Ingatestone Hall is a Grade I listed 16th-century manor house in Essex, England. It is located outside the village of Ingatestone 5 miles south west of Chelmsford and 25 miles north east of London; the house was built by Sir William Petre, his descendants live in the house to this day. Part of the house is leased out as offices while the current Lord Petre's son and heir apparent lives in a private wing with his family; the hall is open to the public on selected afternoons between September. William Petre bought Ingatestone manor soon after the Dissolution of the Monasteries for some £850 and commissioned the building of the house. In June 1561, Queen Elizabeth I spent several nights at Ingatestone Hall on her royal progress, where she held court; the Petre family decorating the house. The Petre family were recusants, remaining loyal to the Roman Catholic Church after the English Reformation had turned the Kingdom of England into a Protestant country. Statutes were passed prohibiting Catholic worship in England, the Book of Common Prayer was established as the official liturgy of the Church of England, practising Catholics faced severe punishments.
Like many noble Catholic families, the Petres worshipped in secret, holding clandestine Catholic Mass in the private family chapel at Ingatestone Hall. The first Baron Petre, Sir John Petre, befriended the composer William Byrd a Catholic. In 1589–90, Byrd spent Christmas with the family at Ingatestone, in 1593 he took up residence in the neighbouring village of Stondon Massey. Byrd supported the Petre family's covert Catholic worship by composing a comprehensive repertory of choral music to be sung in the private chapels at Ingatestone and nearby Thorndon Hall, the other Petre family property; the compositions included two sets of motets called Gradualia and a set of three Mass settings, such as the Mass for Four Voices, works first heard at Ingatestone that are now considered to be some of the finest examples of Tudor music. The Petre family sheltered a number of Catholic priests at Ingatestone, among them was St. John Payne, executed in 1582; the hall contains two priest holes. In the late 18th century Robert Petre, 9th Baron Petre moved the family seat to Thorndon Hall and rented Ingatestone Hall out to tenants.
In 1876 much of Thorndon Hall was destroyed by fire. During World War I, Lionel Petre, 16th Baron Petre was killed in action in 1915 and his widow, Lady Rasch, decided to move back to Ingatestone. During the Second World War, the house was let to Wanstead High School. In the 1950s, Essex County Council used the north wing to house the Essex Record Office and mounted annual exhibitions there until the late 1970s. In 1952 the hall became grade I listed and the gatehouse grade II* listed, while several of the outhouses became Grade II listed. Ingatestone Hall houses the remaining Petre family picture collection; the building comprises three wings around a central court. It was built by Sir William Petre 1539-1556 around a central courtyard in English bond brick and includes features typical of Tudor, including stepped gables and tall, ornate chimney pots. Within the courtyard, a prominent feature is a tall crenellated turret containing an octagonal staircase. In the late 18th century Robert Petre, 9th Baron Petre moved back to the other family property, Thorndon Hall, being rebuilt in the Palladian style by the architect James Paine.
At around this time, Ingatestone Hall underwent significant alterations and was converted into smaller rented apartments. The west wing, which contained the Great Hall, was demolished, opening the enclosed courtyard out into the U-shaped building, seen today, the north wing was extended and the outer court buildings were rebuilt, including an entrance arch topped with a one-handed clock; this clock turret, engraved with the motto "Sans dieu rien" is thought to have been the work of James Paine. The Long Gallery in the east range of the house was the main area of the house, it adjoins the remains of the former family chapel, pulled down and rebuilt in 1860. The two priest holes within the building, used during the 16th and 17th centuries to conceal Catholic clergy, are located in the east wing in a void under the turret, in the south wing behind a chimney stack in the old study. In the 20th century, when Lady Rasch, widow of the 16th Baron Petre, moved the family back to Ingatestone Hall, she began a major project to restore Ingatestone Hall to its original Tudor appearance.
The works, overseen by the architect, W. T. Wood, included replacing alterations to the building with reproductions of Tudor period features, notably the re-instatement of mullioned windows on the west side of the building on the ground floor; the initial phase of project was completed in 1922. Mary Elizabeth Braddon's 1862 novel Lady Audley's Secret is set at Ingatestone Hall and was inspired by a stay there; the exterior of hall was used as a filming location to represent Bleak House in the 2005 television adaptation of Charles Dickens' novel, appeared in an episode of the TV series Lovejoy. Ingatestone John Patrick Lionel Petre, 18th Baron Petre History of Ingatestone, Essex Wood, Donna. Exploring Britain's Historic Houses. Automobile Association. ISBN 9780749568610. Essex Historic Environment Record Entry for Ingatestone Hall Ingatestone Hall. Ingatestone, Essex: Essex Education Committee County Film Service/East Anglian Film Archive. 1952. Retrieved 13 October 2017
The Rape of the Lock
The Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic narrative poem written by Alexander Pope. One of the most cited examples of high burlesque, it was first published anonymously in Lintot's Miscellaneous Poems and Translations in two cantos. Pope boasted; the final form of the poem appeared in 1717 with the addition of Clarissa's speech on good humour. The poem was much contributed to the growing popularity of mock-heroic in Europe; the poem satirises a small incident by comparing it to the epic world of the gods. It was based on an actual event recounted to the poet by John Caryll. Arabella Fermor and her suitor, Lord Petre, were both from aristocratic recusant Catholic families, at a time in England when, under such laws as the Test Act, all denominations except Anglicanism suffered legal restrictions and penalties. Petre had cut off a lock of Arabella's hair without permission, the consequent argument had created a breach between the two families; the poem's title does not refer to the extreme of sexual rape, but to an earlier alternative definition of the word derived from the Latin rapere, "to snatch, to grab, to carry off" —in this case, the theft and carrying away of a lock of hair.
In terms of the sensibilities of the age, however this non-consensual personal invasion might be interpreted as bringing dishonour. Pope a Catholic, wrote the poem at the request of friends in an attempt to "comically merge the two" worlds, the heroic with the social, he utilised the character Belinda to represent Arabella and introduced an entire system of "sylphs", or guardian spirits of virgins, a parodised version of the gods and goddesses of conventional epic. Pope derived his sylphs from the 17th-century French Rosicrucian novel Comte de Gabalis. Pope, writing pseudonymously as Esdras Barnivelt published A Key to the Lock in 1714 as a humorous warning against taking the poem too seriously. Pope's poem uses the traditional high stature of classical epics to emphasise the triviality of the incident; the abduction of Helen of Troy becomes here the theft of a lock of hair. He uses the epic style of invocations, lamentations and similes, in some cases adds parody to imitation by following the framework of actual speeches in Homer's Iliad.
Although the poem is humorous at times, Pope keeps a sense that beauty is fragile, emphasizes that the loss of a lock of hair touches Belinda deeply. The humour of the poem comes from the storm in a teacup being couched within the elaborate, formal verbal structure of an epic poem, it is a satire on contemporary society. Pope arguably satirises it from within rather than looking down judgmentally on the characters. Belinda's legitimate rage is thus alleviated and tempered by her good humour, as directed by the character Clarissa. Pope added to the second edition the following dedicatory letter to Mrs. Arabella Fermor: Madam, It will be in vain to deny that I have some regard for this piece, since I dedicate it to You, yet you may bear me witness, it was intended only to divert a few young Ladies, who have good sense and good humour enough to laugh not only at their sex's little unguarded follies, but at their own. But as it was communicated with the air of a secret, it soon found its way into the world.
An imperfect copy having been offered to a Bookseller, you had the good nature for my sake to consent to the publication of one more correct: This I was forced to, before I had executed half my design, for the Machinery was wanting to complete it. The Machinery, Madam, is a term invented by the Critics, to signify that part which the Deities, Angels, or Dæmons are made to act in a poem: For the ancient poets are in one respect like many modern ladies: let an action be never so trivial in itself, they always make it appear of the utmost importance; these Machines I determined to raise on a new and odd foundation, the Rosicrucian doctrine of Spirits. I know; the Rosicrucians are the people. The best account I know of them is in a French book called Le Comte de Gabalis, which both in its title and size is so like a novel, that many of the fair sex have read it for one by mistake. According to these gentlemen, the four elements are inhabited by spirits, which they call Sylphs, Gnomes and Salamanders.
The Gnomes or Dæmons of Earth delight in mischief. For they say, any mortals may enjoy the most intimate familiarities with these gentle spirits, upon a condition easy to all true adepts, an inviolate preservation of Chastity; as to the following Cantos, all the passages of them are as fabulous as the Vision at the beginning or the Transformation at the end. The human persons are as fictitious as the airy ones, the character of Belinda, as it is now managed, resembles you in nothing but in Beauty. In the beginning of this mock-epic, Pope declares that a "dire offence" has been committe
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Thorndon Hall is a Georgian Palladian country house within Thorndon Park, Essex, England two miles south of Brentwood and 25 miles from central London. The country seat of the Petre family who now reside at nearby Ingatestone Hall, the house is located within nearly 600 acres of ancient medieval deer park and forest; the garden is designed by Capability Brown. Thorndon Hall is Grade-I listed with English Heritage, the park is Grade II*-listed; the estate of Thorndon Hall, known as the manor of West Horndon, can trace its records back to the 1086 Domesday Survey commissioned by William the Conqueror. However, a building on the site of Old Thorndon Hall was first recorded in 1414 when King Henry V of England gave licence for its new owner, a merchant from South Wales called Lewis John, to "empark 300 acres, to surround his lodge within this park with walls and to crenellate and embattle the lodge"; the current house replaced Old Thorndon Hall, located about a mile to the south in what is now known as "ruin wood" next to Old Hall pond.
The old hall was damaged by fire in the early 18th century and was subsequently pulled down after being used as farm buildings. The present house was designed by the fashionable neoclassical architect James Paine and construction started in 1764; the portico of the present house was commissioned and imported from Italy in 1742 for use on the old hall, remodelled by Giacomo Leoni in the Palladian style. Following the fire at the Old Hall, it was kept, reused in the design of the present house; the estate and newly finished house was visited in 1778 by King George III and Queen Charlotte on their visit to see the troops at nearby Warley Common. Following a fire in 1878, much of the main house and west wing were gutted leaving a shell and destroying or damaging many of the Petre picture collection; the surviving east wing was adapted into partial residential use with plans to renovate the house back to its original grandeur. However Petre family finances were in a poor state after the Great War and in 1920 the house and a portion of the estate was leased to Thorndon Park Golf Club.
The company had planned to develop the estate into a luxury housing development and golf course, much the same as the Wentworth Club and St. George's Hill in Surrey, but with the introduction of London green belt legislation limiting house building on farm and parkland, the plan could not go ahead and the company folded; the park was landscaped between 1766 and 1772 by Lancelot'Capability' Brown at a cost of £5,000, much of which still survives, albeit merged into the landscaping of Thorndon Park Golf Course. The main driveway extended from what is now Shenfield Common for nearly two miles southwards to the northern face of the house, it can still be traced with maps, although it is now made up of public country parks and golf courses. The first recorded camellia – a cousin of the tea plant, camellia sinensis – to grow in Great Britain was at Thorndon Hall in the 1730s. Fifteen years the camellia was thriving around the country, by the 19th century country houses were adding camelia houses just to grow the pink flowers.
The golf club acquired the house and grounds, but chose to move out of the main hall and construct its purpose-built clubhouse within the grounds. In 1976, Thorndon Hall was sold to a developer, Thomas Bates & Son, who converted the mansion sympathetically to luxury apartments and cottages in landscaped surroundings and parkland. Parts of the former park had been sold off during the twentieth century for development on the outskirts of Brentwood. Essex County Council manages extensive areas as the public Thorndon Country Park; the nearby Petre family mortuary chapel is now owned by the Historic Chapels Trust. Brentwood Ingrave East Horndon West Horndon Bulphan Warley Laindon Official website Photos of Thorndon Hall and surrounding area on geograph Thorndon Park Golf Club website
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
Ufton Court is an Elizabethan manor house at Ufton Nervet in the English county of Berkshire. Today it is an active home to the Ufton Court Educational Trust; as well as historical and environmental education, the site hosts creative projects including theatre and music courses. It is a wedding and corporate events venue. Parts of the house date from 1474, including the basis of the great hall and the screens passage complete with the original'pantry and buttery' doors, although, at Ufton, there was a proper kitchen beyond. From 1568, the place was modified and extended by Elizabeth, Lady Marvyn, a prominent Roman Catholic, including the installation of a magnificent pendant ceiling in the great hall. Two carved beams which she had installed in the Green Room are thought to be older and may have been brought from her former residence nearby; the house is notable for its priest holes where Recusant Catholics could hide priests, their vestments and plate used in the mass. An east wing and Catholic devotional panelling were added in 1616.
Further embellishments, including updated panelling, were added in the early 18th century. The house was a small medieval manor called Ufton Pole and was one of the minor manors belonging to Lord Lovell, he was made a Viscount by Edward IV and became part of Richard III's inner circle. With the death of King Richard in 1485, Lovell rebelled against the new king, Henry VII and had all his lands, including Ufton Pole, confiscated by the Crown. In 1510, Henry VIII granted Pole Manor to Sir Richard Weston, a Groom of the Chamber. In 1568, the house was bought by Lady Marvyn, the widow of Richard Perkins of Ufton Robert Manor at Ufton Green, she altered and enlarged the house over the next eight years and renamed it'Ufton Court'. She left the house to her first husband's nephew, Francis Perkins, it remained in this family until 1769. The Perkins were persecuted for their Catholic beliefs, they had to pay fines for not attending Church of England services at the parish church and could be subjected to raids at any time by local magistrates looking for priests, hidden in tiny secret rooms.
In 1599, during the second raid on Ufton, Sir Francis Knollys discovered at least one priest hole containing much gold plate, but the priests were not in residence. In 1715, Francis Perkins of Ufton Court married Arabella, the daughter of Henry Fermor of Tusmore in Oxfordshire. Before the marriage and poets celebrated her charms and her beauty, for she was the belle of London society, she is remembered today as the inspiration for Alexander Pope's'The Rape of the Lock,' a poem telling how Lord Petre stole a lock of her hair and caused a great scandal. Arabella was humiliated and accepted Perkins' offer of marriage in order to live in the country instead. Tradition asserts that the great hall and western half of Ufton Court were refashioned for the lady's arrival, this seems to fit with the date of the architecture and interior décor there. Bonnie Prince Charlie is supposed to have secretly visited the couple during the Jacobite rising of 1745, they had six children together, but they all died childless and the house fell into a state of disrepair.
During its sale in 1837, Ufton Court was described as'unfit for a gentleman's residence.' It was bought by Richard Benyon De Beauvoir of the adjoining estate at Englefield. He converted it into tenements for his estate workers. Over the next hundred years, various tenants lived in the house: notably Mary Sharp, a local historian who wrote a detailed history of the place. Mr Henry Benyon lived there himself before inheriting Englefield House, restoring the house as a gentleman's residence once more and replanting the garden. Although still owned by the Benyons, Ufton Court is now the home of the Ufton Court Educational Trust; this charity provides opportunities for children and young people to explore the historical and environmental world through hands-on experiences. They host residential courses. Many of the rooms are now children are encouraged to treat the house as their own. Historical courses range from studies of the Iron Age to the Victorian era; the site includes a Tudor garden and small Saxon/Medieval/Tudor farm with pigs and chickens to look after.
In the grounds are a'Celtic Village,' featuring a reconstructed Iron Age roundhouse, a'Wheel of the Year' fire circle, a Roman/Saxon palisade and Saxon/Viking ship. The Ufton Dole is a distribution of bread and sheets, from a window in the Great Hall of Ufton Court, every Maundy Thursday to the villagers of Ufton Nervet and Padworth. Lady Marvyn left money in her will of 1581 for this annual dole. Tradition has it that this was to thank the villagers for having helped her return home after becoming lost in the local woods. Additionally, a curse is said to have been placed on any lord of the manor; the distribution is undertaken by Richard Benyon MP. Royal Berkshire History: Ufton Court Official website