Leesburg is a city in Lake County, United States. The population was 15,956 at the 2000 census; as of 2005, the population recorded by the U. S. Census Bureau was 19,086. Leesburg is in central Florida, between Lake Harris and Lake Griffin, at the head of the Oklawaha River system, it is part of the Orlando–Kissimmee–Sanford Metropolitan Statistical Area. Leesburg is the home of Lake–Sumter State College, which has campuses in Clermont and Sumterville, Florida, it is the home of Beacon College. Leesburg was first settled in 1857 by Evander McIver Lee. Several of his brothers followed him to the area. One of them, Calvin Lee, was credited with giving the town its name; the city was incorporated in 1875, was designated as the county seat of Sumter County for a time. When Lake County was formed in 1887, Tavares was designated as its seat. In the early 20th century, Leesburg was an important center for watermelon production. In 1930, it held an annual tradition that lasted for nearly 30 years, but watermelon production dwindled and, for the last festival in 1957, watermelons had to be brought to the city from outside the area.
In 1938, during the Great Depression, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration invested in infrastructure and improvement projects across the county, its Works Progress Administration began work on the Venetian Gardens waterside park, located on the shores of Lake Harris. These canals and gardens have been a centerpiece of the community since. Lake Square Mall, the city's major shopping mall, opened in 1980. On March 19, 1982, Ozzy Osbourne's guitarist Randy Rhoads, as well as the band's cook and bus driver, were killed in a plane crash at Flying Baron Estates; the citrus industry was the principal business in this area for decades, but devastating freezes in December 1983 and February 1985 persuaded growers to move their groves further south. In 1997, Leesburg Bikefest started, it has since become an annual spring tradition, with upwards of 250,000 people attending every year. Today, most of Leesburg's growth and economic development is the result of its increasing popularity as a retirement destination.
In addition, the rapid growth of nearby Orlando has resulted in demand for housing here, as many people commute to Orlando for work. In 2011 and 2017, the Leesburg High School boys' basketball team won the 4A state championship. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.4 square miles, of which 18.7 square miles is land and 5.8 square miles is water. Several major highways pass through Leesburg, including U. S. Highway 27, U. S. Highway 441 and S. R. 44. Florida's Turnpike passes just to the west of Leesburg. Leesburg was on the western leg of the Dixie Highway. Leesburg International Airport is a small hub airport at the intersection of CR 44 and US 441, in front of Lake-Sumter State College, it is a hub of JetSky airlines, serves Lake and Marion Counties. As of the census of 2000, there were 15,956 people, 6,775 households, 4,078 families residing in the city; the population density was 854.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,742 housing units at an average density of 414.8 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 66.60% White, 29.12% African American, 0.27% Native American, 1.33% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.26% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.12% of the population. There were 6,775 households out of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.8% were non-families. 33.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 26.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,988, the median income for a family was $33,250.
Males had a median income of $25,840 versus $20,888 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,762. About 16.2% of families and 19.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.3% of those under age 18 and 11.9% of those age 65 or over. Lake County Schools operates public primary and secondary schools: Leesburg High School Oak Park Middle School Leesburg Elementary SchoolTertiary institutions: Beacon College Lake–Sumter State College From 1922 to 1924, the city's Cooke Field was used by the Philadelphia Phillies for their spring training sessions. On March 14, 1923, the stadium was used for the site of an exhibition game between the Phillies and the St. Louis Cardinals. In 1936, the city built the Ballpark at Venetian Gardens, used by several minor league baseball clubs that played in the Florida State League from 1937 to 1968; the city won league titles in 1941 and 1946. Since 2007, the city has been the home of the Leesburg Lightning, a wood-bat collegiate summer baseball team in the Florida Collegiate Summer League.
During the 1920s, sharpshooter Annie Oakley, who had a residence in Leesburg, performed shooting exhibitions at Cooke Field, including one for the Philadelphia Phillies. Dan Hinote, St. Louis Blues center was born in Leesburg. Austin "Red" Robbins, ABA player, was born in Leesburg Abe Anellis, a food microbiologist who worked for the U. S. Army and was born in Mahilyow, retired to Leesburg in 1977, where he lived until his death. Gregg L. F
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Williamsport is a city in, the county seat of, Lycoming County, United States. In 2017, the population was estimated at 28,462, it is the principal city of the Williamsport, Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of about 114,000. The city is the cultural and commercial center of Central Pennsylvania, it is 131 miles from Philadelphia, 166 miles from Pittsburgh and 85 miles from state capital Harrisburg. The city is renowned for arts scene and food. Williamsport was settled by Americans late in the 18th century, the town began to prosper due to its lumber industry. By the early 20th century, the town reached the height of its prosperity and the population has since declined by about a third from its peak of around 45,000 in 1950. Williamsport is the birthplace of Little League Baseball. South Williamsport, a town nearby, is the headquarters of Little League Baseball and annually hosts the Little League World Series in late summer. Colonial settlement in what is today Williamsport dates back to 1786 but the area was inhabited by the Iroquois.
Williamsport was incorporated as a borough on March 1, 1806, as a city on January 15, 1866. In the late 19th century, Williamsport was known as "The Lumber Capital of the World" because of its thriving lumber industry; the city is the original home of Little League Baseball, founded in 1939 as a three-team league. Following World War II the city's population and economic prosperity have declined. In 1763 the Battle of Muncy Hills took place during the French and Indian War, it was a clash between the Native Americans and colonists seeking homestead sites in Native American territory. In 1768, at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the British purchased the land that became Lycoming County from the Iroquois Nation who controlled the lands. In 1786 the first house was built in Williamsport. James Russell built his inn on what is now the northeast corner of East Third and Mulberry Streets in downtown. On April 13, 1795 Lycoming County was formed from Northumberland County, it encompassed all the lands of Northumberland County situated west of Muncy Hills and was a domain of 12,500 square miles, comprising most of north central Pennsylvania.
In 1796 the first recorded childbirth in Williamsport was James Russell the son of Mr. and Mrs. William Russell and grandson of James Russell of the Russell Inn and the first school was built as a one-room log addition to the building that would become the first Lycoming County Courthouse. In 1798 the first brick house in Williamsport was erected on Front Street, between Market and Mulberry, by Andrew Tulloh, a lawyer; the bricks were made on the banks of Grafius Run. In 1799, a post office opened at the corner of Third and State Streets in what is now downtown, the following year, a jail was constructed at the northeast corner of William and Third Streets; the post office was converted to a saloon,In 1801 the town's first store was opened by William Winter on Third Street. In 1831 Jacob L. Mussina established the Repasz Band, the oldest brass band in America still in existence. On Oct. 15 1834 The West Branch Canal opened and the first boat to pass through the canal en route to Jersey Shore was that of George Aughenbaugh.
The first freight carried into town was iron for the foundry of John B. Hall; the same year the enactment of the common school law by Pennsylvania Legislature led to public education here. In May 1835, the first public schools opened in Williamsport and the town's first bank, the West Branch National Bank; the Underground Railroad, used by enslaved African-Americans to obtain their freedom in the 30 years before the Civil War included routes from states in the South, which supported slavery, to "free" states in the North and Canada. From 1830 until 1865, the underground railroad, a system of safe houses and routes for slaves escaping to freedom, operated in Lycoming County. Based on the oral history of Mamie Sweeting Diggs, fourth generation descent and great-granddaughter, was a river raftsman on the Susquehanna river who had migrated from Oswego, New York, he lived on the Muncy Indian Reservation. During his trips transporting logs to Maryland, he brought escaped slaves back on foot from Baltimore, over Bald Eagle Mountain and hid them at his home and in the caves on Freedom Road.
Mamie's grandfather, helped his father, Daniel Hughes, hide escaped slaves in the caves behind their home on Freedom Road. They fed them, nursed the sick back to health and delivered them safely to the next "station", The Apker House in Trout Run; the Apker House was the home of Robert Fairies and president of the Williamsport-Elmira Railroad. The railroad ran through his property where escaped slaves were hidden in the barn and house and loaded into railway baggage cars for the trip to Elmira, NY, the next "station."Mamie's grandfather, Robert passed the stories to his children, including Mamie's mother, Marion. Marion tended the family homestead, maintained Freedom Road Cemetery and passed Daniel's stories down to her children. In 1849 the Market Street Bridge was built over the West Branch Susquehanna River, it was opened as a toll bridge to cover the state's costs of $23,797. In 1854 a brewery opened; the brewery was sold to Henry Flock in 1865. This brewery was run by the Flock family until the 1940s.
The Flock's business survived Prohibition by converting to a dairy. In 1875, the first tower clock in the United States to sound the Cambridge Quarters was installed at Trinity Episcopal Chur
Mr. ZIP, informally "Zippy", is a cartoon character used in the 1960s by the United States Post Office Department, by its successor, the United States Postal Service, to encourage the general public to include the ZIP Code in all mailings; the USPS has described the origin of Mr. ZIP as follows: Mr. ZIP was based on an original design by Howard Wilcox, son of a letter carrier and a member of the Cunningham and Walsh advertising agency, for use by a New York bank in a bank-by-mail campaign. Wilcox's design was a child-like sketch of a postman delivering a letter; the figure was used only a few times filed away. AT&T acquired the design and made it available to the Post Office Department at no cost.... Miami-based Post Office Department artist Joe Lawrence retained the face but sharpened the limbs and torso and added a mail bag; the new figure, who Lawrence had dubbed Mr. ZIP, was unveiled at a convention of postmasters in October 1962; the character's original name had been Mr. P. O. Zone, but was changed to Mr. ZIP along with the new term "ZIP code."
The Post Office had little difficulty in getting mass mailers to use the ZIP Code as it could make its inclusion a condition for receiving preferential mailing rates and soon did. However, there was some resistance by the general public, members of whom would mail items without ZIP Code invariably at the full rate for First Class Mail, which by regulation had to be delivered if at all possible and feasible; this was true of older mailers. Mr. ZIP was the Post Office's answer to this intended to teach small children to always use the ZIP Code as they got older and to encourage their parents and grandparents to do so. Mr. ZIP is a caricature of a mail carrier, wide-eyed and drawn with his letter bag trailing him in such a way as to imply his travelling at extreme speed, sometimes holding on to his hat with his free hand, his limbs were thin like those of a stick figure. He was used on posters promoting ZIP Code use. Mr. ZIP appeared on the selvage of stamp panes for many stamp issues, beginning with the 5 cent Sam Houston stamp issued January 10, 1964, although the 5¢ Battle of the Wilderness stamp of May 5, 1964, is sometimes listed as the "first" because it appears earlier in most stamp catalogs due to its inclusion in a five-issue Civil War series.
He appeared on non-postally-valid labels inside, or on the cover of, stamp booklets. Stamp collectors sometimes collect the corner block of four stamps with the part of the selvage bearing Mr. ZIP; as the Post Office promoted the use of ZIP codes, Mr. ZIP was displayed in post offices as a 4.5-foot tall plywood figure. Mr. ZIP was featured prominently alongside the Swingin' Six in a televised Post Office-sponsored variety show; the songs included lyrics such as, "Meet the fellow called Mr. ZIP. What he can do for you will make you flip. So if you have any further postal demands, we're gonna leave you in his hands."A corresponding character named Mrs. ZIP was used in local parades and a Mrs. ZIP beauty pageant; the National Postal Museum does not have documentation about her origins. The character was phased out by the late 1970s, but the Post Office retained rights to the copyrighted figure. Mr. ZIP appeared in the blank selvage of United States stamps until January 1986; the Post Office re-introduced Mr. ZIP to stamps in 2013, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the ZIP Code system.
"Swingin' Six" ZIP Code variety show video: Public Service Announcement Video produced by the Post Office Department, mid-1960s. Released online by the Smithsonian National Postal Museum
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
United States Postal Inspection Service
The United States Postal Inspection Service is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service. Its jurisdiction is defined as "crimes that may adversely affect or fraudulently use the U. S. Mail, the postal system or postal employees." The mission of the U. S. Postal Inspection Service is to support and protect the U. S. Postal Service, its employees and customers by enforcing the laws that defend the nation's mail system from illegal or dangerous use. In fiscal year 2014, USPIS had 2,376 field employees, a decline of 44.7% from fiscal year 1995. In 2008, the U. S. Postal Inspection Service had 2,288 full-time personnel with the authority to make arrests and carry firearms on duty; this represented a 23.1% drop over the previous five years. The Postal Inspection Service has the oldest origins of any federal law enforcement agency in the United States, it traces its roots back to 1772 when colonial Postmaster General Benjamin Franklin first appointed a "surveyor" to regulate and audit the mails.
Thus, the Service's origins—in part—predate the Declaration of Independence, therefore the United States itself. As Franklin was appointed Postmaster General under the Second Continental Congress, his system continued. One of Franklin's first acts as Postmaster General was to appoint William Goddard as the first Postal Surveyor of the newly founded American postal system, in charge of inspecting the integrity and security of postal routes, regulating post offices, auditing their accounts. A letter from Franklin to Goddard, dated August 7, 1775, authorized a total of $170.00 for Goddard to carry out these duties, so August 7 is recognized as the "birthday" of the U. S. Postal Inspection Service. In 1801, the title of "surveyor" was changed to Special Agent. In 1830, the Special Agents were organized into the Office of Mail Depredations; the Postal Inspection Service was the first federal law enforcement agency to use the title Special Agent for its officers. Congress changed this title to Inspector in 1880.
For some time, one of their primary duties was the enforcement of obscenity prohibitions under the Comstock Act. As fact-finding and investigative agents, Postal Inspectors are sworn federal law enforcement officers who carry firearms, make arrests and serve federal search warrants and subpoenas. Inspectors work with U. S. Attorneys, other law enforcement agencies, local prosecutors to investigate postal cases and prepare them for court. For example, on all international mail Postal Inspectors work with U. S. Customs and Border Protection or U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement while on domestic mail Postal Inspectors work with state and local law enforcement agencies. There are 1,200 Postal Inspectors stationed throughout the United States and abroad who enforce more than 200 federal laws covering investigations of crimes that adversely affect or fraudulently use the U. S. Mail and postal system; the USPIS has responsibility to safeguard over 600,000 Postal Service employees and billions of pieces of mail transported worldwide yearly by air, land and sea.
USPIS was at one time the only investigative agency of the Postal Service. The USPS OIG conducts independent investigations. Audits of postal programs and operations help to determine whether the programs and operations are efficient and cost-effective. Investigations help prevent and detect fraud and misconduct and have a deterrent effect on postal crimes; the OIG took over the Postal Inspection Service's audit function, as well as fraud waste and abuse. Since the September 11, 2001, the USPIS has investigated several cases where ricin and other toxic substances were sent through the mail. Although the USPIS has a wide jurisdiction, USPIS investigations can be categorized into these seven types of investigative teams and functions: Fraud: These types of investigation involve crimes that use the mails to facilitate fraud against consumers and government. Federal statutes that surround these types of investigations include, mail fraud, other criminal statutes when they are tied to the mails such as bank fraud, identity theft, credit card fraud, wire fraud, Internet/computer fraud.
Mail fraud is a statute, used in prosecuting many white collar crimes, this would include, Ponzi schemes, 419 frauds, other white collar crimes where the mail was used to facilitate the fraud including public corruption. In the 1960s and 70s, inspectors under regional chief postal inspectors such as Martin McGee, known as "Mr. Mail Fraud," exposed and prosecuted numerous swindles involving land sales, phony advertising practices, insurance ripoffs and fraudulent charitable organizations using mail fraud charges. McGee is credited with assisting in the conviction of former Illinois Governor Otto Kerner on mail fraud charges. External Crime & Violent Crime Teams: The External Crimes Function of USPIS is a function that investigates any theft of US mail by non employees, assaults of postal employees and theft and robberies of postal property; this function investigates robberies of postal employees and postal facilities, burglaries of postal facilities, assaults and murders against postal employees.
This investigative function focuses on ensuring that the sanctity and trust in the U. S. Mail system is maintained. Prohibited Mailing Investigations: Prohibited mailing investigations are USPIS investigations that focus on the prohibited mailing of contraband including: narcotics, precursors and
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai