John Sullivan (general)
John Sullivan was an Irish-American General in the Revolutionary War, a delegate in the Continental Congress, Governor of New Hampshire and a United States federal judge. Sullivan, the third son of American settlers, served as a major general in the Continental Army and as Governor of New Hampshire, he commanded the Sullivan Expedition in 1779, a scorched earth campaign against the Iroquois towns that had taken up arms against the American revolutionaries. As a member of Congress, Sullivan worked with the French Ambassador to the US, the Chevalier de la Luzerne. Born in Somersworth in the Province of New Hampshire, Sullivan was the third son of Irish settlers from the Beara Peninsula in County Cork. One of his brothers, James Sullivan, became Governor of Massachusetts. Another brother, who served in the Royal Navy died before the American Revolution. A landing party from HMS Allegiance on February 14, 1781 kidnapped another brother, Captain David Sullivan, who died of disease; the father, John Owen O'Sullivan was the son of Philip O'Sullivan of Beare of Ardea, minor gentry in Penal Ireland and a scion of the O'Sullivan Beare Clan, Ardea Castle line.
The Penal Laws reduced them to the status of peasants. After emigrating to York, Maine, in 1723, the elder John became a Protestant. In 1760, Sullivan married Lydia Remick Worster of Kittery, now in Maine. John and Lydia Sullivan had six children, who died in infancy, John, James and another Margery, who lived only two years. Sullivan read law with Samuel Livermore of Portsmouth, New Hampshire between 1758 and 1760, he began the practice of law in 1763 at Berwick, now in Maine, continued in the practice when he moved to Durham, New Hampshire in 1764. He annoyed many neighbors in his early career, when he was the only lawyer in town, with numerous suits over foreclosures and was threatened with violence at least twice in 1766, but by 1772, he was established and began work to improve his relations with the community. He expanded his interests into milling from which he made a substantial income. In 1773 Alexander Scammell joined John Sullivan's law practice. Sullivan built a friendship with the royal governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, who had assumed the office in 1767.
In November 1772, Wentworth appointed Sullivan a major in the militia. As the American Revolution grew nearer, Sullivan turned away from Wentworth and began to side more with the radicals. On May 28, 1773, at the urging of the Virginia House of Burgesses, the New Hampshire Assembly established a Committee of Correspondence. Hoping to thwart the committee, Wentworth adjourned the Assembly the next day. On December 16, 1773, colonists in Massachusetts destroyed tea worth 15,000 pounds at the Boston Tea Party to protest taxes under the Tea Act; the British Parliament responded with the Boston Port Act, effective March 21, 1774, which closed the Port of Boston until restitution for the destroyed tea was made to the East India Company. Parliament went on to pass the Massachusetts Government Act, which removed many functions of government from local control, the Quartering Act, which permitted quartering of troops in towns where there was disorder, the Quebec Act, which established the Catholic religion and French civil law in that province.
Wentworth called a new Assembly, which began meeting on April 7, 1774. On May 13, news of the Boston Port Act reached the Assembly. On May 27, the Assembly provided for only five men and an officer to guard Fort William and Mary at Portsmouth harbor. A new committee of correspondence was selected the next day. By the time Wentworth dissolved the Assembly on June 8, 1774 in an unsuccessful effort to prevent the Assembly from sending delegates to a continental congress, Sullivan was in favor of supporting the Massachusetts radicals. In response to Wentworth's action dismissing the Assembly and the call for a continental congress to support Boston after the British sanctions against it, on July 21, 1774 the first Provincial Congress of New Hampshire met at Exeter, New Hampshire, with John Sullivan as Durham's delegate; that assembly sent Nathaniel Folsom as delegates to the First Continental Congress. The assembly adopted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances on October 14, 1774. By November 8, Sullivan and Folsom were back in New Hampshire to work for acceptance of the Declaration and the Association of the colonies to support economic measures to achieve their objectives.
On October 19, 1774, a royal order in council prohibited the export of powder and arms to America and Lord Dartmouth secretly wrote to the colonial governors to secure gunpowder and ammunition in the provinces. After Paul Revere was sent by the Massachusetts committee to warn the Portsmouth militia of a rumored British movement toward Fort William and Mary, that militia raided the fort and seized gunpowder on December 14, 1774. Sullivan, not present on this first raid, was one of the leaders of the militia force who made the second raid on the fort for its cannon and munitions on December 15. Sullivan and his men took 16 cannons, about 60 muskets and other stores but were prevented from returning for other cannon and supplies by the arrival of the man-of-war Canceaux, followed two days by the frigate Scarborough. Wentworth refrained from seeking to arrest Sullivan and others because he thought he had little popular support and the militia would not act. In January 1775, a second Provincial Congress at Exeter voted to send Sullivan and John Langdon to the Second Continental Congress.
Sullivan, supported by Folsom and Langdon, persuaded the assembly to petition Wentworth to call a New Hampshire Assembly that he would not dissolve. Wentworth responded by dis
New Hampshire House of Representatives
The New Hampshire House of Representatives is the lower house in the New Hampshire General Court, the bicameral legislature of the state of New Hampshire. The House of Representatives consists of 400 members coming from 204 legislative districts across the state, created from divisions of the state's counties. On average, each legislator represents about 3,300 residents. Districts vary in number of seats based on their populations, with the least-populous districts electing only one member and the most populous electing 11. In multi-member districts, voters are allowed to cast as many votes; this system results in one party winning all of the seats in the district, as the results below for the current representation attest. Unlike in many state legislatures, there is no single "aisle" to cross per se, as members of both parties sit segregated in five sections; the seat section and number is put on the legislator's motor vehicle license plate, which they pay for if they wish to put one on their personal automobiles, or in the case of the chairpersons and party leaders, their title is put on the legislative plate.
Seating location is enforced, as seating is pre-assigned, although the personal preference of the legislator is asked chairmen and those with special needs are given the preferred aisle seats. The sixth section is the Speaker's seat at the head of the hall; the House of Representatives has met in Representatives Hall of the New Hampshire State House since 1819. Representatives Hall is thus the oldest chamber in the United States still in continuous legislative use. Large arched windows line the walls. On the rostrum hang portraits of John P. Hale, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, Franklin Pierce, Daniel Webster. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↓ If a candidate receives enough votes in two parties' primaries, they are listed as being the nominee of both parties in the general election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election.
↑ Member was elected in a special election. ↓ If a candidate receives enough votes in two parties' primaries, they are listed as being the nominee of both parties in the general election. ↑ Member was elected in a special election. State of New Hampshire House of Representatives official government website Leadership Project Vote Smart – State House of New Hampshire voter information The Legislative Branch of State Government
Ralph Metcalf (New Hampshire politician)
Ralph Metcalf was an American lawyer and politician from New Hampshire who served two terms as Governor. Ralph Metcalf was born in Charlestown, New Hampshire on November 21, 1796, he was educated locally and worked on the farm of his father, a veteran of the American Revolution, until deciding on a career in the law in 1818. Metcalf graduated from the academy in Chester and attended Dartmouth College, from which he graduated in 1823, he studied law with Henry Hubbard and attorney Richard Bartlett of Concord, was admitted to the bar in 1826. He practiced law in New Hampshire, first with George B. Upham, with David Hale. From 1828 to 1830 he practiced in Binghamton, New York, after which he returned to New Hampshire to open an office in Claremont. In 1831 Metcalf was elected Secretary of State, he held this post until 1838, when he moved to Washington, D. C. to accept a position in the Department of the Treasury while Levi Woodbury of New Hampshire was serving as Secretary. In 1840 he returned to New Hampshire and practiced law, first in Plymouth, in Newport.
In 1845 he was appointed Register of Probate for Sullivan County. In 1848 he was appointed a trustee of the state asylum for the insane, he served several more non-consecutive terms, he served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1852 to 1853. In 1853 he served on the state commission appointed to codify New Hampshire's statutes. A member of the Democratic Party for most of his career, Metcalf became recognized as anti-slavery and an opponent of Franklin Pierce's attempts to obtain passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act; as a result of Metcalf's opposition to slavery, in 1855 he was nominated for Governor by the Know Nothing movement, one of the few parties with an anti-slavery plank in its platform. This effort was promoted by Free Soil Democrats including John P. Hale, who hoped to create a movement that would send New Hampshire anti-slavery activists to the United States Senate and help build the nascent Republican Party. Metcalf won the 1855 race for Governor, defeating incumbent Nathaniel B.
Baker, James Bell and Asa Fowler. In 1856 he defeated John S. Wells and Ichabod Goodwin, but his margin over Wells was narrow, the selection moved to the New Hampshire General Court, which chose Metcalf. Metcalf became identified with the Republican Party when it was founded as the major anti-slavery party in the mid 1850s. In addition to his abolitionist views, Metcalf's governorship was noteworthy for his support of a prohibition law, which passed in 1855, remained in force until 1889, he retired after the completion of his second term, resided in Claremont. He died in Claremont on August 26, 1858. In 1835 he married Lucretia Ann Bingham, she died a few weeks after giving birth in 1836, the baby died soon afterwards. He married Martha Ann Gilmore in 1843, they had two children: son Ralph. Ralph Metcalf at New Hampshire's Division of Historic Resources Ralph Metcalf at National Governors Association Ralph Metcalf at Political Graveyard
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Francis P. Murphy
Francis Parnell Murphy was a manufacturer and politician from Nashua, New Hampshire. He served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives and on the Governor's Council before being twice elected as a Republican Governor. Murphy supported Roosevelt's New Deal policies and switched to the Democratic Party in an attempt to unseat U. S. Senator Styles Bridges in the 1942 Senate election, he retired from politics to enter the radio broadcasting business and started the WMUR radio and television stations in Manchester. A large flood control project in northern New Hampshire at the headwaters of the Connecticut River is named for him, with Murphy Dam impounding Lake Francis, he was responsible for one of the first ski area aerial tramways in the United States when the Cannon Mountain tramway was built in Franconia Notch, New Hampshire. Murphy was the fourth of eight children born to Irish immigrant Roman Catholic parents, his father was a Civil War veteran. Murphy graduated from high school in the factory town of Hudson and secured an entry-level job nailing packing cases for shoes together at a local shoe factory.
Murphy worked his way up from this entry position, holding successively more responsible jobs at factories in Newport and Nashua. During World War I Murphy was chairman of New Hampshire's Committee on Electric Power Supply, he was a longtime member of the New Hampshire National Guard. In 1922 Murphy and two partners organized the J. F. McElwain Company, a manufacturer of shoes, in 1925 Murphy served on Governor Winant's military staff with the rank of major, he was elected to the state legislature, to Governor Winant's Executive Council. By 1936 Murphy's shoe manufacturing plant had grown to twelve shoe manufacturing plants, J. F. McElwain Company was the largest employer of labor in New Hampshire. Murphy won the Republican nomination for governor in 1936, he won the election in the face of an overwhelming electoral landslide for Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Democrat entering his second of four election victories as president. Republican New Hampshire voted for Roosevelt, so much ticket splitting was necessary for Murphy to win.
He was reelected to a second term in 1938. Governor Murphy supported much New Deal legislation legislation which supported labor rights, he had the traditional New Hampshire concern for sound budgeting. In order to ease homeowners' tax burdens, he eliminated the state tax on real estate in favor of a new tax on tobacco products; the State House annex was built to improve efficiency. The state got into tourism with the new Cannon Mountain Tramway, with new State-owned bathing facilities at Hampton Beach; the State Police were established at this time and a statewide system of probation was set up to make law enforcement more efficient. In 1940, just before he was due to retire as governor, Murphy entered the broadcasting business, he founded Radio Voice of New Hampshire, Inc. and opened WMUR (AM 610, now WGIR in 1941. He made one last effort at political life, campaigning against Styles Bridges for the U. S. Senate seat in 1942; when Murphy lost that election, he returned to his business interests.
When television came, he set up WMUR-TV in 1954. Murphy at New Hampshire's Division of Historic Resources Francis P. Murphy at Find a Grave Melville Corporation-J. F. McElwain Company papers at Baker Library Special Collections, Harvard Business School
William Plumer was an American lawyer, Baptist lay preacher, politician from Epping, New Hampshire. He is most notable for his service as a Federalist in the United States Senate, Governor of New Hampshire as a Democratic-Republican. Plumer was born in Newburyport, Province of Massachusetts Bay on June 25, 1759, the son of farmer and merchant Samuel Plumer and Mary Plumer, his family moved to Epping, New Hampshire in 1768, he was raised at his father's farm on Epping's Red Oak Hill. Plumer attended the Red Oak Hill School until he was 17. Frequent ill health left him unsuited for military service during the American Revolution or life as a farmer, after a religious conversion experience in his late teens, Plumer was trained as a Baptist exhorter. For several years he traveled throughout the state to deliver sermons to Baptist churches and revival meetings, he considered a career as a doctor, began to study medicine. Deciding on a legal career, he studied law with attorneys Joshua Atherton of Amherst and John Prentice of Londonderry.
While studying under Atherton, his fellow law clerks included William Coleman, who remained a lifelong friend. Plumer attained admission to the bar in 1787, began to practice in Epping. In addition to practicing law, Plumer was active in local politics and government, he held several town offices, including selectman. Plumer served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1785 to 1786, in 1788, from 1790 to 1791, from 1797 to 1800. In 1791 and 1797 he served as Speaker of the House. Plumer was a delegate to the state constitutional convention of 1791-1792. Plumer was elected to the United States Senate as a federalist, filling the vacancy caused when James Sheafe resigned, he served from June 17, 1802 to March 3, 1807, was not a candidate for reelection. In 1803, Plumer was one of several New England Federalists who proposed secession from the United States due to lack of support for Federalists, rising influence of Jeffersonian Democrats and the diminished influence of the North due to the Louisiana Purchase.
Recalling his involvement in the secession scheme in 1827, Plumer said, "This was, I think, the greatest political error of my life: & would, had it been reduced to practise, instead of releiving, destroyed New England.... For my own reputation the erroneous opinion I formed produced no bitter fruits to myself or my country." Plumer served in the New Hampshire Senate in 1810 and 1811, was chosen in both years to serve as the Senate's president. By now a Democratic-Republican, in 1812, Plumer was the party's successful nominee for Governor of New Hampshire, he served until 1813, he returned to office in 1816, served until 1819. In the 1820 presidential election, Plumer was one of New Hampshire's electoral college members, he cast the only dissenting vote in the Electoral College against incumbent President James Monroe, voting instead for John Quincy Adams. While some accounts say that this was to ensure that George Washington remained the only American president unanimously chosen by the Electoral College, others assert that he was instead calling attention to his friend Adams as a potential future presidential candidate, or protesting against the "wasteful extravagance" of the Monroe Administration.
Plumer eschewed voting for Daniel D. Tompkins for Vice President as "grossly intemperate" and having "not that weight of character which his office requires," and "because he grossly neglected his duty" in his "only" official role as president of the Senate by being "absent nearly three-fourths of the time." Plumer instead voted for Richard Rush. Plumer was the first president of the New Hampshire Historical Society, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1815. Plumer was buried at the Plumer Family Cemetery in Epping. In 1788, Plumer married Sarah "Sally" Fowler of New Hampshire, they were the parents of six children -- William, Samuel, George Washington, John Jay, Quintus. William Plumer Jr. was an author and attorney who served in the United States House of Representatives from 1819 to 1825. Paper Money Riot Works by William Plumer at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William Plumer at Internet Archive A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns, 1787–1825United States Congress.
"William Plumer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William Plumer at Find a Grave William Plumer at National Governors Association Memoir of William Plumer, Senior, by Albert Harrison Hoyt. 1871
John Taylor Gilman
John Taylor Gilman was a farmer and statesman from Exeter, New Hampshire. He represented New Hampshire in the Continental Congress in 1782–1783 and was Governor of New Hampshire for 14 years, from 1794 to 1805, from 1813 to 1816. Gilman was born in the Province of New Hampshire, his family had settled in Exeter since its earliest days. He lived in the Ladd-Gilman House, now a part of the American Independence Museum, he received a limited education before he entered into the family shipbuilding and mercantile businesses. Aged 22, he read aloud a Dunlap Broadside brought to New Hampshire on July 16, 1776 to the city of Exeter; the American Independence Museum commemorates his brave act every year at their American Independence Festival, where a role-player reads the Declaration in its entirety to festival-goers. Gilman was one of the Minutemen of 1775 and a selectman in 1777 and 1778. Gilman served as a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1779 and 1781 and was a delegate to the Convention of the States in Hartford, Connecticut, in October 1780.
He served as a member of the Continental Congress in 1782 and 1783. He was the New Hampshire Treasurer in 1791 and moderator in 1791–1794, 1806, 1807, 1809–1811, 1817, 1818, 1820–1825. Gilman served as Governor of New Hampshire between 1794 and 1805 and was an unsuccessful candidate for re-election in 1805, he was again a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1810 and 1811 and again an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1812. He was elected governor and served from 1813 to 1816 and declined to be a candidate for renomination for governor in 1816, he was an ex officio trustee of Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, trustee by election. He was president of the board of trustees of Phillips Exeter Academy, New Hampshire, 1795–1827, donor of the oldest property, the'Yard,' upon which the older buildings stand. Gilman was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814. Gilman was married to the daughter of Major General Nathaniel Folsom of Exeter, he died in Exeter on September 1, 1828.
He is the first governor of New Hampshire not to have a place in the state named after him. The town of Gilmanton, settled by 24 members of the extended Gilman clan, was named for the family as a whole and not for the Governor. Gilman's Congressional Biography Gilman, John Taylor, 1753–1828, Guide to Research Collections