Margaret Fell or Margaret Fox was a founder of the Religious Society of Friends. Known popularly as the "mother of Quakerism", she is considered one of the Valiant Sixty early Quaker preachers and missionaries, her daughter Sarah Fell was a leading Quaker. She was born Margaret Askew at the family seat of Marsh Grange in the parish of Kirkby Ireleth, Lancashire, she married Thomas Fell, a barrister, in 1632, became the lady of Swarthmoor Hall. In 1641, Thomas became a Justice of the Peace for Lancashire, in 1645 a member of the Long Parliament, he ceased to be a member from 1647 to 1649, disapproving of Oliver Cromwell's assumption of authority. In late June 1652, George Fox visited Swarthmoor Hall. Margaret Fell met him, wrote that he "opened us a book that we had never read in, nor indeed had never heard that it was our duty to read in it the Light of Christ in our consciences, our minds never being turned towards it before." A day or two it was lecture day at the parish church, she invited Fox to attend with them.
Over the next weeks she and many of her household became convinced. Over the next six years, Swarthmoor Hall became a centre of Quaker activity, she collected and disbursed funds for those on missions. After her husband's death in 1658, she retained control of Swarthmoor Hall, which remained a meeting place and haven from persecution, though sometimes, in the 1660s, raided by government forces; because she was one of the few founding members of the Religious Society of Friends, an established member of the gentry, Margaret Fell was called upon to intercede in cases of persecution or arrest of leaders such as Fox. After the Stuart Restoration, she travelled from Lancashire to London to petition King Charles II and his parliament in 1660 and 1662 for freedom of conscience in religious matters. A submission signed by George Fox and other prominent Quakers was only made subsequently in November 1660. While the structure and phraseology of these submissions were quite different, the import was similar, arguing that, although Friends wished to see the world changed, they would use persuasion rather than violence towards what they regarded as a "heavenly" end.
In 1664 Margaret Fell was arrested for failing to take an oath and for allowing Quaker Meetings to be held in her home. She defended herself by saying that "as long as the Lord blessed her with a home, she would worship him in it", she spent six months in Lancaster Gaol, whereafter she was sentenced to life imprisonment and forfeiture of her property. She remained in prison until 1668, during which time she wrote religious epistles, her most famous work is "Women's Speaking Justified", a scripture-based argument for women's ministry, one of the major texts on women's religious leadership in the 17th century. In this short pamphlet, Fell bases her argument for equality of the sexes on one of the basic premises of Quakerism, namely spiritual equality, her belief was that God created all human beings, therefore both men and women were capable of not only possessing the Inner Light but the ability to be a prophet. Having been released by order of the King and council, she married George Fox in 1669.
On returning to Lancashire after her marriage, she was again imprisoned for about a year in Lancaster for breaking the Conventicle Act. Shortly after her release, George Fox departed on a religious mission to America, he too was imprisoned again on his return in 1673. Margaret again travelled to London to intercede on his behalf, he was freed in 1675. After this, they spent about a year together at Swarthmoor, collaborating on defending the created organisational structure of separate women's meetings for discipline against their anti-Fox opponents. George Fox spent most of the rest of his life thereafter abroad or in London until his death in 1691, while Margaret Fell spent most of the rest of her life at Swarthmoor. Surviving both husbands by a number of years, she continued to take an active part in the affairs of the Society including the changes in the 1690s following partial legal tolerance of Quakers, when she was well into her eighties. In the last decade of her life, she opposed the effort of her fellow believers in Lancashire to maintain certain traditional Quaker standards of conduct.
She died aged 87. Margaret Fell's meeting with George Fox and her subsequent conversion are the subject of the first part of the novel The Peaceable Kingdom by Jan de Hartog. Claus Bernet. "Margaret Fell". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 20. Nordhausen: Bautz. Cols. 481–494. ISBN 3-88309-091-3. Gill, Women in the Seventeenth-Century Quaker Community: A Literary Study of Political Identities, 1650–1700, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005. Ross, Isabel. Margaret Fell Mother of Quakerism. Swarthmoor Hall Website An abstract of the life of Margaret Fell
Alice Stokes Paul was an American suffragist and women's rights activist, one of the main leaders and strategists of the campaign for the Nineteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, which prohibits sex discrimination in the right to vote. Paul initiated, along with Lucy Burns and others, strategized events such as the Woman Suffrage Procession and the Silent Sentinels, which were part of the successful campaign that resulted in the amendment's passage in 1920. After 1920, Paul spent a half century as leader of the National Woman's Party, which fought for the Equal Rights Amendment, written by Paul and Crystal Eastman, to secure constitutional equality for women, she won a large degree of success with the inclusion of women as a group protected against discrimination by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Alice Paul was born on January 1885, at Paulsdale in Mount Laurel Township, New Jersey, she was the eldest of four children of William Mickle Paul I and Tacie Paul, a descendant of William Penn, the Quaker founder of Pennsylvania.
Her siblings were Willam and Parry. She grew up in the Quaker tradition of public service. Alice first learned about women's suffrage from her mother, a member of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Paul attended Moorestown Friends School. In 1901, Paul went to Swarthmore College, an institution co-founded by her grandfather. While attending Swarthmore, Paul served as a member on the Executive Board of Student Government, one experience which may have sparked her eventual excitement for political activism. Alice graduated from Swarthmore College with a bachelor's degree in biology in 1905. In order to avoid going into teaching work, Paul completed a fellowship year at a settlement house in New York City after her graduation, living on the Lower East Side at the College Settlement House. While working on settlement activities taught her about the need to right injustice in America, Alice soon decided that social work was not the way she was to achieve this goal: "I knew in a short time I was never going to be a social worker, because I could see that social workers were not doing much good in the world... you couldn't change the situation by social work."Paul earned a master of arts from the University of Pennsylvania in 1907, after completing coursework in political science and economics.
She continued her studies at the Woodbrooke Quaker Study Centre in Birmingham and took economics classes from the University of Birmingham, while continuing to earn money doing social work. She first heard; when she moved to London to study sociology and economics at the London School of Economics, she joined the militant suffrage group the Women's Social and Political Union led by Christabel and her mother, Emmeline Pankhurst. She was arrested during suffrage demonstrations and served three jail terms. After returning from England in 1910, Paul continued her studies at the University of Pennsylvania, earning a Ph. D. in sociology. Her dissertation was entitled "The Legal Position of Women in Pennsylvania". S. and urged woman suffrage as the key issue of the day. Paul received her law degree from the Washington College of Law at American University in 1922, after the suffrage fight was over. In 1927, she earned a master of laws degree, in 1928, a doctorate in civil law from American University.
In 1907, after completing her master's degree at the University of Pennsylvania, Paul moved to England, where she became involved with the British women's suffrage movement participating in demonstrations and marches of the Women's Social and Political Union. After a "conversion experience" seeing Christabel Pankhurst speak at the University of Birmingham, Paul became enamored with the movement, she first became involved by selling a Suffragist magazine on street corners. This was a difficult task considering the animosity towards the Suffragists and opened her eyes to the abuse that women involved in the movement faced; these experiences, combined with the teachings of Professor Beatrice Webb, convinced Paul that social work and charity could not bring about the needed social changes in society: this could only be accomplished through equal legal status for women. While in London, Paul met Lucy Burns, a fellow American activist who would become an important ally for the duration of the suffrage fight, first in England in the United States.
The two women gained the trust of prominent WSPU members and began organizing events and campaign offices. When Emmeline Pankhurst attempted to spread the movement to Scotland and Burns accompanied her as assistants. Paul gained the trust of fellow WSPU members through both her talent with visual rhetoric and her willingness to put herself in physical danger in order to increase the visibility of the suffrage movement. While at the WSPU's headquarters in Edinburgh and local suffragists made plans to protest a speech by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Sir Edward Grey. For a week prior, they spoke with people on the streets to promote knowledge about why they were protesting against the Cabinet member. At the meeting, after Grey discussed proposed legislation he claimed would lead to prosperity, Paul stood up and exclaimed: “Well, these are wonderful ideals, but couldn’t you exte
Edmund Pendleton was a Virginia planter, politician and judge. He served in the Virginia legislature before and during the American Revolutionary War, rising to the position of Speaker. Pendleton attended the First Continental Congress as one of Virginia's delegates alongside George Washington and Patrick Henry, led the conventions both wherein Virginia declared independence and adopted the U. S. Constitution. Unlike his sometime political rival Henry, Pendleton was a moderate who hoped for reconciliation, rather than revolt. With Thomas Jefferson and George Wythe, Pendleton revised Virginia's legal code after the break with Britain. To contemporaries, Pendleton may have distinguished himself most as a judge in the appellate roles in which he spent his final 25 years, including leadership of what is now known as the Supreme Court of Virginia. On hearing of his death, Congress agreed to wear badges of mourning for 30 days and expressed "their regret that another star is fallen from the splendid constellation of virtue and talents which guided the people of the United States, in their struggle for independence".
Pendleton was born in Caroline County to Mary Bishop Taylor, whose young husband, Henry Pendleton, had died four months earlier. Pendleton's maternal grandfather, James Taylor, was a large landowner in nearby Rappahannock County, may have helped raise the children until the widow remarried Edward Watkins two years later; when Edmund was 14 years old, he became apprenticed to Benjamin Robinson, clerk of the Caroline County Court, where he learned about political issues and soon began reading law books and learning legal procedures. In 1737, Pendleton was made clerk of the vestry of St. Mary’s Parish in Caroline, which not only secured him a steady income, but began his involvement with practical church-related matters which would continue throughout his life. Edmund Pendleton received a license to practice law in April 1741, his success before nearby county courts, including as the prosecuting attorney for Essex County allowed Pendleton to become a member of the General Court bar in October 1745.
When attorneys were forbidden to practice before both courts, Pendleton chose the General Court, wrapped up his lower court practice—which allowed him to accept appointment as a justice of the peace for Caroline County in 1751. Pendleton trained many young lawyers, including his nephews John Penn and John Taylor of Caroline. From 1752–1776 Pendleton represented Caroline County in the House of Burgesses. In May 1766, his mentor, the powerful speaker John Robinson died, Pendleton was appointed one of the executors, thus becoming involved in the John Robinson Estate Scandal throughout the rest of his legal career. Pendleton was on the Virginia Committee of Correspondence in 1773 and was a delegate to Continental Congress from Virginia in 1774. A moderate among the revolutionaries, in a resolution at the Second Congress, he said: "The ground and foundation of the present unhappy dispute between the British Ministry and Parliament and America, is a Right claimed by the former to tax the Subjects of the latter without their consent, not an inclination on our part to set up for independency, which we utterly disavow and wish to restore to a Constitutional Connection upon the most solid and reasonable basis."Pendleton served as President of the Virginia Committee of Safety from August 16, 1775 to July 5, 1776 and as President of the Virginia Convention which authorized Virginia's delegates to propose a resolution to move for the break from Britain and creation of the Declaration of Independence.
The Convention debated the Virginia Declaration of Rights, drafted by George Mason and which served as a model for the Declaration of Independence. Pendleton proposed the modification in the statement of universal rights in Virginia's declaration to exclude slaves, thus winning support of slave owners. Fellow delegates elected Pendleton the first Speaker of Virginia's new House of Delegates although a fall from a horse in March 1777 dislocated his hip and caused him to miss the first session, he used. Pendleton, along with George Wythe, revised Virginia's law code, he became Judge of the High Court of Chancery in 1777. When Virginia created a Supreme Court of Appeals in 1778, Pendleton was appointed its first president, served until his death. In 1788 delegates unanimously selected Pendleton president of the Virginia Ratifying Convention; when George Wythe took the chair, Pendleton addressing colleagues thus: "...the people by us are peaceably assembled, to contemplate in the calm lights of mild philosophy, what Government is best calculated to promote their happiness, secure their liberty.
This I am sure we shall effect, if we do not lose sight of them by too much attachment to pictures of beauty, or horror, in our researches into antiquity, our travels for examples into remote regions". Edmund Pendleton married twice, he married Betty Roy on January 21, 1741, but she died in childbirth on November 17, 1742, their infant son died shortly thereafter. On January 20, 1745, Pendleton married Sarah Pollard, daughter of Joseph Pollard and Priscilla Hoomes. Edmund and Sarah had no children, but in his extensive correspondence with contemporaries, he referred to their marriage as happy. Since Pendleton had no direct descendants, his nieces, nephews and grandnephews became his heirs. Pendleton did not grant freedom to any slaves in his will, unlike George Washington who died without direct descendants, George W
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
Patrick Henry was an American attorney and orator best known for his declaration to the Second Virginia Convention: "Give me liberty, or give me death!" A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786. Henry was born in Hanover County and was for the most part educated at home. After an unsuccessful venture running a store, assisting his father-in-law at Hanover Tavern, Henry became a lawyer through self-study. Beginning his practice in 1760, he soon became prominent through his victory in the Parson's Cause against the Anglican clergy. Henry was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses, where he became notable for his inflammatory rhetoric against the Stamp Act of 1765. In 1774 and 1775, Henry served as a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses, but did not prove influential, he gained further popularity among the people of Virginia, both through his oratory at the convention and by marching troops towards the colonial capital of Williamsburg after the Gunpowder Incident until the munitions seized by the royal government were paid for.
Henry urged independence, when the Fifth Virginia Convention endorsed this in 1776, served on the committee charged with drafting the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the original Virginia Constitution. Henry was promptly elected governor under the new charter, served a total of five one-year terms. After leaving the governorship in 1779, Henry served in the Virginia House of Delegates until he began his last two terms as governor in 1784; the actions of the national government under the Articles of Confederation made Henry fear a strong federal government and he declined appointment as a delegate to the 1787 Constitutional Convention. He opposed the ratification of the Constitution, a fight which has marred his historical image, he returned to the practice of law in his final years, declining several offices under the federal government. A slaveholder throughout his adult life, he hoped to see the institution end, but had no plan for that beyond ending the importation of slaves. Henry is remembered for his oratory, as an enthusiastic promoter of the fight for independence.
Henry was born on the family farm, Studley, in Hanover County in the Colony of Virginia, on May 29, 1736. His father was John Henry, an immigrant from Aberdeenshire, who had attended King's College, University of Aberdeen, there before emigrating to Virginia in the 1720s. Settling in Hanover County in about 1732, John Henry married Sarah Winston Syme, a wealthy widow from a prominent local family of English ancestry. Patrick Henry shared his name with his uncle, an Anglican minister, until the elder Patrick's death in 1777 went as Patrick Henry Jr. Henry attended a local school until about the age of 10. There was no academy in Hanover County, he was tutored at home by his father; the young Henry engaged in the typical recreations of the times, such as music and dancing, was fond of hunting. Since the family's lands and slaves would for the most part pass to his older half-brother John Syme Jr. Henry needed to make his own way in the world. At the age of 15, he became a clerk for a local merchant, a year opened a store with his older brother William.
The store was not successful. The religious revival known as the Great Awakening reached Virginia, his father was staunchly Anglican, but his mother took him to hear Presbyterian preachers. Although Henry remained a lifelong Anglican communicant, ministers such as Samuel Davies taught him that it is not enough to save one's own soul, but one should help to save society, he learned that oratory should reach the heart, not just persuade based on reason. His oratorical technique would follow that of these preachers, seeking to reach the people by speaking to them in their own language. Religion would play a key part in Henry's life, he was uncomfortable with the role of the Anglican Church as the established religion in Virginia, fought for religious liberty throughout his career. Henry wrote to a group of Baptists who had sent a letter of congratulations following Henry's 1776 election as governor, "My earnest wish is, that Christian charity and love may unite all different persuasions as brethren."
He criticized his state of Virginia, feeling that slavery and lack of religious toleration had retarded its development. He told the Virginia Ratifying Convention in 1788, "That religion or the duty which we owe to our Creator, the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence, therefore all men have an equal and unalienable right to the free exercise of religion according to the dictates of conscience, that no particular religious sect or society ought to be favored or established by law in preference to others." In 1754, Henry married Sarah Shelton in the parlor of her family house, Rural Plains. As a wedding gift, her father gave the couple six slaves and the 300-acre Pine Slash Farm near Mechanicsville. Pine Slash was exhausted from earlier cultivations, Henry worked with the slaves to clear fresh fields; the latter half of the 1750s were years of drought in Virginia, after the main house burned down, Henry gave up and moved to the Hanover Tavern, owned by Sarah's father.
Henry served as host at Hanover Tavern as part of his duties, entertained the guests by playing the fiddle. Among those who stayed there during this time was the young Thomas Jefferson, aged 17, en route to his studie
John Woolman was a North American merchant, tailor and itinerant Quaker preacher, an early abolitionist in the colonial era. Based in Mount Holly, New Jersey, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he traveled through frontier areas of British North America to preach Quaker beliefs, advocate against slavery and the slave trade, cruelty to animals, economic injustices and oppression, conscription. Beginning in 1755 with the outbreak of the French and Indian War, he urged tax resistance to deny support to the military. In 1772, Woolman traveled to England. Woolman published numerous essays against slavery, he kept a journal throughout his life. Included in Volume I of the Harvard Classics since 1909, it is considered a prominent American spiritual work, it has been admired for the power and clarity of its prose by non-Quakers such as the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the poet William Ellery Channing, the essayist Charles Lamb, who urged a friend to "get the writings of John Woolman by heart." The Journal has been continuously in print since 1774, published in numerous editions.
John Woolman was born in 1720 into a family. His father Samuel Woolman was a farmer, their estate lay between Burlington and Mount Holly Township in the New Jersey colony, near the Delaware River. Woolman's maternal and paternal grandparents were early Quaker settlers in Burlington County, New Jersey. During his youth, he happened upon a robin's nest. Woolman began throwing rocks at the mother robin to see. After killing the mother bird, he was filled with remorse, thinking of the baby birds who had no chance of survival without her, he got the nest down from the tree and killed the hatchlings, believing it to be the most merciful thing to do. This experience weighed on his heart, he was inspired to love and protect all living things from on. Woolman married a fellow Quaker, in a ceremony at the Chesterfield Friends Meeting. Sarah bore him a daughter, his choice to lead a "life of simplicity" meant sacrifices for his family, as did his frequent travels as an itinerant minister. As a young man, Woolman began work as a clerk for a merchant.
When he was 23, his employer asked him to write a bill of sale for a slave. Though he told his employer that he thought that slaveholding was inconsistent with Christianity, he wrote the bill of sale. By the age of 26, he had become an successful tradesman, he refused to write the part of another customer's will which would have bequeathed or transferred the ownership of a slave, instead convinced the owner to set the slave free by manumission. Many Friends believed that slavery was bad—even a sin. Other Friends considered trading in slaves to be sinful. Woolman retired from business because he viewed profit-making as distracting from his religion, he wrote that he took up the trade of tailor in order to have more free time to travel and witness to fellow Quakers about his concerns. Woolman was committed to the Friends' Testimony of Simplicity. While in his 20s, he decided, he believed he had a calling to preach "light" among Friends and others. In his Journal, he said that he quit the shop as it was "attended with much outward care and cumber," that his "mind was weaned from the desire of outward greatness," and that "where the heart is set on greatness, success in business did not satisfy the craving."
Woolman supported himself as a tailor. He addressed issues of economic injustice and oppression in his Journal and other writings, knew international trade had local effects. Despite supporting himself as a tailor, Woolman refused to use or wear dyed fabrics, because he had learned that many workers in the dye industry were poisoned by some of the noxious substances used. Concerned about treatment of animals, in life, Woolman avoided riding in stagecoaches, for he believed operators were too cruel and injurious to the teams of horses. Woolman decided to minister to others in remote areas on the frontier. In 1746, he went on his first ministry trip with Isaac Andrews, they traveled about 1,500 miles round-trip in three months. He preached including slavery, during this and other such trips. In 1754 Woolman published Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes, he continued to refuse to draw up wills. Over time, working on a personal level, he individually convinced many Quaker slaveholders to free their slaves.
As Woolman traveled, when he accepted hospitality from a slaveholder, he insisted on paying the slaves for their work in attending him. He refused to be served with silver cups and utensils, as he believed that slaves in other regions were forced to dig such precious minerals and gems for the rich, he observed that some owners used the labor of their slaves to enjoy lives of ease, which he found to be the worst situation not only for the slaves, but for the moral and spiritual condition of the owners. He could condone those owners who treated their slaves or worked alongside them. Woolman worked within the Friends' tradition of seeking the guidance of the Spirit of Christ and patiently waiting to achieve unity in the Spirit; as he went from one Friends' meeting to an
Edward Hicks was an American folk painter and distinguished religious minister of the Society of Friends. He became a Quaker icon because of his paintings. Edward Hicks was born in his grandfather's mansion in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, his parents were Anglican. Isaac Hicks, his father, was a Loyalist, left without any money after the British defeat in the Revolutionary War. After young Edward's mother died when he was eighteen months old, Matron Elizabeth Twining – a close friend of his mother's – raised him as one of her own at their farm, known as the Twining Farm, he also resided at the David Leedom Farm. She taught him the Quaker beliefs, which had a great effect on the rest of his life. At the age of thirteen Hicks began an apprenticeship to coach makers Henry Tomlinson, he stayed with them for seven years. In 1800 he left the Tomlinson firm to earn his living independently as a house and coach painter, in 1801 he moved to Milford to work for Joshua C. Canby, a coach maker. At this stage of his life Hicks was, as he wrote in his memoirs, "in my own estimation a weak, wayward young man... exceedingly fond of singing, vain amusements, the company of young people, too profanely swearing".
Dissatisfied with his life, he started to attend Quaker meetings and in 1803 he was accepted for membership in the Society of Friends. That same year he married a Quaker woman named Sarah Worstall. In 1812 his congregation recorded him as a minister, by 1813 he began traveling throughout Philadelphia as a Quaker preacher. To meet the expenses of traveling, for the support of his growing family, Hicks decided to expand his trade to painting household objects and farm equipment as well as tavern signs, his painting trade was lucrative, but it upset some in the Quaker community, because it contradicted the plain customs they respected. In 1815 Hicks gave up ornamental painting and attempted to support his family by farming, while continuing with the plain, utilitarian type of painting that his Quaker neighbors thought acceptable, his financial difficulties only increased, as utilitarian painting was less remunerative, Hicks did not have the experience he needed to cultivate the land, or run a farm on his own.
By 1816, his wife was expecting a fifth child. After a relative of Hicks, at the urging of Hicks' close friend John Comly, talked to him about painting again, Hicks resumed decorative painting; this friendly suggestion saved Hicks from financial disaster, preserved his livelihood not as a Quaker Minister but as a Quaker artist. Around 1820, Hicks made the first of his many paintings of The Peaceable Kingdom. Hicks' easel paintings were made for family and friends, not for sale, decorative painting remained his main source of income. In 1827 a schism formed within the Religious Society of Friends, between Hicksites and Orthodox Friends; as new settlers swelled Pennsylvania's Quaker community, many branched off into sects whose differences sometimes conflicted with one another, which discouraged Edward Hicks from continuing to preach. Nonetheless, in his lifetime Hicks was better known as a minister than as a painter, he is buried at Newtown Friends Meetinghouse Cemetery in Newtown Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania.
Quaker beliefs having excessive quantities of objects or materials. Unable to maintain his work as a preacher and painter at the same time, Hicks transitioned into a life of painting, he used his canvases to convey his beliefs, he was unconfined by rules of his congregation, able to express what religion could not: the human conception of faith. Although it is not considered a religious image, Hicks' Peaceable Kingdom exemplifies Quaker ideals. Hicks painted 62 versions of this composition; the animals and children are taken from Isaiah 11:6–8, including the lion eating straw with the ox. Hicks used his paintings as a way to define his central interest, the quest for a redeemed soul; this theme was from one of his theological beliefs. Hicks' work was influenced by a specific Quaker belief referred to as the Inner Light. George Fox and other founding Quakers had preached the Inner Light doctrine. Fox explained that along with scriptural knowledge, many individuals achieve salvation by yielding one's self-will to the divine power of Christ and the "Christ within".
This "Christ in You" concept was derived from the Bible's Colossians 1:27. Hicks depicted humans and animals to represent the Inner Light's idea of breaking physical barriers to working and living together in peace. Many of his paintings further exemplify this concept with depictions of Native Americans meeting the settlers of Pennsylvania, with William Penn prominent among them. Hicks admired Penn as an opponent of British power in America, he hoped that Penn could help ensure reform. Like Penn, Hicks opposed Britain's hierarchy. Hicks most esteemed Penn for establishing the treaty of Pennsylvania with the Native Americans, because it was a state that fostered the Quaker community. Edward Hicks' first major exhibition took place in 1860 at Virginia, it got mixed reviews due to Hicks' habit of repeating various arrangements over again. Hicks' earliest presentation of work was in 1826. Kingdoms of the Branch was at that time in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Hicks used the Native Americans to paraphrase Isaiah's prophecy, in full.
His work focused on religious subject matter while using current