The Parrott rifle was a type of muzzle-loading rifled artillery weapon used extensively in the American Civil War. The gun was invented by a West Point graduate, he was an American inventor of military ordnance. He resigned from the service in 1836 and became the superintendent of the West Point Foundry in Cold Spring, New York, he created the first Parrott rifle in 1860 and patented it in 1861. Parrotts were manufactured with a combination of wrought iron; the cast iron was brittle enough to suffer fractures. Hence, a large wrought iron reinforcing band was overlaid on the breech to give it additional strength. There were prior cannons designed this way, but the method of securing this band was the innovation that allowed the Parrott to overcome the deficiencies of these earlier models, it was applied to the gun red-hot and the gun was turned while pouring water down the muzzle, allowing the band to attach uniformly. By the end of the Civil War, both sides were using this type of gun extensively.
Parrott rifles were manufactured from 10-pounders up to the rare 300-pounder. In the field, the 10- and 20-pounders were used by both armies; the 20-pounder was the largest field gun used during the war, with the barrel alone weighing over 1,800 pounds. The smaller size was much more prevalent. Confederate forces used both bore sizes during the war, which added to the complication of supplying the appropriate ammunition to its batteries; until 1864, Union batteries used only the 2.9-in. The M1863, with a 3-in bore, had firing characteristics similar to the earlier model, its range was up to 2,000 yards with a trained crew. Naval versions of the 20-, 30-, 60-, 100-pound Parrotts were used by the Union navy; the 100-pound naval Parrott could achieve a range of 6,900 yards at an elevation of 25 degrees, or fire an 80-pound shell 7,810 yards at 30 degrees elevation. Although accurate, as well as being cheaper and easier to make than most rifled artillery guns, the Parrott had a poor reputation for safety and they were shunned by many artillerists.
At the end of 1862, Henry J. Hunt attempted to get the Parrott eliminated from the Army of the Potomac's inventory, preferring the 3-inch ordnance rifle. During battles when the Parrott gun would burst, artillerists would chip out the jagged parts and continue firing. In 1889, The New York Times called on the Ordnance Bureau of the War Department to discontinue use of the Parrott gun altogether, following a series of mishaps at the West Point training grounds. Several hundred Parrott gun tubes remain today, many adorning battlefield parks, county courthouses, etc; the gun tubes made by Parrott's foundry are identifiable by the letters WPF, along with a date stamp between 1860 and 1889, found on the front face of the gun tube. The first production Parrott gun tube still exists, is preserved on a reproduction gun carriage in the center square of Hanover, Pennsylvania, as part of a display commemorating the Battle of Hanover. A list of many of the surviving tubes can be found at the National Register of Surviving Civil War Artillery.
The larger sizes of Parrott rifles were deployed in coast defense from circa 1863 to circa 1900, when they were replaced by Endicott period forts and weapons. Along with Rodman guns, some were deployed shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in 1898 as a stopgap. By summer 1863, Union forces became frustrated by the fortified Confederate position at Fort Sumter, brought to bear the 10-inch Parrott, along with several smaller cannons. In all, two 80-pounder Whitworths, nine 100-pounder Parrotts, six 200-pounder Parrotts, a 300-pounder Parrott were deployed, it was believed in the north that massive 10-in Parrott would break the impenetrable walls of the fort, which had become the symbol of stalwart steadfastness for the Confederacy. The Washington Republican described the technical accomplishments of the 10-in Parrott: The breaching power of the 10-inch 300-pounder Parrott rifled gun, now about to be used against the brick walls of Fort Sumter, will best be understood by comparing it with the ordinary 24-pounder siege gun, the largest gun used for breaching during the Italian War.
The 24-pounder round shot, which starts with a velocity of 1,625 feet per second, strikes an object at the distance of 3,500 yards, with a velocity of about 300 feet per second. The 10-in rifle 300-pound shot has an initial velocity of 1,111 feet, has afterward a remaining velocity of 700 feet per second, at a distance of 3,500 yards. From well-known mechanical laws, the resistance which these projectiles are capable of overcoming is equal to 33,750 pounds and 1,914,150 pounds, raised one foot in a second respectively. Making allowances for the differences of the diameters of these projectiles, it will be found that their penetrating power will be 1 to 19.6. The penetration of the 24-pounder shot at 3,500 yards, in brick work, is 62 inches; the penetration of the 10-inch projectile will therefore be between six and seven feet into the same material. To use a more familiar illustration, the power of the 10-in rifle shot at the distance of 3,500 yards, may be said to be equal to the united blows of 200 sledge hammers weighing 100 pounds each, falling from a height of ten feet and acting upon a drill ten inches in diameter.
One of the most famous Parrott rifles was the Swamp Angel, an 8-inch gun used by federal Brigadier
Cold Spring, New York
Cold Spring is a village in the town of Philipstown in Putnam County, New York, United States. The population was 1,983 at the 2010 census, it borders the smaller villages of Garrison. The central area of the village is on the National Register of Historic Places as the Cold Spring Historic District due to its many well-preserved 19th-century buildings, constructed to accommodate workers at the nearby West Point Foundry; the town is the birthplace of General Gouverneur K. Warren, an important figure in the Union Army during the Civil War; the village, located in the Hudson Highlands, sits at the deepest point of the Hudson River, directly across from West Point. Cold Spring serves as a weekend getaway for many residents of New York City. Commuter service to New York City is available via the Cold Spring train station, served by Metro-North Railroad; the train journey is about ten minutes to Grand Central Terminal. The site of present-day Cold Spring was part of the lands belonging to Adolphus Philipse.
The first settler of Cold Spring was Thomas Davenport in 1730. In 1772 a highway master was chosen for the road from Cold Spring to the Post Road from New York to Albany. A small trading hamlet grew alongside the river by the early 1800s. A couple of sloops made regular weekly trips from Cold Spring to New York, carrying wood and some country produce, which came over this model road from the east; those trips by sloop took a week. In 1818 Gouverneur Kemble established the West Point Foundry opposite West Point to produce artillery pieces for the United States Government; the nearbys mountains contained veins of ore, were covered with timber for fuel. A brook provided hydropower, the Hudson a ready shipping outlet. In 1843, the Foundry built the USS Spencer, the first iron ship built in the U. S. With the influx of workers at the Foundry, local housing and churches increased, Cold Spring was incorporated as a village in 1846; the first President of the Village was Joshua Haight. The Foundry became famous for its production of Parrott rifles and other munitions during the Civil War, when the foundry grew to a sprawling 100-acre complex employing 1,400.
It manufactured cast iron steam engines for locomotives and produced much of the pipework for New York’s water system. The rise of steel making and the declining demand for cast iron after the Civil War caused the Foundry to cease operations in 1911. Many artifacts from the Foundry's history can be viewed at the Putnam History Museum on Chestnut Street. Built in 1830, the building was a one-room schoolhouse for the Foundry's teenage apprentices and the children of employees. On January 22, 1896, local businessmen of Cold Spring formed a fire brigade known as the Cold Spring Hose Company, No.1. A horse-drawn hook and ladder was donated in 1899; the Municipal Building, designed by Louis Mekeel, was constructed in 1926 to house the company's first firetruck, an American LaFrance. The company, renamed Cold Spring Fire Company No.1 in 1900, serves the Villages of Cold Spring, Nelsonville and a district in the Town of Philipstown. Mr. Willis Buckner, a former slave from the South, was a driver and groom for Susan and Anna Bartlett Warner at their farm on Constitution Island.
Mr. Buckner taught Sunday School at the Methodist Church. In the early decades of the 20th century blacks who stayed in this part of New York state migrated away from rural towns to nearby cities with waterfront manufacturing such as Peekskill, Newburg, Ossining. During the 1920s the Ku Klux Klan had a presence in Cold Spring as well as Nelsonville. Pete Seeger formed the Clearwater organization, an environmental group dedicated to advances in sewer treatment, industrial waste disposal, addressing the discharge of major pollutants into the Hudson. In 1970, the sloop Clearwater docked for a songfest at Cold Spring; as Seeger appeared on stage to thank the audience for coming, fifteen drunks stood up waving little American flags, yelling “Throw the Commies out.” That night someone cut the sloop’s moorings and there were threats to torch the boat. All of this created tension within the Clearwater organization. Towards the latter part of the nineteenth century artists and prominent families were drawn to Cold Spring by the beauty of the Hudson Highlands.
Mansions were built along Morris Avenue, including "Undercliff", the home of publisher George Pope Morris, "Craigside", the home of Julia and General Daniel Butterfield. Under the auspices of Superintendent William Young, a Presbyterian from the north of Ireland, arrangements were to conduct religious services in the pattern shop; the premises was shared by Episcopalians and Baptists. The Methodists used a private home. Once every three weeks Rev. Owens from Patterson came to minister to the Presbyterians. Elder Warren from Kent cared for the religious needs of the Baptists. In the absence of an ordained minister, services were conducted by Foundry President Gouverneur Kemble. 1826 the Union Church was built. The celebrated preacher Thomas De Witt Talmage from Brooklyn is reported to have sometimes officiated there; the sacramental vessels were of pewter. By mutual agreement the Presbyterians used the building in the morning and the other religious groups in the afternoon. In 1830 the Baptists constructed a church on land donated by Samuel L. Gouverneur.
The first Methodist church was built in 1833 on the corner of Church Streets. The building was sold in 1870. A new brick Italianate structure, designed by William Humphreys Jr. was built in 1868 on the north side of Main Street. The Dutch Reformed Church was built around 1855 in Neoclassical style; the building was replaced by the Julia L. Butterfield Library. Many of the
Lee, New Hampshire
Lee is a town in Strafford County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 4,330 at the 2010 census; the town is a rural bedroom community, being close to the University of New Hampshire. Settled in 1657, Lee was part of the extensive early Dover township, it includes Wheelwright Pond, named for the founder of Exeter. Wheelwright Pond was the site of a noted early battle during King William's War. Indians, incited by the government of New France, attacked Exeter on July 4, 1690, they were pursued by two infantry companies raised for the purpose, who overtook them at Wheelwright Pond on July 6, 1690. Fierce fighting on that day would leave 3 officers and 15 soldiers dead, together with a large number of Indians. Among the dead were Captain Noah Wiswall, Lieutenant Gershom Flagg, Ensign Edward Walker of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1735, which included Lee, separated from Dover. Lee, in turn, would separate from Durham on January 16, 1766, when it was established by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth.
It was among the last of 129 towns to receive a charter during his administration, named for British General Charles Lee, who joined the American Revolution. Lee is hometown for numerous faculty of the University of New Hampshire in Durham. In 2007 the U. S. Postal Service assigned the town its own ZIP code – 03861. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 20.2 square miles, of which 20.0 sq mi is land and 0.2 sq mi is water, comprising 1.04% of the town. The town is drained by North River and Oyster River. Lee lies within the Piscataqua River watershed; the highest point in Lee is 272 feet above sea level, atop an unnamed hill southwest of the town center. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,145 people, 1,466 households, 1,092 families residing in the town; the population density was 207.8 people per square mile. There were 1,534 housing units at an average density of 76.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.02% White, 0.55% African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.57% Asian, 0.19% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 1.06% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.18% of the population. There were 1,466 households out of which 45.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.4% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were non-families. 17.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.20. In the town, the population was spread out with 30.9% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 7.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $57,993, the median income for a family was $62,330. Males had a median income of $41,354 versus $29,651 for females; the per capita income for the town was $23,905. About 4.3% of families and 5.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over.
Julian Barry, Academy Award-nominated screenwriter for the film Lenny, based on his Broadway hit play of the same name Tom Bergeron, television personality Daniel Meserve Durell, US congressman.
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
3rd Air Defense Artillery Regiment
The 3rd Air Defense Artillery Regiment is an air defense artillery regiment of the United States Army, first formed in 1821 as the 3rd Regiment of Artillery. Constituted 1 June 1821 in the Regular Army as the 3rd Regiment of Artillery and organized from existing units with headquarters at Fort Washington, Maryland. Twelve batteries of the 3rd U. S. Artillery served in the American Civil War. Four batteries of the Third U. S. Artillery were assigned to Fort Jefferson, Florida in 1869; the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the regiment deployed to the Philippines in the Spanish–American War of 1898, while Battery F deployed to Puerto Rico. Regiment broken up 13 February 1901 and its elements reorganized and redesignated as separate numbered companies and batteries of the Artillery Corps. Reconstituted 1 July 1924 in the Regular Army as the 3rd Coast Artillery and organized with headquarters, 1st Battalion, Batteries A & B at Fort MacArthur, California in the Harbor Defenses of Los Angeles; the regiment was organized by redesignating the 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 31st, 34th, 35th, 36th companies of the Coast Artillery Corps.
Batteries A, B, D, E carried the lineage and designations of the corresponding batteries in the old 3rd Artillery. HHB 2nd Battalion and Battery D at Fort Rosecrans, HHB 3rd Battalion and Battery E at Fort Stevens, Oregon. Batteries A and B inactivated 1 March 1930 at San Pedro and Fort MacArthur, respectively. Regiment reorganized as Type A 21 August 1941. Regiment broken up 18 October 1944 and its elements reorganized and redesignated as follows:Headquarters and Headquarters Battery as Battery B, 521st Coast Artillery Battalion.1st, 2nd, 3rd Battalions as the 520th, 521st, 522nd Coast Artillery Battalions, respectively. After 18 October 1944 the above units underwent changes as follows:520th CA Battalion redesignated as 3rd CA Battalion 1 December 1944.3rd CA Battalion, 521st CA Battalion, 522nd CA Battalion, disbanded 15 September 1945 at Fort MacArthur, California. Reconstituted 28 June 1950 in the Regular Army and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 3rd Antiaircraft Artillery Group.
Activated 11 June 1951 at Camp Stewart, Georgia. Redesignated 20 March 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 3rd Artillery Group. Inactivated 15 December 1961 at Norfolk, Virginia.520th Coast Artillery Battalion redesignated 1 December 1944 as the 3rd Coast Artillery Battalion. Disbanded 15 September 1945 at Fort MacArthur, California. Reconstituted 20 January 1950 in the Regular Army. Redesignated 15 April 1953 as the 3rd Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion. Inactivated 1 July 1957 at Fort Benning and relieved from assignment to the 3rd Infantry Division.521st Coast Artillery Battalion disbanded 15 September 1945 at Fort MacArthur, California. Reconstituted 28 June 1950 in the Regular Army and redesignated as the 18th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion. Redesignated 13 March 1952 as the 18th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion Activated 2 May 1952 at Fort Custer, Michigan. Redesignated 24 July 1953 as the 18th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion. Redesignated 15 June 1957 as the 18th Antiaircraft Artillery Missile Battalion.
Inactivated 1 September 1958 at Detroit, Michigan.522nd Coast Artillery Battalion disbanded 15 September 1945 at Huntington Beach, California. Reconstituted 28 June 1950 in the Regular Army. Redesignated 15 June 1954 as the 43rd Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion Relieved 16 May 1957 from assignment to the 10th Infantry Division. Inactivated 14 November 1957 in Germany. Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 3rd Artillery Group. Withdrawn 16 July 1989 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System. Constituted 6 July 1942 in the Army of the United States as the 534th Coast Artillery
During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic; the Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts. To this end, the Union Army fought and triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. Over the course of the war, 2,128,948 men enlisted in the Union Army, including 178,895 colored troops. Of these soldiers, 596,670 were wounded or went missing; the initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,367 men in the U.
S. Army, including 1,108 commissioned officers. 20% of these officers, most of them Southerners, choosing to tie their lives and fortunes to the Army of the Confederacy. In addition 200 West Point graduates who had left the Army, including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, Braxton Bragg, would return to service at the outbreak of the war; this group's loyalties were far more divided, with 92 donning Confederate gray and 102 putting on the blue of the Union Army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, three of mounted infantry; the regiments were scattered widely. Of the 197 companies in the army, 179 occupied 79 isolated posts in the West, the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi River along the Canada–United States border and on the Atlantic coast. With the Southern slave states declaring secession from the Union, with this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75,000 men for three months to put down this subversive insurrection.
Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. It turned out that the war itself proved to be much longer and far more extensive in scope and scale than anyone on either side, Union North or Confederate South, expected or imagined at the outset on the date of July 22, 1861; that was the day that Congress approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up to 500,000 men to the cause. The call for volunteers was met by patriotic Northerners and immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals. Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania responded to Lincoln's call, the French were quick to volunteer; as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Between April 1861 and April 1865, at least 2,128,948 men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers, it is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army.
At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S. Military Academy on the active list. Of the 900 West Point graduates who were civilians, 400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283; the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers did not have this right. While the total number of those is unknown, only 26 enlisted men and non-commissioned officers of the regular army are known to have left the army to join the Confederate army when the war began; the Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were organized geographically. Military division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the more modern term Theater. Department An organization that covered a defined region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein and for the field armies within their borders.
Those named for states referred to Southern states, occupied. It was more common to name departments for regions. District A subdivision of a Department