Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Thinking outside the box
Thinking outside the box is a metaphor that means to think differently, unconventionally, or from a new perspective. This phrase refers to novel or creative thinking; the term is thought to derive from management consultants in the 1970s and 1980s challenging their clients to solve the "nine dots" puzzle, whose solution requires some lateral thinking. This phrase can be found in dance, as encouragement to move creatively, beyond simple, geometric box steps and their basic variations, to step outside the box into more complex patterns of expression; the catchphrase, or cliché, has become used in business environments by management consultants and executive coaches, has been referenced in a number of advertising slogans. To think outside the box is to look further and to try not thinking of the obvious things, but to try thinking of the things beyond them. A simplified definition for paradigm is a habit of a conceptual framework. A simplified analogy is "the box" in the used phrase "thinking outside the box".
What is encompassed by the words "inside the box" is analogous with the current, unnoticed, assumptions about a situation. Creative thinking rejects the accepted paradigm to come up with new ideas; the notion of something outside a perceived "box" is related to a traditional topographical puzzle called the nine dots puzzle. The origins of the phrase "thinking outside the box" are obscure. Management consultant Mike Vance has claimed that the use of the nine-dot puzzle in consultancy circles stems from the corporate culture of the Walt Disney Company, where the puzzle was used in-house; the nine dots puzzle is much older than the slogan. It appears in Sam Loyd's 1914 Cyclopedia of Puzzles. In the 1951 compilation The Puzzle-Mine: Puzzles Collected from the Works of the Late Henry Ernest Dudeney, the puzzle is attributed to Dudeney himself. Sam Loyd's original formulation of the puzzle entitled it as "Christopher Columbus's egg puzzle." This was an allusion to the story of Egg of Columbus. The puzzle proposed an intellectual challenge—to connect the dots by drawing four straight, continuous lines that pass through each of the nine dots, never lifting the pencil from the paper.
The conundrum is resolved, but only by drawing the lines outside the confines of the square area defined by the nine dots themselves. The phrase "thinking outside the box" is a restatement of the solution strategy; the puzzle only seems difficult because people imagine a boundary around the edge of the dot array. The heart of the matter is the unspecified barrier that people perceive. Telling people to "think outside the box" does not help them think outside the box, at least not with the 9-dot problem; this is due to the distinction between procedural declarative knowledge. For example, a non-verbal cue such as drawing a square outside the 9 dots does allow people to solve the 9-dot problem better than average; the nine-dot problem is a well-defined problem. It has a stated goal, all necessary information to solve the problem is included. Furthermore, well-defined problems have a clear ending. Although the solution is "outside the box" and not easy to see at first, once it has been found, it seems obvious.
Other examples of well-defined problems are the Rubik's Cube. In contrast, characteristics of ill-defined problems are: not clear what the question is not clear how to arrive at a solution no idea what the solution looks likeAn example of an ill-defined problem is "what is the essence of happiness?" The skills needed to solve this type of problem are the ability to reason and draw inferences and epistemic monitoring. Another well-defined problem for the nine dots starting point is to connect the dots with a single straight line; the solution involves looking outside the two-dimensional sheet of paper on which the nine dots are drawn and coning the paper three-dimensionally aligning the dots along a spiral, thus a single line can be drawn connecting all nine dots - which would appear as three lines in parallel on the paper, when flattened out. If solving the four line solution is called lateral thinking solving the one line solution could well be called orthogonal thinking, as it requires two distinct phases: drawing the line and assembling the line.
The Nine Dots Prize is a competition-based prize for "creative thinking that tackles contemporary societal issues." It is sponsored by the Kadas Prize Foundation and supported by the Cambridge University Press and the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities at the University of Cambridge. It was named in reference to the nine-dot problem; this flexible English phrase is a rhetorical trope with a range of variant applications. The metaphorical "box" in the phrase "outside the box" may be married with something real and measurable — for example, perceived budgetary or organizational constraints in a Hollywood development project. Speculating beyond its restrictive confines the box can be both: positive— fostering creative leaps as in generating wild ideas. James Bandrowski states that this could result in a frank and insightful re-appraisal of a situation, the organization, etc. On the other hand, Bandrowski argues that the process of thinking "ins
Roswell, New Mexico
Roswell is a city and the seat of Chaves County in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 48,411, it is a center for irrigated farming, ranching, manufacturing and petroleum production. It is the home of New Mexico Military Institute, founded in 1891. Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located a few miles northeast of the city on the Pecos River. Bottomless Lakes State Park is located 12 miles east of Roswell on US 380; the Roswell UFO incident was named after the town, though the crash site of the alleged UFO was some 75 miles from Roswell and closer to Corona. The investigation and debris recovery was handled by the local Roswell Army Air Field. Roswell's tourist industry is based on alien-themed stores and other businesses; the first non-indigenous settlers of the area around Roswell were a group of pioneers from Missouri, who attempted to start a settlement 15 miles southwest of what is now Roswell in 1865, but were forced to abandon the site because of a lack of water.
It was called Missouri Plaza. It had many Hispanic people from Lincoln, New Mexico. John Chisum had his famous Jingle Bob Ranch about 5 miles from the center of Roswell, at South Spring Acres. At the time, it was the largest ranch in the United States. Van C. Smith, a businessman from Omaha and his partner, Aaron Wilburn, constructed two adobe buildings in 1869 that began what is now Roswell; the two buildings became the settlement's general store, post office, sleeping quarters for paying guests. In 1871, Smith filed a claim with the federal government for the land around the buildings, on August 20, 1873, he became the town's first postmaster. Smith was the son of Roswell Smith, a prominent lawyer in Lafayette and Annie Ellsworth, daughter of U. S. Patent Commissioner Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, he called the town Roswell, after his father's first name. In 1877, Captain Joseph Calloway Lea and his family bought out Smith and Wilburn's claim and became the owners of most of the land of Roswell and the area surrounding it.
The town was quiet during the Lincoln County War. A major aquifer was discovered when merchant Nathan Jaffa had a well drilled in his back yard on Richardson Avenue in 1890, resulting in the area's first major growth and development spurt; the growth continued when a railroad was built through town in 1893. During World War II, a prisoner-of-war camp was located in nearby Orchard Park; the German prisoners of war were used to do major infrastructure work in Roswell, such as paving the banks of the North Spring River. Some POWs used rocks of different sizes to create the outline of an iron cross among the stones covering the north bank; the iron cross was covered with a thin layer of concrete. In the 1980s, a crew cleaning the river bed cleared off the concrete and revealed the outline once more; the small park just south of the cross was known as Iron Cross Park. On November 11, 1996, the park was renamed POW/MIA Park; the park displays a piece of the Berlin Wall, presented to the city of Roswell by the German Air Force.
In the 1930s, Roswell was a site for much of Robert H. Goddard's early rocketry work. Roswell was a location of military importance from 1941 to 1967. In 1967, the Walker Air Force Base was decommissioned. After the closure of the base, Roswell capitalized on its pleasant climate and reinvented itself as a retirement community. Roswell has benefited from interest in the alleged UFO incident of 1947, it was the report of an object that crashed in the general vicinity in June or July 1947 an extraterrestrial spacecraft and its alien occupants. Since the late 1970s, the incident has been the subject of intense controversy and of a conspiracy theory regarding a classified program named "Mogul". Many UFO proponents maintain that an alien craft was found and its occupants were captured, that the military engaged in a cover-up. In recent times, the business community has deliberately sought out tourists interested in UFOs, science fiction, aliens. In 1978–79 and 2002, Roswell was named one of the All-American cities.
Roswell hosted the record-breaking skydive by Felix Baumgartner on October 14, 2012. Roswell is located in southeastern New Mexico about 7 mi west of the Pecos River and some 40 mi east of highlands that rise to the Sierra Blanca range. U. S. Routes 70, 285, 380 intersect in the city. US 70 leads 117 mi west to Alamogordo. According to the United States Census Bureau, Roswell has a total area of 29.9 square miles, of which 29.8 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.19%, is covered by water. Roswell is located in the High Plains and has four distinct seasons, giving it a BSk or BSh semiarid climate according to the Köppen climate classification. Winters are cold, but sunny, snowfall is a common occurrence. Spring is mild and warm, but can still be cold on occasion. Summers are hot and, quite the temperature rises above 100 °F, which can be unpleasant; the North American monsoon occurs during the summer, can bring torrential downpours, severe thunderstorms and sometimes tornadoes. The rain can provide a cooling relief from the scorching great plains heat.
Fall is mild
Iraq Petroleum Company
The Iraq Petroleum Company, known prior to 1929 as the Turkish Petroleum Company, is an oil company which, between 1925 and 1961, had a virtual monopoly on all oil exploration and production in Iraq. Today, it is jointly owned by some of the world's largest oil companies and is headquartered in London, England. In June 1972, the Ba'athist government in Iraq nationalised the IPC and its operations were taken over by the Iraq National Oil Company; the company "Iraq Petroleum Company" still remains extant, however, on paper and one associated company – the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company – continues with its original shareholding intact. The related Iraq Petroleum Group was an association of companies that played a major role in the discovery and development of oil resources in areas of the Middle East outside Iraq; the forerunner of the Iraq Petroleum Company was the Turkish Petroleum Company, which grew out of the growing belief, in the late 19th century, that Mesopotamia contained substantial reservoirs of oil.
Since Mesopotamia was part of the Ottoman Empire, early negotiations for an oil concession centered on the capital of the empire, İstanbul, known in the West as Constantinople, where the Ottoman sultan and his government resided. The first interest was shown by Imperial German banks and companies involved in the building of the Berlin-Baghdad railway, followed by British interests. In 1911, in an attempt to bring together competing British and German interests in the region, a British company known as African and Eastern Concession Ltd, was formed. In 1912, this company became the Turkish Petroleum Company, formed with the purpose of acquiring concessions from the Ottoman Empire to explore for oil in Mesopotamia; the owners were a group of large European companies – Deutsche Bank, the Anglo Saxon Oil Company, the National Bank of Turkey –and Armenian businessman Calouste Gulbenkian. The driving force behind its creation was Gulbenkian, the largest single shareholder was the British government-controlled Anglo-Persian Oil Company, which by 1914 held 50% of the shares.
TPC received a promise of a concession from the Ottoman government, but the outbreak of World War I in 1914 put a stop to all exploration plans. Deutsche Bank brought with it a concession granted to the Anatolian Railway Company to explore for minerals and oil along a 40 km -wide strip either side of its proposed railway in Mesopotamia. On 28 June 1914, the Turkish grand vizier confirmed the promise of a concession to TPC, but the outbreak of World War I ended TPC's plans; when the Ottoman Empire was broken up in the aftermath of the war, the question of shareholding in TPC became a major issue at the 1920 San Remo conference, where the future of all non-Turkish and Arab-majority areas of the former Ottoman Empire were decided. A rising demand for petroleum during the war had demonstrated to the big powers the importance of having their own sources of oil. Since one of the original partners of TPC had been German, the French demanded this share as the spoils of war; this was agreed by the San Remo Oil Agreement, much to the annoyance of the Americans who felt excluded from Middle Eastern oil and demanded an "open door".
After prolonged and sometimes sharp diplomatic exchanges, U. S. oil companies were permitted to buy into the TPC, but it would take several years until the negotiations were completed. TPC obtained a concession to explore for oil in 1925, in return for a promise that the Iraqi government would receive a royalty for every ton of oil extracted, but linked to the oil companies' profits and not payable for the first 20 years; the concession required the company to select 24 rectangular plots of 8 square miles each for drilling operations. During the 1925/6 season, an international geological party, comprising representatives of the shareholding companies together with an American contingent, conducted a wide-ranging survey of Iraq. Two wells were selected for drilling at Pulkanah and one each at Khashm al Ahmar and Qaiyarah. Kirkuk was included as the sixth location; the well at Baba Gurgur was located by geologist J. M. Muir just north of Kirkuk. Drilling started, in the early hours of 14 October 1927 oil was struck.
Many tons of oil were spilled before the gushing well was brought under control, the oil field soon proved to be extensive. The discovery hastened the negotiations over the composition of TPC, on 31 July 1928 the shareholders signed a formal partnership agreement to include the Near East Development Corporation, an American consortium of five large US oil companies that included Standard Oil of New Jersey, Standard Oil Company of New York, Gulf Oil, the Pan-American Petroleum and Transport Company, Atlantic Richfield Co.. Shares were held in the following proportions: 23.75% each to the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Royal Dutch/Shell, the Compagnie Française des Pétroles, the NEDC. TPC was to be organized as a nonprofit company, registered in Britain, that produced crude oil for a fee for its parent companies, based on their shares; the company itself was only allowed to refine and sell to Iraq's internal market, in order to prevent any competition with the parent companies. The agreement, known as Red Line Agreement after a red line was drawn around the former boundaries of the Ottoman Empire bound the partners to act together within the red line.
The writer Stephen Hemsley Longrigg, a former IPC employee, noted, "he Red Line Agreement, variously assessed as a sad case of wrongful cartelization or as an enlightened example of international co‑ope
Philanthropy means the love of humanity. A conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life", which combines an original humanistic tradition with a social scientific aspect developed in the 20th century; the definition serves to contrast philanthropy with business endeavors, which are private initiatives for private good, e.g. focusing on material gain, with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, e.g. focusing on provision of public services. A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist. Philanthropy has distinguishing characteristics separate from charity. A difference cited is that charity aims to relieve the pain of a particular social problem, whereas philanthropy attempts to address the root cause of the problem—the difference between the proverbial gift of a fish to a hungry person, versus teaching them how to fish. In the second century CE, Plutarch used the Greek concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior human beings.
During the Roman Catholic Middle Ages, philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love, valued for salvation and escape from purgatory. Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1600s, credited with preventing the word from being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be synonymous with "goodness", correlated with the Aristotelian conception of virtue, as consciously instilled habits of good behaviour. Samuel Johnson defined philanthropy as "love of mankind; this definition still survives today and is cited more gender-neutrally as the "love of humanity." In London prior to the 18th century and civic charities were established by bequests and operated by local church parishes or guilds. During the 18th century, however, "a more activist and explicitly Protestant tradition of direct charitable engagement during life" took hold, exemplified by the creation of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and Societies for the Reformation of Manners.
In 1739, Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, received a royal charter to establish the Foundling Hospital to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This was "the first children's charity in the country, one that'set the pattern for incorporated associational charities' in general." The hospital "marked the first great milestone in the creation of these new-style charities."Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763, the society had recruited over 10,000 men and it was incorporated in 1772. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard—some charities received state recognition in the form of the Royal Charter.
Philanthropists, such as anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce, began to adopt active campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded in ending the slave trade throughout the Empire starting in 1807. Although there were no slaves allowed in Britain itself, many rich men owned sugar plantations in the West Indies, resisted the movement to buy them out until it succeeded in 1833. Financial donations to organized charities became fashionable among the middle-class in the 19th century. By 1869 there were over 200 London charities with an annual income, all together, of about £2 million. By 1885, rapid growth had produced with an income of about £ 4.5 million. They included a wide range of religious and secular goals, with the American import, the YMCA as one of the largest, many small ones such as the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association.
In addition to making annual donations wealthy industrialists and financiers left generous sums in their wills. A sample of 466 wills in the 1890s revealed a total wealth of £76 million, of which £20 million was bequeathed to charities. By 1900 London charities enjoyed an annual income of about £8.5 million. Led by the energetic Lord Shaftesbury, philanthropists organized themselves. In 1869 they set up the Charity Organisation Society, it was a federation of one in each of the 42 Poor Law divisions. Its central office had experts in coordination and guidance, thereby maximizing the impact of charitable giving to the poor. Many of the charities were designed to alleviate the harsh living conditions in the slums; such as the Labourer's Friend Society founded in 1830. This included the promotion of allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement, in 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company—an organization that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, while at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment.
This was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavor that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century, brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust, t
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry and other sciences are useful. Field work is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work. Geologists work in the energy and mining sectors searching for natural resources such as petroleum, natural gas and base metals, they are in the forefront of preventing and mitigating damage from natural hazards and disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides. Their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Geologists are important contributors to climate change discussions. James Hutton is viewed as the first modern geologist. In 1785 he presented a paper entitled Theory of the Earth to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In his paper, he explained his theory that the Earth must be much older than had been supposed to allow enough time for mountains to be eroded and for sediments to form new rocks at the bottom of the sea, which in turn were raised up to become dry land.
Hutton published a two-volume version of his ideas in 1795. Followers of Hutton were known as Plutonists because they believed that some rocks were formed by vulcanism, the deposition of lava from volcanoes, as opposed to the Neptunists, led by Abraham Werner, who believed that all rocks had settled out of a large ocean whose level dropped over time; the first geological map of the United States was produced in 1809 by William Maclure. In 1807, Maclure commenced the self-imposed task of making a geological survey of the United States; every state in the Union was traversed and mapped by him. The results of his unaided labors were submitted to the American Philosophical Society in a memoir entitled Observations on the Geology of the United States explanatory of a Geological Map, published in the Society's Transactions, together with the nation's first geological map; this antedates William Smith's geological map of England by six years, although it was constructed using a different classification of rocks.
Sir Charles Lyell first published his famous book, Principles of Geology, in 1830. This book, which influenced the thought of Charles Darwin promoted the doctrine of uniformitarianism; this theory states that slow geological processes have occurred throughout the Earth's history and are still occurring today. In contrast, catastrophism is the theory that Earth's features formed in single, catastrophic events and remained unchanged thereafter. Though Hutton believed in uniformitarianism, the idea was not accepted at the time. For an aspiring geologist, training includes significant coursework in physics and chemistry, in addition to classes offered through the geology department. Most geologists need skills in GIS and other mapping techniques. Geology students spend portions of the year the summer though sometimes during a January term and working under field conditions with faculty members. Many non-geologists take geology courses or have expertise in geology that they find valuable to their fields.
Geologists may concentrate their studies or research in one or more of the following disciplines: Economic geology: the study of ore genesis, the mechanisms of ore creation, geostatistics. Engineering geology: application of the geologic sciences to engineering practice for the purpose of assuring that the geologic factors affecting the location, construction and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and adequately provided for. Geochemistry: the applied branch deals with the study of the chemical makeup and behaviour of rocks, the study of the behaviour of their minerals. Geochronology: the study of isotope geology toward determining the date within the past of rock formation, metamorphism and geological events. Geomorphology: the study of landforms and the processes that create them Hydrogeology: the study of the origin and movement of groundwater water in a subsurface geological system. Igneous petrology: the study of igneous processes such as igneous differentiation, fractional crystallization and volcanological phenomena.
Isotope geology: the case of the isotopic composition of rocks to determine the processes of rock and planetary formation. Metamorphic petrology: the study of the effects of metamorphism on minerals and rocks. Marine geology: the study of the seafloor. Marine geology has strong ties to physical plate tectonics. Palaeoclimatology: the application of geological science to determine the climatic conditions present in the Earth's atmosphere within the Earth's history. Palaeontology: the classification and taxonomy of fossils within the geological record and the construction of a palaeontological history of the Earth. Pe