and mathematics.
Analysis is focused on understanding the past. Analytics focuses on what will happen next. Data analytics is a multidisciplinary field. There is extensive use of computer skills and statistics, the use of descriptive techniques and predictive models to gain valuable knowledge from data.. The insights from data are used to recommend action or to guide decision making rooted in business context. Thus, analytics is not so much concerned with individual analyses or analysis steps, but with the entire methodology. There is a pronounced tendency to use the term analytics in business settings e.g. text analytics vs. the more generic text mining to emphasize this broader perspective. There is an increasing use of the term advanced analytics used to describe the technical aspects of analytics in the emerging fields such as the use of machine learning techniques like neural networks, Decision Tree, Logistic Regression, linear to multiple regression analysis, Classification to do predictive modeling, it includes Unsupervised Machine learning techniques like cluster analysis, Principal Component Analysis, segmentation profile analysis and association analysis.
Marketing has evolved from a creative process into a data-driven process. Marketing organizations use analytics to determine the outcomes of campaigns or efforts and to guide decisions for investment and consumer targeting. Demographic studies, customer segmentation, conjoint analysis and other techniques allow marketers to use large amounts of consumer purchase and panel data to understand and communicate marketing strategy. Web analytics allows marketers to collect session-level information about interactions on a website using an operation called sessionization. Google Analytics is an example of a popular free analytics tool; those interactions provide web analytics information systems with the information necessary to track the referrer, search keywords, identify IP address, track activities of the visitor. With this information, a marketer can improve marketing campaigns, website creative content, information architecture. Analysis techniques used in marketing include marketing mix modeling and promotion analyses, sales force optimization and customer analytics e.g.: segmentation.
Web analytics and optimization of web sites and online campaigns now work hand in hand with the more traditional marketing analysis techniques. A focus on digital media has changed the vocabulary so that marketing mix modeling is referred to as attribution modeling in the digital or marketing mix modeling context; these tools and techniques support both strategic marketing decisions and more tactical campaign support, in terms of targeting the best potential customer with the optimal message in the most cost effective medium at the ideal time. People Analytics is using behavioral data to understand how people work and change how companies are managed. People analytics is known as workforce analytics, HR analytics, talent analytics, people insights, talent insights, colleague insights, human capital analytics, HRIS analytics. HR analytics is the application of analytics to help companies manage human resources; the aim is to discern which employees to hire, which to reward or promote, what responsibilities to assign, similar human resource problems.
HR analytics is becoming important to understand what kind of behavioral profiles would succeed and fail. For example, an analysis may find that individuals that fit a certain type of profile are those most to succeed at a particular role, making them the best employees to hire. However, there are key differences between HR analytics. "People Analytics solves business problems. HR Analytics solves HR problems. People Analytics looks at its social organization. HR Analytics measures and integrates data about HR administrative processes," says Ben Waber, MIT Media Lab Ph. D. and CEO of Humanyze. Josh Bersin and principal at Bersin by Deloitte agrees that people analytics is a larger industry than HR Analytics, explaining, "… over time, I believe it doesn't belong within HR. While it may reside in HR to begin with, over time this team takes responsible for analysis of sales productivity, retention, accidents and the people-
In computer science, artificial intelligence, sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving"; as machines become capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities classified as AI include understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems, autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks and military simulations.
Artificial intelligence can be classified into three different types of systems: analytical, human-inspired, humanized artificial intelligence. Analytical AI has only characteristics consistent with cognitive intelligence. Human-inspired AI has elements from emotional intelligence. Humanized AI shows characteristics of all types of competencies, is able to be self-conscious and is self-aware in interactions with others. Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding, followed by new approaches and renewed funding. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that fail to communicate with each other; these sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals, the use of particular tools, or deep philosophical differences. Subfields have been based on social factors; the traditional problems of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, learning, natural language processing and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, methods based on statistics and economics; the AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, psychology, linguistics and many other fields. The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence "can be so described that a machine can be made to simulate it"; this raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth and philosophy since antiquity. Some people consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment. In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, theoretical understanding.
Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, have been common in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel Čapek's R. U. R.. These characters and their fates raised many of the same issues now discussed in the ethics of artificial intelligence; the study of mechanical or "formal" reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity. The study of mathematical logic led directly to Alan Turing's theory of computation, which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction; this insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church–Turing thesis. Along with concurrent discoveries in neurobiology, information theory and cybernetics, this led researchers to consider the possibility of building an electronic brain. Turing proposed that "if a human could not distinguish between responses from a machine and a human, the machine could be considered "intelligent".
The first work, now recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts' 1943 formal design for Turing-complete "artificial neurons". The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in 1956. Attendees Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders and leaders of AI research, they and their students produced programs that the press described as "astonishing": computers were learning checkers strategies (and by 1959 were playing better than the average human
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap