Rabat is the capital city of Morocco and the country's seventh largest city with an urban population of 580,000 and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million. It is the capital city of the Rabat-Salé-Kénitra administrative region. Once a reputed corsair haven, Rabat served as one of the many ports in North Africa for the Barbary pirates, who were active from the 16th through the 18th centuries; the city is located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the river Bou Regreg. On the facing shore of the river lies Salé, the city's main commuter town. Rabat and Salé form a conurbation of over 1.8 million people. Silt-related problems have diminished Rabat's role as a port. In addition and the presence of all foreign embassies in Morocco serve to make Rabat one of the most important cities in the country; the Moroccan capital was ranked at second place by CNN in its "Top Travel Destinations of 2013". It is one of four Imperial cities of Morocco, the medina of Rabat is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Rabat is accessible by train through the ONCF system and by plane through the nearby Rabat–Salé Airport. Rabat has a modern history compared to the nearby ancient city of Salé. In 1146, the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min turned Rabat's ribat into a full-scale fortress to use as a launching point for attacks on Iberia. In 1170, due to its military importance, Rabat acquired the title Ribatu l-Fath, meaning "stronghold of victory," from which it derives its current name. Yaqub al-Mansur, another Almohad Caliph, moved the capital of his empire to Rabat, he built Rabat's city walls, the Kasbah of the Udayas and began construction on what would have been the world's largest mosque. However, Yaqub died and construction stopped; the ruins of the unfinished mosque, along with the Hassan Tower, still stand today. Yaqub's death initiated a period of decline; the Almohad empire lost control of its possessions in Spain and much of its African territory leading to its total collapse. In the 13th century, much of Rabat's economic power shifted to Fez.
In 1515 a Moorish explorer, El Wassan, reported that Rabat had declined so much that only 100 inhabited houses remained. An influx of Moriscos, expelled from Spain, in the early 17th century helped boost Rabat's growth. Rabat and neighboring Salé united to form the Republic of Bou Regreg in 1627; the republic was run by Barbary pirates who used the two cities as base ports for launching attacks on shipping. The pirates did not have to contend with any central authority until the Alaouite Dynasty united Morocco in 1666; the latter failed. European and Muslim authorities continued to attempt to control the pirates over many years, but the Republic of Bou Regreg did not collapse until 1818. After the republic's collapse, pirates continued to use the port of Rabat, which led to the shelling of the city by Austria in 1829 after an Austrian ship had been lost to a pirate attack; the French established a protectorate. The French administrator of Morocco, General Hubert Lyautey, decided to relocate the country's capital from Fez to Rabat.
Among other factors, rebellious citizens had made Fez an unstable place. Sultan Moulay Youssef moved his residence to Rabat. In 1913, Gen. Lyautey hired Henri Prost; when Morocco achieved independence in 1955, Mohammed V, the King of Morocco, chose to have the capital remain at Rabat. Following World War II, the United States established a military presence in Rabat at the former French air base. By the early 1950s, Rabat Salé Air Base was a U. S. Air Force installation hosting the 17th Air Force and the 5th Air Division, which oversaw forward basing for Strategic Air Command B-47 Stratojet aircraft in the country. With the destabilization of French government in Morocco, Moroccan independence in 1956, the government of Mohammed V wanted the U. S. Air Force to pull out of the SAC bases in Morocco, insisting on such action after American intervention in Lebanon in 1958; the United States agreed to leave as of December 1959, was out of Morocco by 1963. SAC felt the Moroccan bases were much less critical with the long range capability of the B-52 Stratofortresses that were replacing the B-47s and with the completion of the USAF installations in Spain in 1959.
With the USAF withdrawal from Rabat-Salé in the 1960s, the facility became a primary facility for the Royal Moroccan Air Force known as Air Base Nº 1, a status it continues to hold. Rabat is an administrative city, it does have residential neighbourhoods. The geographically spread out neighbourhoods are as follows: The heart of the city consists of three parts: the Medina. To the west, along the waterfront, there is a succession of neighbourhoods. First, around the ramparts, there is the old neighbourhoods, Quartier l'Océan and Quartier les Orangers. Beyond that, a succession of working-class districts: Diour Jamaa, Yacoub El Mansour and Hay el Fath are the main parts of this axis. Hay el Fath, which ends this sequence, evolves into a middle-class neighbourhood. To the east, along the Bouregreg, the Youssoufia region: Mabella. Between the two axes, from north to south, there are three main neighbourhoods
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
Edward William Gnehm, Jr. known as Skip Gnehm is an American diplomat who most served as the U. S. ambassador to Jordan. He is now a faculty member at George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs. Gnehm attended Albany High School and subsequently attended the George Washington University in Washington, D. C. where he earned a bachelor's degree in International Affairs in 1966. Gnehm completed his master's degree in 1968, spent one year of his graduate studies at the American University in Cairo under a post-graduate Rotary International Fellowship, he is a member of Delta Phi Epsilon. Gnehm joined the U. S. Department of State in 1969 and has forged a long and distinguished diplomatic career in the U. S. Foreign Service, his positions included: Director General of the Foreign Service and Director of Personnel for the Department of State. S. Liaison Office, Saudi Arabia. S. Interests Section, Syria, he was Ambassador to Kuwait from 1991 to 1994. Throughout his career, Gnehm has remained active at George Washington, having served both on the Board of Trustees, as the vice president of the George Washington Alumni Association.
Gnehm won the 2015 Harry Harding Teaching Award "for sustained excellence in teaching and extraordinary contributions to the education of Elliott School students." Continuing in the family tradition, Gnehm's son Edward attended George Washington University where he received his BA and an MBA. 1990 - Presidential Meritorious Service Award for public service as Assistant Secretary of Defense 1991 - Presidential Meritorious Service Award for service as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State 1992 - Distinguished Alumni Achievement Award, The George Washington University Secretary of Defense Medal for Meritorious Civilian Service - awarded by Secretary of Defense Carlucci for service in the office of the Secretary of Defense Secretary of Defense Medal for Meritorious Civilian Service - awarded by Secretary of Defense Perry for support to U. S. forces after Desert Storm. Gnehm is married to the former Margaret Scott of Georgia. Edward Gnehm profile provided by The George Washington University Edward Gnehm speaker profile provided by The Camden Conference 2005 Nomination of Edward William Gnehm, Jr.
To Be United States Ambassador to Kuwait President Clinton Names Edward William Gnehm, Jr. as U. S. Ambassador to Australia Appearances on C-SPAN
Thessaloniki familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica or Salonika, is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace. Its nickname is η Συμπρωτεύουσα "the co-capital", a reference to its historical status as the Συμβασιλεύουσα or "co-reigning" city of the Eastern Roman Empire, alongside Constantinople. Thessaloniki is located at the northwest corner of the Aegean Sea, it is bounded on the west by the delta of the Axios/Vardar. The municipality of Thessaloniki, the historical center, had a population of 325,182 in 2011, while the Thessaloniki Urban Area had a population of 824,676 and the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area had 1,030,338 inhabitants in 2011, it is Greece's second major economic, industrial and political centre. The city is renowned for its festivals and vibrant cultural life in general, is considered to be Greece's cultural capital.
Events such as the Thessaloniki International Fair and the Thessaloniki International Film Festival are held annually, while the city hosts the largest bi-annual meeting of the Greek diaspora. Thessaloniki was the 2014 European Youth Capital; the city of Thessaloniki was founded in 315 BC by Cassander of Macedon. An important metropolis by the Roman period, Thessaloniki was the second largest and wealthiest city of the Byzantine Empire, it was conquered by the Ottomans in 1430, passed from the Ottoman Empire to Greece on 8 November 1912. It is home to numerous notable Byzantine monuments, including the Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as well as several Roman and Sephardic Jewish structures; the city's main university, Aristotle University, is the largest in Greece and the Balkans. Thessaloniki is a popular tourist destination in Greece. In 2013, National Geographic Magazine included Thessaloniki in its top tourist destinations worldwide, while in 2014 Financial Times FDI magazine declared Thessaloniki as the best mid-sized European city of the future for human capital and lifestyle.
Among street photographers, the center of Thessaloniki is considered the most popular destination for street photography in Greece. The original name of the city was Θεσσαλονίκη Thessaloníkē, it was named after princess Thessalonike of Macedon, the half sister of Alexander the Great, whose name means "Thessalian victory", from Θεσσαλός'Thessalos', Νίκη'victory', honoring the Macedonian victory at the Battle of Crocus Field. Minor variants are found, including Θετταλονίκη Thettaloníkē, Θεσσαλονίκεια Thessaloníkeia, Θεσσαλονείκη Thessaloneíkē, Θεσσαλονικέων Thessalonikéōn; the name Σαλονίκη Saloníki is first attested in Greek in the Chronicle of the Morea, is common in folk songs, but it must have originated earlier, as al-Idrisi called it Salunik in the 12th century. It is the basis for the city's name in other languages: Солѹнь in Old Church Slavonic, סלוניקה in Ladino, Selânik سلانیك in Ottoman Turkish and Selanik in modern Turkish, Salonicco in Italian, Solun or Солун in the local and neighboring South Slavic languages, Салоники in Russian, Sãrunã in Aromanian, Salonica or Salonika in English.
Thessaloniki was revived as the city's official name in 1912, when it joined the Kingdom of Greece during the Balkan Wars. In local speech, the city's name is pronounced with a dark and deep L characteristic of Modern Macedonian accent; the name is abbreviated as Θεσ/νίκη. The city was founded around 315 BC by the King Cassander of Macedon, on or near the site of the ancient town of Therma and 26 other local villages, he named it after his wife Thessalonike, a half-sister of Alexander the Great and princess of Macedonia as daughter of Philip II. Under the kingdom of Macedonia the city retained its own autonomy and parliament and evolved to become the most important city in Macedonia. After the fall of the Kingdom of Macedonia in 168 BC, in 148 BC Thessalonica was made the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Thessalonica became a free city of the Roman Republic under Mark Antony in 41 BC, it grew to be an important trade-hub located on the Via Egnatia, the road connecting Dyrrhachium with Byzantium, which facilitated trade between Thessaloniki and great centers of commerce such as Rome and Byzantium.
Thessaloniki lay at the southern end of the main north-south route through the Balkans along the valleys of the Morava and Axios river valleys, thereby linking the Balkans with the rest of Greece. The city became the capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia, it became the capital of all the Greek provinces of the Roman Empire because of the city's importance in the Balkan peninsula. At the time of the Roman Empire, about 50 A. D. Thessaloniki was one of the early centers of Christianity. Paul wrote two letters to the new church at Thessaloniki, preserved in the Biblical canon as First and Second Thessalonians; some scholars hold that the First Epistle to the Thessalonians is the first written book of the New Testament. In 306 AD, Thessaloniki acquired a patron saint, St. Demetrius, a Christian whom Galerius is said to have put to death. Most scholars
Edward Peter Djerejian is a former United States diplomat who served in eight administrations from John F. Kennedy to Bill Clinton He served as the United States Ambassador to Syria and Israel, Special Assistant to President Ronald Reagan and Deputy Press Secretary of Foreign Affairs, was Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs He is the director of the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy at Rice University and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and on the board of trustees of the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Djerejian was elected chairman of Occidental Petroleum Corporation’s board of directors, he is managing partner of Djerejian Global Consultancies, LLP. Djerejian is the author of the book Danger and Opportunity: An American Ambassador's Journey Through the Middle East Of Armenian descent, Djerejian was born in New York in 1939, he graduated from Georgetown University in 1960. Djerejian served in the US Army in Korea for the next two years, joined the Foreign Service.
Besides English, he speaks Arabic, Armenian and Russian. He served as special assistant to Under Secretary of State George Ball, a political officer in Beirut, Lebanon and in Casablanca, executive assistant to Under Secretary of State Joseph J. Sisco, consul general in Bordeaux, officer in the Bureau of European Affairs, chief of the US Embassy's political section in Moscow, deputy chief of the US Mission to Jordan, Special Assistant to President Ronald Reagan and Deputy Press Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Ambassador to Syria, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs, United States Ambassador to Israel, Director of the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy at Rice University. Djerejian, as Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs in an official speech, coined the description of the purported democratic goals of Islamic radicals as "One man, one vote, one time."Ambassador Djerejian was asked by Secretary of State Colin Powell to chair the congressionally mandated bipartisan Advisory Group on Public Diplomacy for the Arab and Muslim World which published its report in October 2003.
He was Senior Policy Advisor to the congressionally mandated bipartisan Iraq Study Group which published its report in December, 2006. In 2010 he chaired the Baker Institute's workshop that produced the report "Getting to the Territorial Endgame of an Israeli-Palestinian Peace Settlement". Djerejian is the author of the book Danger and Opportunity: An American Ambassador's Journey Through the Middle East Ambassador Djerejian has been awarded the Presidential Distinguished Service Award, the Department of State's Distinguished Honor Award, the President's Meritorious Service Award, the Anti-Defamation League’s Moral Statesman Award, the Ellis Island Medal of Honor, the Award for Humanitarian Diplomacy from Netanya Academic College in Israel, the Association of Rice Alumni 2009 Gold Medal—the highest honor bestowed by the association in recognition of extraordinary service to the university. Djerejian is the recipient of the National Order of the Cedar bestowed by President Lahoud of Lebanon, the Order of Ouissam Alaouite bestowed by King Mohammed VI of Morocco and the Medal of Honor bestowed by President Sargsyan of Armenia.
He is managing partner of Djerejian Global Consultancies, LLP. Ambassador Djerejian was Chairman of Occidental Petroleum Corporation’s Board of Directors between 2013–2015. In 2011 he was named to the board of trustees of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and Vice Chairman of the Board He serves as well on several nonprofit boards. In 2011, Djerejian was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, one of the nation's oldest and most prestigious honorary societies and independent policy research centers, he served in the United States Army as a first lieutenant in the Republic of Korea following his graduation from the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. He holds a Bachelor of Science from Georgetown University, as well as an honorary doctorate in humanities from Georgetown and an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Middlebury College, he is married to Françoise Andree Liliane Marie Djerejian. They have two children, Gregory Djerejian and Francesca Natalia Djerejian, two grandchildren, Isabel Djerejian and Sebastian Djerejian.
Ambassador Edward Djerejian speaks to Forward Magazine Appearances on C-SPAN