Eric John Shepherd was an Australian politician. He was the Labor member for Victoria in the South Australian House of Assembly from 1924 to 1933. From 1930 to 1933 he was Speaker of the House. Shepherd had served in World War I in France and had won the Military Medal
Liberal and Country League
The Liberal and Country League was the major conservative party in South Australia from 1932 to 1974. In its 42-year existence, it spent 34 years in government due to an electoral malapportionment scheme known as the Playmander, introduced by the LCL government in 1936, which saw a change from multi-member to single-member seats in the lower house, a reduction of MPs from 46 to 39, two-thirds of seats to be located in rural areas; this arrangement was retained as Adelaide, the state capital, grew to two-thirds of the state's population. The most populous Adelaide-area seats had as much as 5–10 times the number of voters than the least populous rural seats − at the 1968 election the rural seat of Frome had 4,500 formal votes, while the metropolitan seat of Enfield had 42,000 formal votes; as a result, the Labor opposition won comprehensive majorities of the statewide two-party vote against the LCL whilst failing to form government on three occasions: 1944, 1953, 1962 and 1968. Additionally, with a decisive advantage to the LCL, swing voters may have been more to vote for the expected status quo LCL government.
The LCL was succeeded by the South Australian Division of the Liberal Party of Australia in 1974. The LCL had its roots in the Emergency Committee of South Australia, which ran as the main non-Labor party in South Australia at the 1931 federal election landslide. In the House of Representatives, it took an additional two seats to hold six of the state's seven seats. In the bloc-voting winner-take-all Senate, it took the three seats up for election. Encouraged by this success, the Liberal Federation and the SA Country Party merged to form the LCL on 9 June 1932, with former Liberal Federation leader Richard Layton Butler as its first leader. In its first electoral test, the 1933 state election, the LCL took advantage of a three-way split in the state Labor government to win a smashing victory, taking 29 seats versus only 13 for the three Labor factions combined. Traditionally a conservative party, the LCL contained three distinct factions whose ideologies conflicted: Farmers and rural property owners.
The Adelaide Establishment of old money families and those fortunate enough, through marriage, to have been accepted by the Establishment. The urban middle class, who continued to support the party although they had little say in its running. Indeed, it was not until the election of Robin Millhouse in 1955 that someone from this third faction was elected to parliament. Millhouse considered during his term as the most progressive member of the LCL, was expelled in 1973 for his continued criticism of the conservative wing of the party, going on to form the splinter Liberal Movement party with state and federal success. Richard Layton Butler who served as Premier of South Australia until shortly after the 1938 election. Sir Thomas Playford who served as Premier from 5 November until his electoral defeat at the 1965 election nearly 27 years later. Steele Hall who succeeded Playford as leader of the LCL following Playford's 1966 resignation as party leader, served as Premier from 1968 to 1970. Bruce Eastick who succeeded Hall as leader of the LCL following Hall's 1972 resignation as party leader.
It was Playford that the LCL would become synonymous with over 125 days as Premier. The Butler LCL introduced the electoral malapportionment scheme known as the Playmander in 1936, it consisted of rural districts enjoying a 2-to-1 advantage in the state parliament though they contained less than half of the population. The House of Assembly was reduced from 46 members elected from multi-member districts to 39 members elected from single-member electorates. Allowing for a smaller chamber, the LCL suffered heavy losses at the 1938 election, winning just 15 of 39 seats. However, Labor picked up only a small number of additional seats. In an unprecedented result, the crossbench swelled massively, with no less than 14 independents elected from a combined independent primary vote of 40 percent, higher than either major party. Butler and the LCL had to rely on the crossbench for supply to remain in government. Only months Butler resigned in favour of Playford to make an unsuccessful attempt to enter federal politics.
From the 1941 election onward, the Playford LCL would regain and keep a parliamentary majority, albeit narrowly. Additionally, turnout crashed to a record-low 50 percent in 1941, triggering the Playford LCL to introduce compulsory voting from the 1944 election. During Playford's quarter-century in power, the LCL became so identified with Playford that during election campaigns, it branded itself as "The Playford Liberal and Country League". Playford gave the impression that the LCL membership were there to raise money and run election campaigns; this treatment of rank and file party members continued to cause resentment throughout the party, the first public inkling of, the reformation of a separate Country Party in 1963. Although a shadow of its former self, the reformed Country Party served as a wakeup call to Playford that there were problems within the LCL; this split mirrored the dissatisfaction amongst the Establishment faction, losing its power within the party and was appalled at the "nouveau riche commoners", such as Millhouse, that had infiltrated the parliamentary wing of the LCL.
Added to this mix was the important factor that the LCL party machine had become moribund as leaders had b
County of Jervois
The County of Jervois is a cadastral unit in the Australian state of South Australia that covers land on the east coast of the Eyre Peninsula. It was proclaimed on 24 January 1878 and named after William Jervois, the Governor of South Australia from October 1877 to January 1883; the county covers the part of the east coast of the Eyre Peninsula overlooking the Spencer Gulf from Murninnie Beach in the north and Cape Hardy in the south, which extends inland from the coastline for a distance of about 150 kilometres in the north, about 50 kilometres in the south. It is bounded by the counties of Le Hunte and York to the north, by the County of Musgrave to the west and by the County of Flinders to the south; the county includes the towns of Cowell, Arno Bay, Port Neill, Darke Peak, Rudall. The Lincoln Highway passes along the coastline of the county from the north-east to the south-west, the Birdseye Highway passes through the county in an east-west direction from Cowell in the east to Lock in the adjoining county of Musgrave.
The Cummins to Kimba line of the Eyre Peninsula Railway passes through the county, entering at its south-west corner, passing through the hundreds of Brooker and Moody in an east-west direction, before changing to a south-north alignment that passes through the hundreds of Butler, Rudall and Pascoe. The principal land use is primary industry, represented by broadacre farming of wheat and livestock, the mining of jade, aquaculture at Arno Bay and in Franklin Harbor on the coast of Spencer Gulf. Uncleared land in the county’s north-west corner and its south-west is protected as the Hambidge and Hincks Wilderness Protection Areas, which occupy a total area of 1,045.49 square kilometres. Other protected areas within the county include the following conservation parks - Carappee Hill, Darke Range, Franklin Harbor, Middlecamp Hills, Moody Tank, Rudall, Sheoak Hill, The Plug Range, Verran Tanks and Yeldulknie; the county incorporates the eastern part of the District Council of Elliston in the west, the District Council of Cleve in its centre, the District Council of Franklin Harbour on the coastline with Spencer Gulf, the northern part of the District Council of Tumby Bay in the south.
The county was named after Governor Jervois, the Governor of South Australia at the time the country was proclaimed, in accordance with “a precedent, established in 1842" when a county was named after Governor Gawler. The county comprises 34 hundreds; the hundreds are laid out from east to west in five rows as follows: McGregor, Glynn, Heggaton, Pascoe and Hambidge in the north-west corner of the county separated by an area of land that has not been proclaimed as one or more hundreds, all along the northern boundary of the county, Minbrie, Mangalo, Smeaton and Palkagee, Playford, Mann, Rudall and the northern half of Tooligie at the western boundary of the county, Roberts, Verran, a parcel of land consisting of Hincks and land not proclaimed as a hundred, a parcel of land consisting of the southern half of Tooligie and Nicholls at the western boundary of the county, Dixson, Butler and Brooker along the southern boundary of the county. The Hundred of Boonerdo was proclaimed on 28 June 1928.
It covers an area of 227.3 square kilometres and its name was derived from an aboriginal word for “mallee scrub.” It is occupied by the locality of Boonerdo. The Hundred of Boothby was proclaimed on 24 January 1878, it covers an area of 290 square kilometres and was named after Thomas Wilde Boothby, a member of the South Australian Parliament from 1873 to 1875. Its northern end is within the locality of Cleve while its southern end is in the locality of Arno Bay; the Hundred of Brooker was proclaimed on 26 November 1903. It covers an area of 290 square kilometres and was named after Thomas Henry Brooker, a member of the South Australian Parliament from 1890 to 1902, it is located within the locality of Brooker. The Hundred of Butler was proclaimed on 25 April 1895, it covers an area of 297 square kilometres and was named after Richard Butler, a former member of the South Australian Parliament. It is located within the locality of Butler while its south-west corner is located in the locality of Ungarra.
The Hundred of Campoona was proclaimed on 25 April 1895. It covers an area of 260 square kilometres and its name was derived from an aboriginal word, it is located within the locality of Campoona. The Hundred of Charleston was proclaimed on 12 December 1895, it covers an area of 260 square kilometres and was named after David Charleston, a former member of the South Australian Parliament. It is located within the locality of Midgee; the Hundred of Darke was proclaimed on 3 February 1910. It was named after the explorer, John Charles Darke. Most of it is located within the locality of Darke Peak with its north-eastern corner being located in the locality of Waddikee; the Hundred of Dixson was proclaimed on 26 November 1903. It covers an area of 260 square kilometres and was named after Hugh Robert Dixson, a former member of the South Australian Parliament, it is located within the locality of Port Neill. The Hundred of Glynn was proclaimed on 12 December 1895, it covers an ar
South Australian House of Assembly
The House of Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. The other is the Legislative Council, it sits in Parliament House in Adelaide. The House of Assembly was created in 1857; the development of an elected legislature — although only men could vote — marked a significant change from the prior system, where legislative power was in the hands of the Governor and the Legislative Council, appointed by the Governor. In 1895, the House of Assembly granted women the right to vote and stand for election to the legislature. South Australia was the second place in the world to do so after New Zealand in 1893, the first to allow women to stand for election. From 1857 to 1933, the House of Assembly was elected from multi-member districts known as "seats," with each district returning between one and six members; the size of the Assembly varied during this time—36 members from 1857 to 1875, 46 members from 1875 to 1884, 52 members from 1884 to 1890, 54 members from 1890 to 1902, 42 members from 1902 to 1912, 40 members from 1912 to 1915, 46 members from 1915 to 1938.
In 1938, the Assembly was reduced to 39 members, elected from single-member districts. The House of Assembly has had 47 members since the 1970 election, elected from single-member districts: 34 in the Adelaide metropolitan area and 13 in rural areas; these seats are intended to represent the same population in each electorate. Voting is by preferential voting with complete preference allocation, as with the equivalent federal chamber, the Australian House of Representatives. All members face re-election every four years; the most recent election was held on 17 March 2018. Most legislation is initiated in the House of Assembly; the party or coalition with a majority of seats in the lower house is invited by the Governor to form government. The leader of that party becomes Premier of South Australia, their senior colleagues become ministers responsible for various portfolios; as Australian MPs always vote along party lines all legislation introduced by the governing party will pass through the House of Assembly.
As with the federal parliament and Australian other states and territories, voting in the Assembly is compulsory for all those over the age of 18. Voting in the House of Assembly had been voluntary, but this was changed in 1942. While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, 1.3 million of them live in Adelaide. Uniquely, over 75% of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area, making South Australia the most centralised state in the nation; as a result, Adelaide accounts for 72% of the seats in the chamber. The dominance of Adelaide, combined with a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, results in the metropolitan area deciding election outcomes. At the 2014 election for example, although the state-wide two-party vote was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal. 24 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. South Australian state election, 2018 List of elections in South Australia List of South Australian state by-elections Members of the South Australian House of Assembly Parliaments of the Australian states and territories South Australian Electoral Districts House of Assembly Homepage General Hansard Information
Robert Nicholls (artist)
Robert Nicholls grew up in Gloucestershire and now resides in Bristol with his wife and daughter. Bob began drawing prehistoric animals before he was old enough to attend school and at a young age decided to pursue a career in paleoart, his passion for wildlife and art inspired him throughout university at which he gained a Bachelor of Arts in Visual Communication at the University of Central England in 1997. He stayed on at UCE to gain a Post Graduate Diploma in Visual Communication in 1998 followed by a Master of Arts in the same subject in 1999. In 1999 Nicholls founded his own company Paleocreations based in Bristol in the UK. Paleocreations specialises in creating anatomically accurate 2D and 3D reconstructions of prehistoric animals and environments. Animals are reconstructed from the inside out, from skeletal structures, soft part anatomy, external skin and feathers, for both temporary and permanent display. Bob's works are displayed in nearly 50 museums and aquariums across Europe, Asia and North America, including the London Natural History Museum, GeoCenter Møns Klint, National Museum Wales, University of Cambridge, Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery and MuSe - Museo delle Scienze.
He has been commissioned to create artwork for over 40 books on natural history. He has produced work for several broadcasting companies including the BBC, Icon Films, National Geographic; as an active member of the palaeontological world. Bob is interviewed and written about online, he has contributed to a number of scientific papers Bob's artwork has been featured within the following books: Dinosaur Art: the World's Greatest Paleoart by Steve White The Complete Dinosaur by James Farlow Evolution: the Human Story by Professor Alice Roberts Spot 50 Dinosaurs by Steve Parker Elephants' Call by Gordon Volke Wolves' Gambit by Gordon Volke The Tigers' Secret by Gordon Volke The Orcas' Song by Gordon Volke Condors' Quest by Gordon Volke Penguins' Petition by Gordon Volke Dolphins Cry by Gordon Volke Dinosaurs by Dougal Dixon Britain's Oldest Art: the Ice Age Cave Art of Creswell Crags by Paul Bahn and Paul Pettitt Dinosaur by Stephanie Stansbie, A Time Traveller's Field Notes and Observations of Dinosaurs by Gordon Volke A Time Traveller's Field Notes and Observations of Ancient Egypt by Gordon Volke Dinosaur Hunter, edited by Sarah Gale History in the Landscape by Alistair Bowden Dinosaur Hunters by Jen Green The World Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Creatures by Dougal Dixon Aligerando a los gigantes by Dr Mathew Wedel Sheffield's Golden Frame by Bill Bevan The Book of Prehistoric Pop-up Board Games by Robert Nicholls Dinosaur Detectives Handbook by Belinda Gallagher Planet Dinosaur by Steve Parker English Adventure Book 5 Fossil Frogs and Toads of North America by Alan Holman Leedsichthys by Peter Eberhardt The Great Dune Trilogy by Frank Herbert Children of Dune by Frank Herbert God Emperor of Dune by Frank Herbert Heretics of Dune by Frank Herbert Chapter House of Dune by Frank Herbert Paleoimagery: the Evolution of Dinosaur Art by Allen Debus The Lost World by Grant Warrenger The Dinosaur Coast by Roger Osborne Dinosaurs in the Sea by Dougal Dixon Paleocreations official website Paleocreations on Tumblr Paleocreations on Facebook Paleocreations on Twitter Natural History Museum – How to reconstruct a dinosaur – video about Robert Nicholls reconstructing Stegosaurus
1956 South Australian state election
State elections were held in South Australia on 3 March 1956. All 39 seats in the South Australian House of Assembly were up for election; the incumbent Liberal and Country League led by Premier of South Australia Thomas Playford IV defeated the Australian Labor Party led by Leader of the Opposition Mick O'Halloran. A redistribution occurred in 1955 based upon the results of the census held in June 1954. Labor won one seat, rural Murray from the LCL; the LCL won rural Wallaroo from Labor and rural Chaffey from an independent. An independent won one seat, rural Burra from the LCL; the primary vote figures were from contested seats, while the state-wide two-party-preferred vote figures were estimated from all seats. Results of the South Australian state election, 1956 Members of the South Australian House of Assembly, 1956-1959 Members of the South Australian Legislative Council, 1956-1959 Playmander Two-party preferred figures since 1950, ABC News Online
Parliament of South Australia
The Parliament of South Australia at Parliament House, Adelaide is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of South Australia. It consists of the 47-seat House of the 22-seat Legislative Council. All of the lower house and half of the upper house is filled at each election, it follows a Westminster system of parliamentary government. The Queen is represented in the State by the Governor of South Australia. According to the South Australian Constitution, unlike the Federal Parliament, the parliaments of the other states and territories of Australia, neither the Sovereign or the Governor is considered to be a part of the South Australian Parliament. However, the same role and powers are granted to them; the Parliament of South Australia began in 1857. Women gained the right to stand for election in 1895, taking effect at the 1896 election. South Australia became a state of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 following a vote to Federate with the other British colonies of Australia. Elections were held every 3 years until 1985, when the parliament switched to 4 year terms, meaning 8 year terms for the upper house.
Beginning in 2006, election dates have been fixed at the third Saturday in March of every fourth year. The House of Assembly is made up of 47 members who are each elected by the full-preference instant-runoff voting system in single-member electorates; each of the 47 electoral districts contains the same number of voters. Since 1975, the distribution of electoral boundaries has been set by the South Australian Electoral Districts Boundaries Commission. Since 1991, boundaries have been redistributed after each election by the Electoral Commission of South Australia, an independent body, they were redistributed after every third election. Government is formed in the House of Assembly by the leader of the party or coalition who can demonstrate they have the support of the majority of the House, is called upon by the Governor to form government; the leader of the government becomes the Premier. While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, Adelaide's population is 1.3 million − uniquely, over 75 percent of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area and has 72 percent of seats alongside a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, therefore the metropolitan area tends to decide election outcomes.
At the 2014 election for example, although the statewide two-party vote was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal. The Legislative Council is made up of 22 councillors who are elected for the entire state by the Proportional Representation single transferable voting system to serve for a term of 8 years. Elections for the Legislative Council are staggered so that 11 seats are up for re-election every 4 years, at the same time as House of Assembly elections; the primary function of the Legislative Council is to review legislation, passed by the House of Assembly. This can cause tensions between the government and the Legislative Council, which may be viewed by the former as obstructionist if it rejects key legislation, as can happen at times when the electoral makeup of the two houses are different; the seat of the Parliament of South Australia is Parliament House in the state capital of Adelaide. Parliament House sits on the North-Western corner of the intersection of King William Street and North Terrace.
South Australian state election, 2018 List of elections in South Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories Official openings by the monarch in Australia Parliament of South Australia Homepage