John Locke was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is important to social contract theory, his work affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries, his contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence. Locke's theory of mind is cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of philosophers such as David Hume and Immanuel Kant. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness, he postulated that, at birth, the mind was a blank tabula rasa. Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.
This is now known as empiricism. An example of Locke's belief in empiricism can be seen in his quote, "whatever I write, as soon as I discover it not to be true, my hand shall be the forwardest to throw it into the fire." This shows the ideology of science in his observations in that something must be capable of being tested and that nothing is exempt from being disproven. Challenging the work of others, Locke is said to have established the method of introspection, or observing the emotions and behaviours of one's self. Locke's father called John, was an attorney who served as clerk to the Justices of the Peace in Chew Magna, his mother was Agnes Keene. Both parents were Puritans. Locke was born on 29 August 1632, in a small thatched cottage by the church in Wrington, about 12 miles from Bristol, he was baptised the same day. Soon after Locke's birth, the family moved to the market town of Pensford, about seven miles south of Bristol, where Locke grew up in a rural Tudor house in Belluton. In 1647, Locke was sent to the prestigious Westminster School in London under the sponsorship of Alexander Popham, a member of Parliament and his father's former commander.
After completing studies there, he was admitted to Christ Church, Oxford, in the autumn of 1652 at the age of twenty. The dean of the college at the time was vice-chancellor of the university. Although a capable student, Locke was irritated by the undergraduate curriculum of the time, he found the works of modern philosophers, such as René Descartes, more interesting than the classical material taught at the university. Through his friend Richard Lower, whom he knew from the Westminster School, Locke was introduced to medicine and the experimental philosophy being pursued at other universities and in the Royal Society, of which he became a member. Locke was awarded a bachelor's degree in February 1656 and a master's degree in June 1658, he obtained a bachelor of medicine in February 1675, having studied medicine extensively during his time at Oxford and worked with such noted scientists and thinkers as Robert Boyle, Thomas Willis, Robert Hooke and Richard Lower. In 1666, he met Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, who had come to Oxford seeking treatment for a liver infection.
Cooper was persuaded him to become part of his retinue. Locke had been looking for a career and in 1667 moved into Shaftesbury's home at Exeter House in London, to serve as Lord Ashley's personal physician. In London, Locke resumed his medical studies under the tutelage of Thomas Sydenham. Sydenham had a major effect on Locke's natural philosophical thinking – an effect that would become evident in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Locke's medical knowledge was put to the test when Shaftesbury's liver infection became life-threatening. Locke coordinated the advice of several physicians and was instrumental in persuading Shaftesbury to undergo surgery to remove the cyst. Shaftesbury prospered, crediting Locke with saving his life. During this time, Locke served as Secretary of the Board of Trade and Plantations and Secretary to the Lords Proprietor of Carolina, which helped to shape his ideas on international trade and economics. Shaftesbury, as a founder of the Whig movement, exerted great influence on Locke's political ideas.
Locke became involved in politics when Shaftesbury became Lord Chancellor in 1672. Following Shaftesbury's fall from favour in 1675, Locke spent some time travelling across France as tutor and medical attendant to Caleb Banks, he returned to England in 1679. Around this time, most at Shaftesbury's prompting, Locke composed the bulk of the Two Treatises of Government. While it was once thought that Locke wrote the Treatises to defend the Glorious Revolution of 1688, recent scholarship has shown that the work was composed well before this date; the work is now viewed as a more general argument against absolute monarchy and for individual consent as the basis of political legitimacy. Although Locke was associated with the influential Whigs, his ideas about natural rights and government are today considered quite revolutionary for that period in English history. Locke fled to the Netherlands in 1683, under strong suspicion of involvement in the Rye House Plot, although there is little eviden
Bethany College (West Virginia)
Bethany College is a private, liberal arts college in Bethany, West Virginia, United States. Founded in 1840 by Alexander Campbell of the Restoration Movement, who gained support by the Virginia legislature, Bethany College was the first institution of higher education in what is now West Virginia. Bethany's 1,300-acre campus is in the northern panhandle of West Virginia, on the hilly Allegheny Plateau. Wheeling, West Virginia. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is a 50-minute drive from campus. A liberal arts college, Bethany was chartered on March 2, 1840, by the Virginia legislature and given "all degree-granting powers" of the University of Virginia. West Virginia's secession from Virginia on recognized existing Virginia charters, it was founded by Alexander Campbell, a minister in the Restoration Movement who provided the land and funds for the first building and served as the first president. Bethany has been a four-year private liberal arts college affiliated with the Christian Church, since its inception.
This religious body, of which Campbell was one of the principal founders, continues to support and encourage the college but exercises no sectarian control. An early center of coeducation, Bethany has admitted women since the 1880s; the college's roots stem from the Buffalo Seminary, founded by Campbell. The new Buffalo Seminary, " a continuing education arm of the College" is less than a mile away from the College; the college is the birthplace of Delta Tau Delta, an international social fraternity founded in 1858. During World War II, Bethany was one of 131 colleges nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission. A number of campus buildings are contributing resources to the Bethany Historic District; the Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Pendleton Heights was listed in 1975 and the Delta Tau Delta Founders House in 1979. Bethany College offers a wide selection of studies, awarding Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts degrees in more than 25 fields.
If a major does not appeal to a student, Bethany offers students the opportunity to design their own major through the Interdisciplinary program. Bethany offers Dual Majors, a combination of two majors. According to recent research, 95% of Bethany College graduates carry student loan debt, averaging $25,704; the endowment fund in 2016 was worth $46.7 million. According to U. S. News tuition and fees are $28,444 and room and board costs $10,270. About 29% of Bethany students graduate in four years. Bethany completes in intercollegiate athletics at the NCAA Division III level and is a member of the Presidents' Athletic Conference and the Eastern College Athletic Conference; the school's mascot is the Bison and its colors are green and white. Bethany offers both women and men these sports: basketball, cross country, soccer and diving, tennis and track and field. Additionally,men can play baseball,football, lacrosse and women can play softball and volleyball; the men's soccer team won the NCAA Division III Men's Soccer Championship in 1994.
The Bison defeated 1 -- 0, in double overtime for their first and only NCAA title. In doing so, Bethany became the smallest college in the United States to win an NCAA championship; the winning goal was assisted by Steve Lindquist. Malleh Sallah was named the NCAA Goalkeeper of a First Team All-American; the team was coached by John Cunningham, who led the team from 1968 to 2001 and never had a losing record. Fraternities and sororities constitute important social groups for upperclass-men and -women on campus. Members of the five social fraternities and three sororities constitute forty percent of the student body. Representatives from each serve on agencies which coordinate fraternal activities. Social fraternities represented are Delta Tau Delta, Alpha Sigma Phi, Beta Theta Pi, Phi Kappa Tau and Sigma Nu. Sororities are Alpha Xi Delta, Phi Mu, Zeta Tau Alpha; the co-ed national service fraternity Alpha Phi Omega was granted a charter at Bethany in 2004. Members of Alpha Phi Omega are permitted to join social sororities.
Joseph Baldwin and founder of Truman State University Thomas Buergenthal, retired U. S. judge on the International Court of Justice James Beauchamp "Champ" Clark, Democratic representative from Missouri and Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. Faith Daniels, CBS and NBC news anchor Wilma Z. Davis, codebreaker during World War II and the Vietnam War Daniel Coleman DeJarnette Sr. Democratic representative from Virginia, served in the United States House of Representatives and in the Confederate Congress during the American Civil War. Shane Douglas, professional wrestler William Ferrel, meteorologist Bob Goin, athletic director in Florida State University and University of Cincinnati John William McGarvey, religious educator Sukhi Turner, mayor of Dunedin, New Zealand, during 1995–2004 Caroline Gordon and critic, author of Penhally Edgar Odell Lovett, first president of Rice University. William H. Macy, Emmy Award-winning actor Robert J. "Bob" McCann, Chairman, UBS Americas. Frances McDormand, film–television–stage actress and winner of two Academy Awards for Bes
International Churches of Christ
The International Churches of Christ is a body of co-operating religiously conservative, racially integrated Christian congregations. Beginning with 30 members they grew to 37,000 members within the first 12 years, they are numbered at over 110,000. A formal break was made from the mainline Churches of Christ in 1993 with the organization of the International Churches of Christ; the ICOC believes that the whole Bible is the inspired Word of God and that each person is saved by the grace of God, when they place their faith in and become a disciple of Jesus Christ and are baptized. It is a family of churches spread across some 155 nations, they consider themselves non-denominational. They are structured with the intent to avoid two extremes: "overly centralised authority" on the one side and "disconnected autonomy" on the other side. In 2000, it was described as " fast-growing Christian organization known for aggressive proselytizing to college students" and as "one of the most controversial religious groups on campus".
The largest congregation, the Los Angeles Church of Christ, has over 6000 members. The largest church service was held in 2012 at the AT&T Center in San Antonio, during a World Discipleship Summit, with 17,800 in attendance; the ICoC has its roots in a movement that reaches back to the period of the Second Great Awakening of early nineteenth-century America. Barton W. Stone and Alexander Campbell are credited with what is today known as the Stone-Campbell or Restoration Movement. There are a number of branches of the Restoration movement and the ICoC was formed from within the Churches of Christ, it was born from a "discipling" movement that arose among the mainline Churches of Christ during the 1970s. This discipling movement developed in the campus ministry of Chuck Lucas. In 1967, Chuck Lucas was minister of the 14th Street Church of Christ in Florida; that year he started a new project known as Campus Advance. Centered on the University of Florida, the program called for a strong evangelical outreach and an intimate religious atmosphere in the form of soul talks and prayer partners.
Soul talks were held in student residences and involved prayer and sharing overseen by a leader who delegated authority over group members. Prayer partners referred to the practice of pairing a new Christian with an older guide for personal assistance and direction. Both procedures led to "in-depth involvement of each member in one another's lives"; the ministry grew as younger members appreciated many of the new emphases on commitment and models for communal activity. This activity became identified by many with the forces of radical change in the larger American society that characterized the late sixties and seventies; the campus ministry in Gainesville thrived and sustained strong support from the elders of the local congregation in the'Crossroads Church of Christ'. By 1971, as many as a hundred people a year were joining the church. Most notable was the development of a training program for potential campus ministers. By the mid-seventies, a number of young men and women had been trained to replicate the philosophy and methods of the Crossroads Church in other places.
Among the early converts at Gainesville was a student named Kip McKean, mentored by Chuck Lucas. Thomas'Kip' McKean, born in Indianapolis, completed a degree while training at Crossroads and afterward served as campus minister at several mainline Churches of Christ locations. By 1979 his ministry grew from a few individuals to over three hundred making it the fastest growing Church of Christ campus ministry in America. McKean moved to Massachusetts, where he took over the leadership of the Lexington Church of Christ. Building on Lucas' initial strategies, McKean only agreed to lead the church in Lexington as long as every member agreed to be'totally committed'; the church grew from 30 members to 3,000 in just over 10 years in what became known as the'Boston Movement'. While still a Church of Christ congregation, they differentiated themselves through high levels of commitment, mentorship and a numerical focus on conversions. Meanwhile, the epicenter of the new philosophy of ministry training and evangelism began to shift from Florida to Massachusetts.
Moreover, the relationship between The Boston Church of Christ and larger CoC became more and more strained. During this period, Boston Movement leaders had begun to'reconstruct' existing congregations; this began to cause a tension with the larger Church of Christ leadership that would lead to a complete split. Parallel to this, the Boston Church of Christ began to plant new congregations at unprecedented speed for the Church of Christ at the time; the Boston congregation sent church plantings to Chicago and London in 1982, New York shortly thereafter, Johannesburg in June 1986. In 1985 a Church of Christ minister and professor, Dr. Flavil Yeakley, administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test to the Boston Church of Christ, the founding church of the ICOC. Yeakley passed out three different MBTI tests, which asked members to perceive their past and five-year in the future personality types. While over 900 members were tested, 835 individuals completed all three forms. A majority of those respondents changed their perceived or imagined personality type scores on the three different tests in convergence with a single type.
After completing the study, Yeakley observed that "The data in this study of the Boston Church of Christ does not prove that any certain individual has changed his or her personality in an unhealthy wa
Churches of Christ (non-institutional)
The label "non-institutional" refers to a distinct fellowship within the Churches of Christ who do not agree with the support of parachurch organizations by local congregations. They contend that the New Testament includes no authority for churches' support of such institutions. Instead they feel that it is a responsibility and duty of the individual members to assist those in need. Non-institutional congregations oppose the use of church facilities for non-church activities; the belief is that, although such activities may be beneficial, they are not a proper function of a local congregation. These local churches became separated from "mainline" churches of Christ because of these viewpoints, developing into a distinct segment of congregations by the 1960s. Whether a congregation supports the "sponsoring church" custom is one way to distinguish between the "non-institutional" and "mainstream" congregations; the congregations that advocate financial support or the pooling of resources for the benefit of other entities or organized external evangelical efforts are sometimes called "sponsoring churches" and identified as "mainstream."
This fellowship of non-institutional congregations, which intentionally forgoes any para-congregational organizational structure, is estimated at about 120,000 members, accounting for around 9% of the members of Churches of Christ in the United States and for about 15% of congregations. The degree to which members of a congregation associate and interact with members of other Churches of Christ varies by area, from none at all to a considerable degree, its preachers are trained in a variety of ways. Some study at Florida College, which has no formal ties to any church, a faculty and student body who are associated with the non-institutional churches of Christ. Most of the preachers may be self-trained. No formal degree requirements are needed for an individual to be employed as a preacher in the churches of Christ; these congregations accept the description "non-institutional", although they do not identify as such on signs, letterhead, or other official documents. They identify; the 19th century Restoration Movement resulted in an increase in the number of U.
S. members. Many outside of these churches sometimes conflate them with other Churches of Christ having similar roots, such as: groups which serve the Lord's Supper sharing a single cup, groups which oppose divided, age-distinct Bible classes, groups which oppose paid preachers, but encourage members of the congregation to speak and lead the worship activities. While the one-cup, non-class, mutual edification congregations are always non-institutional, they became independent from the mainstream well before the main 1950 division among congregations over institutions; because churches of Christ are autonomous with no central governing body, doctrine may vary between congregations. In general, these churches subscribe to the more conservative positions associated with churches of Christ in matters of authority and worship. Most congregations in this number can be differentiated from mainstream churches by their strict adherence to the principle of congregational autonomy and by a differentiation of the role of the individual Christian and the congregation.
As a result, they oppose the following practices that became widespread in other churches of Christ during the mid-twentieth century, namely: Support from the church treasury for institutions such as Bible colleges or orphans' homes. Members of non-institutional churches note a distinction between the work assigned to the individual Christian and that assigned to the local congregation collectively. While individuals are charged to "do good to all men,", they believe that churches are explicitly assigned a limited number of duties, they oppose a church giving its collective funds to an outside institution or setting up another under its control to do work which they believe the apostles assigned to the individual. For example, while they would refuse to give church funds to an orphans' home or soup kitchen, non-institutional churches would encourage individual members to help such causes. Churches pooling resources to perform work under the oversight of a single congregation or outside institution.
Critics opposed to this practice say such cooperation did not exist in the first century churches and violates the autonomy of the local congregation. They note that the New Testament writings recorded that congregations sometimes sent aid to each other, but they say this practice was always from a single congregation to a single congregation for the benefit of members of the latter. No other arrangement for transfer of funds between churches appears in the New Testament. Thus, members of a non-institutional church would not authorize giving church funds to a missionary society or undertake a "sponsoring church" arrangement. A non-in
The Springfield Presbytery was an independent presbytery that became one of the earliest expressions of the Stone-Campbell Movement. It was composed of Presbyterian ministers who withdrew from the jurisdiction of the Kentucky Synod of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America on September 10, 1803, it dissolved itself on June 28, 1804, with the publication of a document titled the Last Will and Testament of The Springfield Presbytery, marking the birth of the Christian Church of the West. The immediate cause of withdrawal by the ministers was that the Synod of Kentucky had censured the Washington Presbytery for the following: appointing Richard McNemar, after having examined his doctrine and condemning it as "dangerous to the souls of men, hostile to the interests of all religion. Both ministers had expressed views at odds with the Westminster Confession; these two ministers and three others protested the proceedings of the Synod and withdrew from its jurisdiction. Their signed protest was dated September 10, 1803.
They gave the following reasons for declining the authority of Synod: belief that the resolution condemning McNemar's teachings gave "a distorted and false representation of Mr. McNemar's sentiments" and was "calculated to prevent the influence of truth of the most interesting nature". Based on those reasons, the ministers said that they chose to withdraw from the jurisdiction of the Kentucky Synod rather than be prosecuted under the authority of the Confession of Faith, which they could not acknowledge. But, they said, they formed the Springfield Presbytery two days later. The Springfield Presbytery was a loose association of the dissenting ministers and their congregations; the Presbytery ordained a sixth minister, David Purviance, who joined it after the West Lexington Presbytery of Kentucky had refused to ordain him. On January 31, 1804, the several ministers published a 141-page defense of their actions, in which they opposed the use of creeds to determine, a Christian; the defense was entitled An Apology for Renouncing the Jurisdiction of the Synod of Kentucky.
To Which Is Added a Compendious View of the Gospel and a Few Remarks on the Confession of Faith. The Apology was written by Robert Marshall, it argued that the examination of McNemar in 1802 had been conducted without due process, which would have justified an appeal of the decision to the General Assembly. It went on to argue that they had no reasonable hope of redress within the Presbyterian church as long as "human opinions", rather than scripture, were the standard of orthodoxy. Stone wrote the Compendious View of the Scripture. Systematically laying out the doctrines which the Washington Presbytry had condemned, he wrote the first theological statement of the Restoration Movement. Thompson wrote the Remarks on the Confession, arguing that, since creeds served to divide the church if a perfect creed could be found, it should be rejected as the standard for Christian fellowship; the unstated implication was. By 1804 the Springfield Presbytery had attracted 15 congregations in Kentucky; the leaders of this newer presbytery became concerned by its growth, as they did not want to create a new denomination or "party".
Convinced that their newer Springfield Presbytery was sectarian, the six ministers dissolved it on June 28, 1804. To publicize the dissolution, they signed a document entitled The Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery; this tract willed that "this body die, be dissolved, sink into union with the Body of Christ at large." It expressed the desire for Christian union and identified the Bible as the only standard of Christian faith and practice. In addition to signing the Last Will and Testament, the ministers agreed to take "no other name than "Christians," on the basis that it was "the name first given by divine authority to the disciples of Christ." Soon, they adopted the name "Christian" to identify their group. Thus, former congregations from the Springfield Presbytery became known as the Christian Church, it is estimated that the Christian Church numbered about 12,000 by 1830. The Last Will and Testament became a founding document of the Restoration Movement; the dissolution of the Springfield Presbytery was in part a symbolic act, based on the principle that gave priority to individual autonomy for local congregations.
Such Congregational ideals are still fundamental to the Disciples of Christ and the Churches of Christ, due in no small part to this document. The document titled Last Will and Testament of The Springfield Presbytery was signed by Robert Marshall, John Dunlavy, Richard McNemar on June 28, 1804, in the presence of B
The Christian Connection was a Christian movement in the United States of America that developed in several places during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It was influenced by settling the frontier as well as the formation of the new United States and its separation from Great Britain; the Christian Connection claimed to have no creed, instead professing to rely on the Bible. In practice, members tended to cluster around various shared theological concepts, such as an Arminian theological anthropology, a rejection of the Calvinist doctrine of election, an autonomous form of church government; the Connexion's periodical, the Herald of Gospel Liberty, was among the first religious journals published in the United States. James O'Kelly was an early advocate of seeking unity through a return to New Testament Christianity. In 1792, dissatisfied with the role of bishops in the Methodist Episcopal Church, he separated from that body. O'Kelly's movement, centering in Virginia and North Carolina, was called the Republican Methodist Church.
In 1794 they adopted the name Christian Church. During the same period, Elias Smith of Vermont and Abner Jones of New Hampshire led a movement espousing views similar to those of O’Kelly, they believed that members could, by looking to scripture alone be Christians without being bound to human traditions and the denominations, brought over from Europe. Working independently at first and Smith joined together in their efforts and began using the name Christian. In 1801, the Cane Ridge Revival led by Barton W. Stone in Kentucky would plant the seed for a movement in Kentucky and the Ohio River valley to disassociate from denominationalism. Stone and five other ministers published The Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery in 1804, giving up denominational ties to the Presbyterian Church and preferring to be known as Christians. Stone was influenced by his earlier involvement with O'Kelly and knew of the Republican Methodist practice of using the name Christian. Ideologically, the New England movement displayed an extreme form of republicanism.
Convinced that the American Revolution demanded a thorough and utter break with European modes of operation, members tended to demand radical reform of politics, the legal system and religion. Elias Smith's career emphasized medical and spiritual reform. All visible forms of church government were to be rejected, he argued, because they were inherently “British”; the movement’s nativist approach to theology and church polity imparted a unique flavor to the movement, placing them distinctly on the fringe of early nineteenth-century North American spirituality. Elias Smith had heard of the Stone movement by 1804, the O'Kelly movement by 1808; the three groups merged by 1810. At that time the combined movement had a membership of 20,000; this loose fellowship of churches was called by the names "Christian Connection/Connexion" or "Christian Church."By 1808, O'Kelly's followers and the Smith/Jones movement were cooperating and Stone’s Christians in Kentucky would soon follow suit. Adherents' anti-organizational commitments prevent one from referring to “union” per se, at least before the middle of the century.
Stone's concept of unity grew from a belief that Christians could extract the Bible’s truths by reason, if they approached it without presuppositions. These truths, in turn, would displace human forms of order, leading to the inevitable result that Christians would start “flowing together” and others would come to faith because of the model of unity; the Connexion soon became international, with churches planted in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Ontario. In each case, the missions were extensions of preaching tours from neighboring American states, thus all of the Canadian congregations were related to the New England movement. The failed Rebellions of 1837 undercut the Connexion's Canadian wings. Churches survived in Ontario, north and east of Toronto, Ontario. Conflict between the Connexion and the Disciples of Christ disrupted the former's Canadian growth. Smith proved to be a controversial figure in the Christian Connexion, leaving the denomination for several years to become a Universalist.
He publicly renounced Universalism in 1823, but was not well received and reverted to it for a couple of years. Smith tried to re-enter the Connexion in 1827 by repudiating Universalism, his brethren were understandably hesitant to accept him, but his home congregation of Portsmouth, New Hampshire received him back in fellowship in 1840. In 1832, many of the Christian Churches in Kentucky and Tennessee led by Stone united with the churches led by Alexander Campbell. A minority continued to operate within the orbit of the Connexion. Of the majority of churches that aligned with the Stone-Campbell movement, many continued to use the name Christian Church though they no longer considered themselves part of the Christian Connection; the confusion over names which this created continues. Much of the historiography of this period is driven by the current needs and issues of the successor denominations; when Stone and Alexander Campbell's Reformers united in 1832, only a minority of Christians from the Smith/Jones and O'Kelly movements participated.
Those who did were from congregations west of the Appalachian Mountains that had come into contact with the Stone movement. The eastern members had several key differences with the Stone and Campbell group: an emphasis on co
The Gospel Advocate is a religious magazine published monthly in Nashville, Tennessee for members of the Churches of Christ. The Advocate has enjoyed uninterrupted publication since 1866; the Gospel Advocate was founded by Nashville-area Restoration Movement preacher Tolbert Fanning in 1855. Fanning's student, William Lipscomb, served as co-editor until the American Civil War forced them to suspend publication in 1861. After the end of the Civil War, publication resumed in 1866 under the editorship of Fanning and William Lipscomb's younger brother David Lipscomb. In 1869 the Advocate was published weekly on Thursdays and reported a circulation of 1850; the early Advocate included church news, Bible lessons, letters from readers, Bible lessons, book reviews, farm information, rural news, anything the editors felt would be spiritually helpful. Lipscomb edited the journal for fifty years following the Civil War, making him the most influential spokesman of the time among the Churches of Christ; this was true in the South, because most of the other brotherhood journals were perceived as pro-Union.
The Gospel Advocate has long been influential in the Churches of Christ and was, during much of the twentieth century, the most influential journal within the brotherhood, helping to shape consensus views. As the Churches of Christ have no denominational hierarchy or "official" structures, through much of its history the views of the brotherhood have been influenced by its journals and their editors. While the Advocate has always been conservative and Bible-based, the "tone and direction" has varied as editors have changed; when David Lipscomb was the editor, the focus was on seeking unity by following scripture and the Advocate's editorial position was to reject anything, not explicitly allowed by scripture. When Foy E. Wallace was editor the Advocate fought against premillennialism. Editor B. C. Goodpasture used the Advocate to oppose the "non-institutional" view within the Churches of Christ. Despite these differences in editorial focus, throughout its entire history the Advocate has sought to promote a Christianity based on New Testament precedents.
In 1884 a Texas preacher named Austin McGary, who had written some articles in the Gospel Advocate, began publishing the Firm Foundation, which——in contradistinction to Lipscomb's irenic manner, grace-laden theology, more-inclusivist concept of fellowship——stridently proclaimed support for rebaptism, McGary's views on that subject being remarkably similar to those of John Thomas, with whom Alexander Campbell had severed fellowship. Although the controversy animated the difference between the two papers for some time, they closed ranks in opposition to missionary societies and instrumental music in worship, issues which split the churches of the Restoration Movement in 1906. A controversial front page editor was Robert Henry Boll, who wrote articles on Biblical prophecy during his tenure beginning in 1909, his eschatological focus came into conflict with the church-centered views of other Church of Christ leaders of the time. The reaction to Boll's premillennialism helped to define and solidify the amillennial view among the mainstream of the Churches of Christ.
By the end of the 20th century, the divisions caused by this debate were diminishing, in the 2000 edition of the directory Churches of Christ in the United States, published by Mac Lynn, congregations holding premillennial views were no longer listed separately. The Gospel Advocate publishes Sunday School materials and operates Christian bookstores in Nashville and Mesquite, Texas. Gospel Advocate Company