Royal Waterloo Hospital for Children and Women
The Royal Waterloo Hospital for Children and Women was a hospital located on the corner of Waterloo Bridge Road and Stamford Street near Waterloo station in London, England. Closed in 1981 it is now a dormitory building for the London branch of the University of Notre Dame; the hospital was founded by Dr John Bunnell Davis in 1816 as the Universal Dispensary for Children. In this first incarnation the hospital was located at St Andrew's Hill, in the now demolished Doctors' Commons in the City of London; the name of the hospital was changed to the Royal Universal Dispensary for Children in 1821 and, after a foundation stone was laid by the Duke of York for new premises near Waterloo Bridge in 1823, it moved into the new premises in 1824. It became the Royal Universal Infirmary for Children in 1824, the Royal Infirmary for Children in 1843 and the Royal Infirmary for Children and Women in 1852. In an 1856 review of the hospital system in London, the British Journal of Homeopathy noted the serious shortage of hospital beds for children in London: Again, London possesses but one hospital, where sick children are received, containing the insignificant number of 30 beds.
Paris has a large hospital, containing 600 beds for sick children. The Royal Infirmary for Children, Waterloo Bridge Road, is said to be capable, with a few alterations, of containing 80 beds; the hospital underwent a further name change to the Royal Hospital for Children and Women in 1875. Between 1903 and 1904 premises were built at a cost of £45,000 to house an outpatients' department and inpatient accommodation of 90 beds at the corner of Waterloo Bridge Road and Stamford Street near Waterloo station. By the year of the hospital's rebuilding in 1903 the concerns over bed space remained: an article in the British Medical Journal raised the concern that the Waterloo site left little room for extension, it became the Royal Waterloo Hospital for Women at that time. The hospital joined the National Health Service in 1948 as part of the nearby St Thomas' Hospital group of hospitals; the Royal Waterloo Hospital closed on 27 July 1976. The building was awarded Grade II listed status by English Heritage in 1980.
In 1981 it was sold and for the next three decades was the central London campus of Schiller International University. In 2011, Schiller International University moved out of the building and sold it to University of Notre Dame of South Bend, Indiana, USA where it was renovated and converted into dormitories. Walter Cooper Dendy Charles Hilton Fagge John Cooper Forster Dr Braxton Hicks, who described Braxton Hicks contractions William Sargant, controversial psychiatrist William Shearman Charles West Sir Samuel Wilks Healthcare in London Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust St Thomas' Hospital Media related to Royal Waterloo Hospital for Children and Women at Wikimedia Commons Entry on the Royal Waterloo Hospital on the English Heritage Website Royal Waterloo Hospital Archives on AIM25
Royal College of Physicians
The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination. Founded in 1518, it set the first international standard in the classification of diseases, its library contains medical texts of great historical interest; the college hosts four training faculties: the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine, the Faculty for Pharmaceutical Medicine, the Faculty of Occupational Medicine and the Faculty of Physician Associates. The college is sometimes referred to as the Royal College of Physicians of London to differentiate it from other named bodies, its home in Regent's Park is one of the few post-war buildings to be granted Grade. In 2016 it was announced that the North of England centre of excellence was to be based at a new building in the Liverpool Knowledge Quarter in Liverpool; the new centre is set to open in 2020. A small group of distinguished physicians, led by the scholar and priest Thomas Linacre, petitioned King Henry VIII to be incorporated into a College similar to those found in a number of other European countries.
The main functions of the college, as set down in the founding Charter, were to grant licences to those qualified to practise and to punish unqualified practitioners and those engaging in malpractice. This included apothecaries as well as physicians, it was founded as the College of Physicians when it received a Royal Charter in 1518, affirmed by Act of Parliament in 1523. It is not known when the name "Royal College" was first granted, it came into use after the charter of 1663. It was confirmed in 1960 by the Royal College of Physicians of London Act; the college has been continuously active in improving the practice of medicine since its foundation though the accreditation of physicians. It is a member of the UK Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, it is sometimes referred to as the Royal College of Physicians of London to differentiate it from other named bodies. It was the first College of Physicians in Ireland, its establishment followed the incorporation of the Barber-Surgeons of Dublin in 1446, the first medical corporation in Ireland or Britain.
The college was based at three sites in the City of London near St Paul's Cathedral, before moving to Pall Mall East, on to its current location in Regent's Park. The first Harveian Librarian was a fellow of the college and a friend of Harvey, he was set up with a lifetime appointment that compensated him with room and board and a small stipend. In 1666, the Great fire of London destroyed many of the rooms and most of the books, so they tried to break the contract with Merret, but he fought them at the King's Court, claiming it was a lifetime appointment, he lost the case, was expelled from the Fellowship, had to seek private lodgings and return the books he had rescued from the fire. Throughout its history the college has issued advice across the whole range of medical and health matters. College publications include the first ten editions of the London Pharmacopoeia, the'Nomenclature of Diseases' in 1869; the latter created the international standard for the classification of diseases, to last until the World Health Organization's Manual of the international classification of diseases superseded it in the twentieth century.
The college became the licensing body for medical books in the late seventeenth century, sought to set new standards in learning through its own system of examinations. The college's tradition of examining continues to this day and it is still how the college is best known to the general public; the Royal College of Physicians celebrated its 500-year anniversary in 2018. The MRCP postnominal is used by doctors who have passed the examinations for the Diploma of Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom, which are held jointly by all of the UK Royal Colleges of Physicians. Holders of the MRCP may become "Collegiate Members" of the London College and/or of the other two UK colleges. Affiliate membership of the Royal College of Physicians is a similar level of membership as collegiate membership, but is awarded to senior doctors without MRCP. Both Collegiate Members and Affiliate Members may be considered for advancement to fellowship of the college; the college has associate, medical student, foundation doctor levels of membership.
Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians are elected from the general membership, but occasionally from among the members of the more specialised faculties within the Royal Colleges of Physicians, e.g. Occupational Medicine, Pharmaceutical Medicine, Forensic and Legal Medicine, etc. There are fellows who are elected de jure and honoris causa; the diploma of Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians is no longer awarded. The LRCP qualification used to be reserved for medical graduates, in practice Bachelors of Medicine from Oxford and C
Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire. It has existed in its present location for over 600 years, it is the oldest of the original seven English public schools defined by the Clarendon Commission and regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. According to its statutes, the school is called in Latin Collegium Sanctae Mariae prope Wintoniam, or Collegium Beatae Mariae Wintoniensis prope Winton, which translates as St Mary's College, near Winchester, or The College of the Blessed Mary of Winchester, near Winchester, it is sometimes referred to by pupils, former pupils and others as "Win: Coll:", is more known as just "Winchester". Winchester College was founded in 1382 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor to both Edward III and Richard II, the first 70 poor scholars entered the school in 1394. In the early 15th century the specific requirements was that that scholars come from families where the income was less than five marks sterling per annum.
It was founded in conjunction with New College, for which it was designed to act as a feeder: the buildings of both colleges were designed by master mason William Wynford. This double foundation was the model for Eton College and King's College, some 50 years and for Westminster School, Christ Church and Trinity College, Cambridge, in Tudor times. In addition to the 70 scholars and 16 "Quiristers", the statutes provided for ten "noble Commoners"; these Commoners were paying guests of the Headmaster or Second Master in his official apartments in College. Other paying pupils, either guests of one of the Masters in his private house or living in lodgings in town, grew in numbers till the late 18th century, when they were all required to live in "Old Commoners" and town boarding was banned. In the 19th century this was replaced by "New Commoners", the numbers fluctuated between 70 and 130: the new building was compared unfavourably to a workhouse, as it was built over an underground stream, epidemics of typhus and malaria were common.
In the late 1850s four boarding houses were planned, to be headed by housemasters: the plan, since dropped, was to increase the number of scholars to 100 so that there would be "College", "Commoners" and "Houses" consisting of 100 pupils each. In the 1860s "New Commoners" was closed and converted to classrooms, its members were divided among four further boarding houses. At the same time two more houses were added to the "Houses" category. There are therefore now ten houses in addition to College, which continues to occupy the original 14th-century buildings, the total number of pupils is 700. From the late 1970s there has been a continual process of extension to and upgrading of College Chambers; the Scholars live in the original buildings, known as College. College is not referred to as a house: hence the terms'housemaster of College' and'College house' are not used; the housemaster of College is now known as the'Master in College', though these duties belonged to the Second Master. Within the school,'College' refers only to the body of scholars.
Every pupil at Winchester, apart from the Scholars, lives in a boarding house, chosen or allocated when applying to Winchester. It is here that he studies and sleeps; each house is presided over by a number of house tutors. Houses compete in school competitions in sporting competitions; each house has an official name based on the family name of the first housemaster, used as a postal address. Each house has an informal name, more used in speech based on the name or nickname of an early housemaster; each house has a letter assigned to it, in the order of their founding, to act as an abbreviation on laundry tags. A member of a house is described by the informal name of the house with "-ite" suffixed, as "a Furleyite", "a Toyeite", "a Cookite" and so on; the houses have been ordered by their year of founding. College does not have an informal name, although the abbreviation Coll is sometimes used on written work, it has a letter assigned to it, X, but it is considered bad form to use this except as a laundry mark or in lists of sporting fixtures.
Each house had a set of house colours, which adorned the ribbon worn around boys' "strats". The wearing of strats was abolished for Commoners in around 1984 – Collegemen had ceased to wear them years earlier, they can however still be seen being sported on Winchester Day. House colours are now used on socks and "pussies", scarves awarded for exceptional contribution to the house or society. Winchester has its own entrance examination, does not use Common Entrance like other major public schools; those wishing to enter a Commoner House make their arrangements with the relevant housemaster some two years before sitting the exam sitting
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal. It is one of the world's oldest general medical journals. Called the British Medical Journal, the title was shortened to BMJ in 1988, changed to The BMJ in 2014; the journal is published by the global knowledge provider BMJ, a wholly owned subsidiary of the British Medical Association. The editor in chief of The BMJ is Fiona Godlee, appointed in February 2005; the journal began publishing on 3 October 1840 as the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal and attracted the attention of physicians around the world through its publication of high-impact original research articles and unique case reports. The BMJ's first editors were P. Hennis Green, lecturer on the diseases of children at the Hunterian School of Medicine, its founder and Robert Streeten of Worcester, a member of the PMSA council; the first issue of the British Medical Journal was 16 pages long and contained three simple woodcut illustrations. The longest items were the editors' introductory editorial and a report of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association's Eastern Branch.
Other pages included a condensed version of Henry Warburton's medical reform bill, book reviews, clinical papers, case notes. There were 2 1⁄2 columns of advertisements. Inclusive of stamp duty it cost 7d, a price which remained until 1844. In their main article and Streeten noted that they had "received as many advertisements for our first number, as the most popular Medical Journal, after seventeen years of existence."In their introductory editorial and statements and Streeten defined "the main objects of promotion of which the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal is established". Summarised, there were two clear main objectives: the advancement of the profession in the provinces and the dissemination of medical knowledge. Green and Streeten expressed interest in promoting public well-being as well as maintaining'medical practitioners, as a class in that rank of society which, by their intellectual acquirements, by their general moral character, by the importance of the duties entrusted to them, they are justly entitled to hold'.
The BMJ published the first centrally randomised controlled trial. The journal carried the seminal papers on the causal effects of smoking on health and lung cancer and other causes of death in relation to smoking. For a long time, the journal's sole competitor was The Lancet based in the UK, but with increasing globalisation, The BMJ has faced tough competition from other medical journals The New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American Medical Association; the BMJ is an advocate of evidence-based medicine. It publishes research as well as clinical reviews, recent medical advances, editorial perspectives, among others. A special "Christmas Edition" is published annually on the Friday before Christmas; this edition is known for research articles which apply a serious academic approach to investigating less serious medical questions. The results are humorous and reported by the mainstream media; the BMJ has an open peer review system. About half the original articles are rejected after review in-house.
Manuscripts chosen for peer review are first reviewed by external experts, who comment on the importance and suitability for publication, before the final decision on a manuscript is made by the editorial committee. The acceptance rate is less than 7% for original research articles; the BMJ is included in the major indexes PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, the Science Citation Index. The journal has long criticised the misuse of the impact factor to award grants and recruit researchers by academic institutions; the five journals that as of 2008 have cited The BMJ most are The BMJ, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Lancet, BMC Public Health, BMC Health Services Research. As of 2008, the five journals that have been cited most by articles published in The BMJ are The BMJ, The Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. In the 2018 Journal Citation Reports, The BMJ's impact factor was 23.295 in 2017, ranking it fourth among general medical journals.
According to the Web of Science, the following articles have been cited the most often: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. "Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey". BMJ. 320: 1240–3. Doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240. PMC 27365. PMID 10797032. "Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, stroke in high risk patients". BMJ. 324: 71–86. January 2002. Doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7329.71. PMC 64503. PMID 11786451. Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, Matthews DR, Manley SE, Cull CA, Hadden D, Turner RC, Holman RR. "Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes: prospective observational study". BMJ. 321: 405–12. Doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7258.405. PMC 27454. PMID 10938048; as of 2014, the most viewed article on The BMJ website is: Schultz WW, van Andel P, Sabelis I, Mooyaart E. "Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal".
BMJ. 319: 1596–600. Doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7225.1596. PMC 28302. PMID 10600954. In 1974, Dr. Elaine Murphy submitted a brief case report under her husband's name John which suggested a condition known as Cello Scrotum, a fictional condition which affected male ce
Robert Bourne (politician)
Robert Croft Bourne was a British rower who competed in the 1912 Summer Olympics, a Conservative Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1924 to 1938. Bourne was born at Bodington, London the son Gilbert Charles Bourne who had rowed in the winning Oxford crews in the Boat Race of 1882 and 1883; as a child, Bourne lost the sight of one eye in a game of rounders at school. He was educated at Eton College where he won the School Sculling in 1906, at New College, Oxford. At Oxford, he stroked the winning Oxford boats in the Boat Race in 1909, 1910, 1911 and 1912, being president in the last two years, he won the University Sculls in 1910 and the University Fours in 1911 and went head of the river in 1911–12. He was the strokeman of the New College eight which won the silver medal for Great Britain rowing at the 1912 Summer Olympics, he was a member of the winning crew in the Stewards' Challenge Cup at Henley Royal Regatta in 1912, 1913 and 1914. Bourne became a barrister. In the First World War, he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Herefordshire Regiment.
He had one hand crippled and a lung injured at Suvla Bay in the Dardanelles in August 1915. As he had only one good eye moved from active service to the Claims Commission. In 1920 he became J. P. for Herefordshire and in 1921 a member of the city council. Bourne was elected Conservative Member of Parliament for Oxford at a by-election in June 1924, served as a Deputy Speaker of the Commons from 1931, he died in office in August 1938 aged 50 dropping dead while walking on the moors near Strontian, Argyll. At the subsequent by-election the seat was held for the Conservatives by Quintin Hogg. Bourne married Lady Hester Margaret Cairns, daughter of Wilfred Cairns, 4th Earl Cairns on 7 June 1917, they lived at Abingdon. List of Oxford University Boat Race crews Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Robert Bourne The Rowers of Vanity Fair
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and won a landslide victory in the following year's general election. Under Prime Ministers Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, the Liberal Party passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Although Asquith was the party's leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime role of coalition Prime Minister and Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Minister in late 1916, but Asquith remained as Liberal Party leader; the pair fought for years over control of the party.
Historian Martin Pugh in The Oxford Companion to British History argues: Lloyd George made a greater impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain's social welfare system. Furthermore, in foreign affairs, he played a leading role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference, partitioning Ireland; the government of Lloyd George was dominated by the Conservative Party, which deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rival; the party went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections. Apart from notable by-election victories, its fortunes did not improve until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 general election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but only 23 of the 650 seats it contested. At the 1987 general election, its share of the vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989. It was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Liberal Democrats diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes and social planner William Beveridge; the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of increasing the power of Parliament. Although their motives in this were to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake; the great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832; the Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs' demise.
The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement, the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a traditional Whig, by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and a conservative, although capable of radical gestures; as early as 1839, Russell had adopted the name of "Liberals", but in reality his party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act, they favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances and above all free trade.
For a century, free trade remained the one cause. In 1841, the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; this allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments; the formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government. However, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party while it was dominated by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party; this was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government, Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government.