Cornet was the third and lowest grade of commissioned officer in a British cavalry troop, after captain and lieutenant. It was replaced by sub-lieutenant, it is equivalent to a modern second lieutenant. The term today is restricted to internal regimental use when referring to a Second Lieutenant in the Blues and Royals and Queen's Royal Hussars; this rank was used in other countries, e.g. in the Russian Empire, the Prussian cavalry, before 1870. The rank was in use by the time of the English Civil War. Among famous cornets in that conflict were George Joyce, Robert Stetson, Ninian Beall, it was abolished along with the purchase of commissions in the Army Reform Act of 1871, replaced by second lieutenant. The ranks of ensign and cornet were abolished in the US Army in 1815; the rank existed in other nation's cavalry troops, such as those of Sweden and Imperial Russia, by the Continental Army in the American War of Independence. General Alexander Macomb was commissioned a cornet in a career in which he became Commanding General of the United States Army.
It is still used in the cavalry divisions of the Netherlands. The rank of field cornet was used for the senior officer of a ward or sub-district in the independent republican states of the Transvaal and Oranje-Vrystaat in late 19th century South Africa, they were elected by the commandos of their ward for periods of three years. In the case of large wards, an assistant field cornet could be chosen; the rank was reminiscent of the Dutch use in cavalry troops that the commandos most resembled. In apartheid-era South Africa, the rank of field cornet was used in the South African Army from 1960 to 1968; the subaltern rank of cornet was the equivalent of the contemporary infantry rank of ensign, today's second lieutenant in each. The cornet carried the troop standard, known as a "guidon". Fänrik Fähnrich
Insanity and craziness are terms that describe a spectrum of individual and group behaviors that are characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns. Insanity can be manifest as violations of societal norms, including a person or persons becoming a danger to themselves or to other people. Conceptually, mental insanity is associated with the biological phenomenon of contagion as in the case of copycat suicides. In contemporary usage, the term insanity is an informal, un-scientific term denoting "mental instability". In medicine, the general term psychosis is used to include the presence either of delusions or of hallucinations or both in a patient. In English, the word "sane" derives from the Latin adjective sanus meaning "healthy". Juvenal's phrase mens sana in corpore sano is translated to mean a "healthy mind in a healthy body". From this perspective, insanity can be considered as poor health of the mind, not of the brain as an organ, but rather refers to defective function of mental processes such as reasoning.
Another Latin phrase related to our current concept of sanity is "compos mentis", a euphemistic term for insanity is "non compos mentis". In law, mens rea means having had a guilty mind, when the act was committed. A more informal use of the term insanity is to denote something or someone considered unique, passionate or extreme, including in a positive sense; the term may be used as an attempt to discredit or criticise particular ideas, principles, personal feelings, attitudes, or their proponents, such as in politics and religion. Madness, the non-legal word for insanity, has been recognized throughout history in every known society; some traditional cultures have turned to witch doctors or shamans to apply magic, herbal mixtures, or folk medicine to rid deranged persons of evil spirits or bizarre behavior, for example. Archaeologists have unearthed skulls that have round holes bored in them using flint tools, it has been conjectured that the subjects may have been thought to have been possessed by spirits which the holes would allow to escape.
However, more recent research on the historical practice of trepanning supports the hypothesis that this procedure was medical in nature and intended as means of treating cranial trauma. The Greeks appeared to share something of today's secular and holistic view, believing that afflictions of the mind did not differ from diseases of the body. Moreover, they saw mental and physical illness as a result of natural causes and an imbalance in bodily humors. Hippocrates wrote that an excess of black bile resulted in irrational thinking and behavior. Romans made other contributions to psychiatry, in particular a precursor of some contemporary practice, they put forward the idea that strong emotions could lead to bodily ailments, the basis of today’s theory of psychosomatic illness. The Romans supported humane treatment of the mentally ill, in so doing codified into law the principle of insanity as a mitigation of responsibility for criminal acts, although the criterion for insanity was set as the defendant had to be found "non compos mentis", a term meaning "not sound of mind".
The Middle Ages, witnessed the end of the progressive ideas of the Greeks and Romans. During the 18th century, the French and the British introduced humane treatment of the clinically insane, though the criteria for diagnosis and placement in an asylum were looser than today including such conditions as speech disorder, speech impediments and depression or being pregnant out of wedlock. Europe's oldest asylum was the precursor of today's Bethlem Royal Hospital in London, known as Bedlam, which began admitting the mentally ill in 1403 and is mentioned in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales; the first American asylum was built in Williamsburg, circa 1773. Before the 19th century these hospitals were used to isolate the mentally ill or the ostracized from society rather than cure them or maintain their health. Pictures from this era portrayed patients bound with rope or chains to beds or walls, or restrained in straitjackets. Insanity is no longer considered a medical diagnosis but is a legal term in the United States, stemming from its original use in common law.
The disorders encompassed by the term covered a wide range of mental disorders now diagnosed as bipolar disorder, organic brain syndromes and other psychotic disorders. In United States criminal law, insanity may serve as an affirmative defense to criminal acts and thus does not need to negate an element of the prosecution's case such as general or specific intent; each U. S. state differs somewhat in its definition of insanity but most follow the guidelines of the Model Penal Code. All jurisdictions require a sanity evaluation to address the question first of whether or not the defendant has a mental illness. Most courts accept a major mental illness such as psychosis but will not accept the diagnosis of a personality disorder for the purposes of an insanity defense; the second question is whether the mental illness interfered with the defendant's ability to distinguish right from wrong. That is, did the defendant know that the alleged behavior was against the law at the time the offense was committed.
Additionally, some jurisdictions add the question of whether or not the defendant was in control of their behavior at the time of the offense. For example, if the defendant was compelled by some aspect of the
Piccadilly is a road in the City of Westminster, London to the south of Mayfair, between Hyde Park Corner in the west and Piccadilly Circus in the east. It is part of the A4 road that connects central London to Hammersmith, Earl's Court, Heathrow Airport and the M4 motorway westward. St James's is to the south of the eastern section, while the western section is built up only on the northern side. Piccadilly is just under 1 mile in length, is one of the widest and straightest streets in central London; the street has been a main thoroughfare since at least medieval times, in the Middle Ages was known as "the road to Reading" or "the way from Colnbrook". Around 1611 or 1612, a Robert Baker acquired land in the area, prospered by making and selling piccadills. Shortly after purchasing the land, he enclosed it and erected several dwellings, including his home, Pikadilly Hall. What is now Piccadilly was named Portugal Street in 1663 after Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II, grew in importance after the road from Charing Cross to Hyde Park Corner was closed to allow the creation of Green Park in 1668.
Some of the most notable stately homes in London were built on the northern side of the street during this period, including Clarendon House and Burlington House in 1664. Berkeley House, constructed around the same time as Clarendon House, was destroyed by a fire in 1733 and rebuilt as Devonshire House in 1737 by William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire, it was used as the main headquarters for the Whig party. Burlington House has since been home to several noted societies, including the Royal Academy of Arts, the Geological Society of London and the Royal Astronomical Society. Several members of the Rothschild family had mansions at the western end of the street. St James's Church was consecrated in 1684 and the surrounding area became St James Parish; the Old White Horse Cellar, at No. 155, was one of the most famous coaching inns in England by the late 18th century, by which time the street had become a favoured location for booksellers. The Bath Hotel emerged around 1790, Walsingham House was built in 1887.
Both the Bath and the Walsingham were purchased and demolished, the prestigious Ritz Hotel built on their site in 1906. Piccadilly Circus station, at the east end of the street, was opened in 1906 and rebuilt to designs by Charles Holden between 1925 and 1928; the clothing store Simpson's was established at Nos. 203–206 Piccadilly by Alec Simpson in 1936. During the 20th century, Piccadilly became known as a place to acquire heroin, was notorious in the 1960s as the centre of London's illegal drug trade. Today, it is regarded as one of London's principal shopping streets, its landmarks include the Ritz, Park Lane and Intercontinental hotels, Fortnum & Mason, the Royal Academy, the RAF Club, the Embassy of Japan and the High Commission of Malta. Piccadilly has inspired several works of fiction, including Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest and the work of P. G. Wodehouse, it is one of a group of squares on the London Monopoly board. The street has been part of a main road for centuries, although there is no evidence that it was part of a Roman road, unlike Oxford Street further north.
In the Middle Ages it was known as "the road to Reading" or "the way from Colnbrook". During the Tudor period settled conditions made expansion beyond London's city walls a safer venture. Property speculation became a lucrative enterprise, developments grew so that the threat of disease and disorder prompted the government to ban developments. Owing to the momentum of growth, the laws had little real effect. A plot of land bounded by Coventry, Sherwood and Rupert streets and the line of Smith's Court was granted by Elizabeth I to William Dodington, a gentleman of London, in 1559–60. A year or so it was owned by a brewer, Thomas Wilson of St Botolph-without-Aldgate; the grant did not include a small parcel of land, 1 3⁄8 acres in area, on the east of what is now Great Windmill Street. That plot may have never belonged to the Crown, was owned by Anthony Cotton in the reign of Henry VIII. John Cotton granted it to John Golightly in 1547, his descendants sold it to a tailor, Robert Baker, in c. 1611–12.
Six or seven years Baker bought 22 acres of Wilson's land, thanks to money from his second marriage. Baker became financially successful by selling fashionable piccadills. Shortly after purchasing the land, he enclosed it and erected several dwellings, including a residence and shop for himself. A map published by Faithorne in 1658 describes the street as "the way from Knightsbridge to Piccadilly Hall". A nearby gaming house, known as Shaver's Hall and nicknamed "Tart Hall" or "Pickadell Hall", was popular with the gentry of London. Lord Dell lost £3000 gambling at cards there in 1641. After Robert Baker's death in 1623 and the death of his eldest son Samuel shortly afterward, his widow and her father purchased the wardship of their surviving children, their only daughter died, her widower Sir Henry Oxenden retained an interest in the land. Several relatives claimed it, but after Mary Baker's death in about 1665, the estate reverted to the Crown. A great-nephew, John Baker, obtained possession of part of it, but squabbled over the lands with his cousin, James Baker.
By the 1670s, Panton was developing the lands. Piccadilly was named Port
Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, part of Australia. The name was changed from Van Diemen's Land to Tasmania in 1856; the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first European to land on the shores of Tasmania in 1642. Landing at Blackman Bay and having the Dutch flag flown at North Bay, Tasman named the island Anthoonij van Diemenslandt, in honour of Anthony van Diemen, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, who had sent Tasman on his voyage of discovery. Between 1772 and 1798, only the southeastern portion of the island was visited. Tasmania was not known to be an island until Matthew Flinders and George Bass circumnavigated it in the Norfolk in 1798–99. Around 1784–85, Henri Peyroux de la Coudrenière, an army officer serving in Spanish Louisiana, wrote a "memoir on the advantages to be gained for the Spanish crown by the settlement of Van Dieman's Land". After receiving no response from the Spanish government, Peyroux proposed it to the French government, as "Mémoire sur les avantages qui résulteraient d'une colonie puissante à la terre de Diémen".
In January 1793, a French expedition under the command of Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni d'Entrecasteaux anchored in Recherche Bay and a period of five weeks was spent in that area, carrying out explorations into both natural history and geography. In 1802 and 1803, the French expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin explored D'Entrecasteaux Channel and Maria Island and carried out charting of Bass Strait (Baudin had been associated, like Peyroux, with the resettlement of the Acadians from French Canada. Sealers and whalers based themselves on Tasmania's islands from 1798 and in August 1803, New South Wales Governor Philip King sent Lieutenant John Bowen to establish a small military outpost on the eastern shore of the Derwent River to forestall any claims to the island arising from the activities of the French explorers. Major-General Ralph Darling was appointed Governor of New South Wales in 1825, in the same year he visited Hobart Town, on 3 December proclaimed the establishment of the independent colony, of which he became governor for three days.
The demonym for Van Diemen's Land was "Van Diemonian", though contemporaries used the spelling Vandemonian. In 1856, the colony was granted responsible self-government with its representative parliament, the name of the island and colony was changed to Tasmania on 1 January 1856. Main articles: Port Arthur, Convicts on the West Coast of TasmaniaFrom the 1800s to the 1853 abolition of penal transportation, Van Diemen's Land was the primary penal colony in Australia. Following the suspension of transportation to New South Wales, all transported convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land. In total, some 73,000 convicts were transported to Van Diemen's Land, or about 40% of all convicts sent to Australia. Male convicts served their sentences as assigned labour to free settlers or in gangs assigned to public works. Only the most difficult convicts were sent to the Tasman Peninsula prison known as Port Arthur. Female convicts were sent to a female factory. There were five female factories in Van Diemen's Land.
Convicts completing their sentences or earning their ticket-of-leave promptly left Van Diemen's Land. Many settled in the new free colony of Victoria, to the dismay of the free settlers in towns such as Melbourne. On 6 August 1829, the brig Cyprus, a government-owned vessel used to transport goods and convicts, set sail from Hobart Town for Macquarie Harbour Penal Station on a routine voyage carrying supplies and convicts. While the ship was becalmed in Recherche Bay, convicts allowed on deck attacked their guards and took control of the brig; the mutineers marooned officers and convicts who did not join the mutiny without supplies. The convicts sailed the Cyprus to Canton, where they scuttled her and claimed to be castaways from another vessel. On the way, Cyprus visited Japan during the height of the period of severe Japanese restrictions on the entry of foreigners, the first Australian ship to do so. Tensions sometimes ran high between the settlers and the "Vandemonians" as they were termed during the Victorian gold rush when a flood of settlers from Van Diemen's Land rushed to the Victorian goldfields.
Complaints from Victorians about released convicts from Van Diemen's Land re-offending in Victoria was one of the contributing reasons for the eventual abolition of transportation to Van Diemen's Land in 1853. Anthony Trollope used the term Vandemonian: "They are united in their declaration that the cessation of the coming of convicts has been their ruin."In 1856, Van Diemen's Land was renamed Tasmania. This removed the unsavoury criminal connotations with the name Van Diemen's Land, while honouring Abel Tasman, the first European to find the island; the last penal settlement in Tasmania at Port Arthur closed in 1877. The critically acclaimed award-winning film The Last Confession of Alexander Pearce tells the true story of Alexander Pearce through his final confession to fellow Irishman and colonial priest Philip Conolly; the film was nominated for a Rose d'Or, an Irish Film and Television Award, an Australian Film Institute Award and won an IF Award in 2009. The ABC telemovie The Outlaw Michael Howe is set in Van Diemen's Land and tells the story of bushranger Michael Howe's convict-led rebellion.
U2's 1988 album Rattle and Hum has a song called "Van Diemen's Land" with lead vocals sung by The Edge. Tom Russell sets Van Diemen's Land as the ship's destination in his song "Isaac L
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, was the tenth child and seventh son of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He held the title of Duke of Cambridge from 1801 until his death, he served as Viceroy of Hanover on behalf of his brothers George IV and William IV. Prince Adolphus was born in February 1774 at Buckingham House known as the "Queen's House", in the City and Liberty of Westminster, now within Greater London, he was the youngest son of Charlotte to survive childhood. On 24 March 1774, the young prince was baptized in the Great Council Chamber at St James's Palace by Frederick Cornwallis, Archbishop of Canterbury, his godparents were Prince John Adolphus of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Landgrave Charles of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Wilhelmina of Orange. He was tutored at home until summer 1786, when he was sent to the University of Göttingen in Germany, along with his brothers Prince Ernest and Prince Augustus, he was made honorary Colonel-in-Chief of the Hanoverian Guard Foot Regiment 1789–1803, but his military training began in 1791, when he and Prince Ernest went to Hanover to study under the supervision of the Hanoverian commander Field Marshal Wilhelm von Freytag.
He remained on Freytag's staff during the Flanders Campaign in 1793. His first taste of action was at Famars on 23 May, he was wounded and captured at the Battle of Hondschoote 6 September, but was rescued. As a Hanovarian General-Major, he commanded a Hessian brigade under his paternal great-uncle, General Johann Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn in Autumn 1794 commanded the Hanovarian Guards during the retreat through Holland. Remaining in Germany, he commanded a brigade of the Corps of Observation, 22 October 1796 – 12 January 1798, he was made a British army colonel in 1794, lieutenant general 24 August 1798. In 1800 – stationed in the Electorate of Hanover – he attended the founding of a village, named for him: Adolphsdorf. During the War of the Second Coalition against France, he traveled to Berlin in 1801, in order to prevent the impending Prussian occupation of the Electorate. France demanded it, as it was stipulated in the Peace of Basel, obliging Prussia to ensure the Holy Roman Empire's neutrality in all the latter's territories north of the demarcation line at the river Main, including Hanover.
Regular Hanoverian troops, had been commandeered to join the multilateral so-called "Demarcation Army." His efforts were in vain. In 1803, he was senior army commander, replaced Wallmoden as commander on the Weser on 1 June. With the advance of French forces on one side and 24,000 Prussian soldiers on the other, the situation was hopeless. Cambridge refused to become involved in discussions of capitulation, handed over his command to Hammerstein, withdrew to England. A plan to recruit additional soldiers in Hanover to be commanded by the Prince had failed. In 1803, he was appointed as commander-in-chief of the newly founded King's German Legion, in 1813, he became field marshal. George III appointed Prince Adolphus a Knight of the Garter on 2 June 1776, created him Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary, Baron Culloden on 24 November 1801; the Duke served as colonel-in-chief of the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards from September 1805, as colonel-in-chief of the 60th Regiment of Foot from January 1824.
After the collapse of Napoleon's empire, he was Military Governor of Hanover from 4 November 1813 – 24 October 1816 Governor General of Hanover from 24 October 1816 – 20 June 1837. He was made Field Marshal 26 November 1813. While he was Viceroy, the Duke became patron of the Cambridge-Dragoner Regiment of the Hanoverian army; this regiment was stationed in Celle, their barracks, the Cambridge-Dragoner Kaserne, were used by the Bundeswehr until 1995. The "March of the Hannoversches Cambridge-Dragoner-Regiment" is part of the Bundeswehr's traditional music repertoire. After the death of Princess Charlotte in 1817, the Duke was set the task of finding a bride for his eldest unmarried brother, the Duke of Clarence, in the hope of securing heirs to the throne—Charlotte had been the only legitimate grandchild of George III, despite the fact that the King had twelve surviving children. After several false starts, the Duke of Clarence settled on Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen; the way was cleared for the Duke of Cambridge to find a bride for himself.
The Duke of Cambridge was married first at Kassel, Hesse on 7 May and at Buckingham Palace on 1 June 1818 to his second cousin Augusta, the third daughter of Prince Frederick of Hesse. From 1816 to 1837, the Duke of Cambridge served as viceroy of the Kingdom of Hanover on behalf of his elder brothers, George IV and William IV; when his niece succeeded to the British throne on 20 June 1837 as Queen Victoria, the 122-year union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended, due to Hanover being under Salic Law. The Duke of Cumberland became the Duke of Cambridge returned to Britain; the Duke of Cambridge died on 8 July 1850
Beckenham Crematorium and Cemetery
Beckenham Crematorium and Cemetery is a cemetery in the London Borough of Bromley, opened in 1876. Beckenham Crematorium and Cemetery is located between Birkbeck; the cemetery was opened in 1876 although it is erroneously reported as 1880 and was known as the Crystal Palace District Cemetery. It is referred to today as the Elmers End Cemetery due to its location within Beckenham and proximity to Elmers End station. Beckenham Crematorium opened on the site in 1956, it is served by Birkbeck station, as well as Elmers End station for National Rail and London Tramlink and by Harrington Road tram stop for Tramlink. 130 World War I graves, including a number of casualties from the Royal Naval Depot at Crystal Palace Park and the Army Services Corp Motor Transport Depot at Grove Park. The graves of 30 which could not be individually marked are listed on a Screen War Memorial, while those of 40 who could be satisfactorily maintained were commemorated by 30 headstones placed in the cemetery's Second World War war graves plot.
127 World War II graves, 12 of which are in a purpose made War Grave plot which contains special memorials to 3 personnel of the same war whose graves could not be satisfactorily maintained. There is a memorial to 21 members of the Beckenham Auxiliary Fire Service who were killed in the course of a single night during a German raid on the East End of London in World War II. Many of the firemen were buried in some others in nearby West Wickham. W. G. Grace Frank Bourne Thomas Crapper George Evans Josiah Stamp, 1st Baron Stamp, his wife, son the 2nd Baron. William Walker Frederick Wolseley Robert Pate Beckenham Crematorium and Cemetery on the Bromley website Website of Find a Grave Website of Beckenham Crematorium and Cemetery Beckenham Cemetery on the WW1 cemeteries website
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army