Muhammad Ali was an American professional boxer and philanthropist. He is nicknamed "The Greatest" and is regarded as one of the most significant and celebrated sports figures of the 20th century and as one of the greatest boxers of all time. Ali was born and raised in Louisville and began training as an amateur boxer at age 12. At 18, he won a gold medal in the light heavyweight division at the 1960 Summer Olympics, turned professional that year, he converted to Islam after 1961, took the name Muhammad Ali. He won the world heavyweight championship from Sonny Liston in a major upset at age 22 in 1964. In 1966, Ali refused to be drafted into the military, citing his religious beliefs and opposition to the Vietnam War, he was arrested, found guilty of draft evasion, stripped of his boxing titles. He appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, which overturned his conviction in 1971, but he had not fought for nearly four years and lost a period of peak performance as an athlete, his actions as a conscientious objector to the war made him an icon for the larger counterculture generation, he was a high-profile figure of racial pride for African Americans during the civil rights movement.
Ali was a leading heavyweight boxer of the 20th century, he remains the only three-time lineal champion of that division. His joint records of beating 21 boxers for the world heavyweight title and winning 14 unified title bouts stood for 35 years. Ali is the only boxer to be named The Ring magazine Fighter of the Year six times, he has been ranked the greatest heavyweight boxer of all time, as the greatest athlete of the 20th century by Sports Illustrated, the Sports Personality of the Century by the BBC, the third greatest athlete of the 20th century by ESPN SportsCentury. He was involved in several historic boxing feuds. Ali thrived in the spotlight at a time when many fighters let their managers do the talking, he was provocative and outlandish, he was known for trash-talking, free-styled with rhyme schemes and spoken word poetry, anticipating elements of rap and hip hop music. Outside the ring, Ali attained success as a musician, he featured as an actor and writer, releasing two autobiographies.
Ali focused on religion and charity. In 1984, he made public his diagnosis of Parkinson's syndrome, which some reports attribute to boxing-related injuries, though he and his specialist physicians disputed this, he remained an active public figure globally, but in his latter years made limited public appearances as his condition worsened, he was cared for by his family until his death on June 3, 2016. Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. was born on January 1942, in Louisville, Kentucky. He had four brothers, he was named for his father, Cassius Marcellus Clay Sr. who himself was named in honor of the 19th-century Republican politician and staunch abolitionist, Cassius Marcellus Clay from the state of Kentucky. Clay's father's paternal grandparents were Sallie Anne Clay, he was a descendant of slaves of the antebellum South, was predominantly of African descent, with smaller amounts of Irish and English heritage. DNA testing performed in 2018 showed that, through his paternal grandmother, Ali was a descendant of the heroic former slave Archer Alexander, chosen from the building crew as the model of a freed man for the Emancipation Memorial, was the subject of abolitionist William Greenleaf Eliot's book, The Story of Archer Alexander: From Slavery to Freedom.
Like Ali, Alexander fought for his freedom. His father was a sign and billboard painter, his mother, Odessa O'Grady Clay, was a domestic helper. Although Cassius Sr. was a Methodist, he allowed Odessa to bring up both Cassius Jr. and his younger brother, Rudolph "Rudy" Clay, as Baptists. Cassius Jr. attended Central High School in Louisville. He was dyslexic, which led to difficulties in reading and writing, at school and for much of his life. Ali grew up amid racial segregation, his mother recalled one occasion when he was denied a drink of water at a store—"They wouldn't give him one because of his color. That affected him." He was affected by the 1955 murder of Emmett Till, which led to young Clay and a friend taking out their frustration by vandalizing a local rail yard. Ali was first directed toward boxing by Louisville police officer and boxing coach Joe E. Martin, who encountered the 12-year-old fuming over a thief's having taken his bicycle, he told the officer. The officer told Clay. Clay did not take up Martin's offer, but after seeing amateur boxers on a local television boxing program called Tomorrow's Champions, Clay was interested in the prospect of fighting.
He began to work with trainer Fred Stoner, whom he credits with giving him the "real training" moulding "my style, my stamina and my system." For the last four years of Clay's amateur career he was trained by boxing cutman Chuck Bodak. Clay made his amateur boxing debut in 1954 against local amateur boxer Ronnie O'Keefe, he won by split decision. He went on to win six Kentucky Golden Gloves titles, two national Golden Gloves titles, an Amateur Athletic Union national title, the Light Heavyweight gold medal in the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. Clay's amateur record was 100 wins with five losses. Ali said in his 1975 autobiography that shortly after his return from the Rome Olympics, he threw his gold medal into the Ohio River after he and a friend we
George Stubbs was an English painter, best known for his paintings of horses. Stubbs was born in Liverpool, the son of a currier, or leather-dresser, John Stubbs, his wife Mary. Information on his life until the age of 35 or so is sparse, relying entirely on notes made by Ozias Humphry, a fellow artist and friend. Stubbs worked at his father's trade until the age of 15 or 16, at which point he told his father that he wished to become a painter. While resistant, Stubbs's father acquiesced in his son's choice of a career path, on the condition that he could find an appropriate mentor. Stubbs subsequently approached the Lancashire painter and engraver Hamlet Winstanley, was engaged by him in a sort of apprenticeship relationship not more than several weeks in duration. Having demonstrated his abilities and agreed to do some copying work, Stubbs had access to and opportunity to study the collection at Knowsley Hall near Liverpool, the estate where Winstanley was residing. Thereafter as an artist he was self-taught.
He had had a passion for anatomy from his childhood, in or around 1744, he moved to York, in the North of England, to pursue his ambition to study the subject under experts. In York, from 1745 to 1753, he worked as a portrait painter, studied human anatomy under the surgeon Charles Atkinson, at York County Hospital, One of his earliest surviving works is a set of illustrations for a textbook on midwifery by John Burton, Essay towards a Complete New System of Midwifery, published in 1751. In 1754 Stubbs visited Italy. Forty years he told Ozias Humphry that his motive for going to Italy was, "to convince himself that nature was and is always superior to art whether Greek or Roman, having renewed this conviction he resolved upon returning home". In 1756 he rented a farmhouse in the village of Horkstow and spent 18 months dissecting horses, assisted by his common-law wife, Mary Spencer, he moved in 1766 published The anatomy of the Horse. The original drawings are now in the collection of the Royal Academy.
Before his book was published, Stubbs's drawings were seen by leading aristocratic patrons, who recognised that his work was more accurate than that of earlier horse painters such as James Seymour, Peter Tillemans and John Wootton. In 1759 the 3rd Duke of Richmond commissioned three large pictures from him, his career was soon secure. By 1763 he had produced works for several more dukes and other lords and was able to buy a house in Marylebone, a fashionable part of London, where he lived for the rest of his life, his most famous work is Whistlejacket, a painting of the thoroughbred race horse rising on his hind legs, commissioned by the 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, now in the National Gallery in London. This and two other paintings carried out for Rockingham break with convention in having plain backgrounds. Throughout the 1760s he produced a wide range of individual and group portraits of horses, sometimes accompanied by hounds, he painted horses with their grooms, whom he always painted as individuals.
Meanwhile, he continued to accept commissions for portraits of people, including some group portraits. From 1761 to 1776 he exhibited at the Society of Artists of Great Britain, but in 1775 he switched his allegiance to the founded but more prestigious Royal Academy of Arts. Stubbs painted more exotic animals including lions, giraffes and rhinoceroses, which he was able to observe in private menageries, his painting of a kangaroo was the first glimpse of this animal for many 18th-century Britons. He became preoccupied with the theme of a wild horse threatened by a lion and produced several variations on this theme; these and other works became well known at the time through engravings of Stubbs's work, which appeared in increasing numbers in the 1770s and 1780s. Stubbs painted historical pictures, but these are much less well regarded. From the late 1760s he produced some work on enamel. In the 1770s Josiah Wedgwood developed a new and larger type of enamel panel at Stubbs's request. Stubbs hoped to achieve commercial success with his paintings in enamel, but the venture left him in debt.
In the 1770s he painted single portraits of dogs for the first time, while receiving an increasing number of commissions to paint hunts with their packs of hounds. He remained active into his old age. In the 1780s he produced a pastoral series called Haymakers and Reapers, in the early 1790s he enjoyed the patronage of the Prince of Wales, whom he painted on horseback in 1791, his last project, begun in 1795, was A comparative anatomical exposition of the structure of the human body with that of a tiger and a common fowl, fifteen engravings from which appeared between 1804 and 1806. The project was left unfinished in London, he was buried in the graveyard of Marylebone Church, now a public garden. Stubbs's son George Townly Stubbs was an printmaker. Stubbs remained a secondary figure in British art until the mid-twentieth century; the art historian Basil Taylor and art collector Paul Mellon both championed Stubbs's work. Stubbs's Pumpkin with a Stable-lad was the first painting that Mellon bought in 1936.
Basil Taylor was commissioned in 1955 by Pelican Press to write the book Animal Painting in England – From Barlow to
Thaddeus John Szarkowski was a photographer, curator and critic. From 1962 to 1991 Szarkowski was the director of photography at New York's Museum of Modern Art, he was born and grew up in the small northern Wisconsin city of Ashland, became interested in photography at age eleven. In World War II Szarkowski served in the U. S. Army, after which he graduated in 1947 in art history from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, he began his career as a museum photographer at the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis. At this time he was a practicing art photographer. In 1954 Szarkowski received the first of two Guggenheim Fellowships, resulting in the book The Idea of Louis Sullivan. Between 1958 and 1962, he returned to rural Wisconsin. There, he undertook a second Guggenheim fellowship in 1961, researching into ideas about wilderness and the relationship between people and the land. On July 1, 1962 Szarkowski was appointed the director of the department of photography of The Museum of Modern Art, he was picked by Edward Steichen to be Steichen's successor.
In 1973 Szarkowski published Looking at Photographs a practical set of examples on how to write about photographs. The book is still required reading for students of photography, argues for the importance of looking and bringing to bear every bit of intelligence and understanding possessed by the viewer. Szarkowski has published numerous books on individual photographers, with Maria Morris Hamburg, the definitive four-volume work on the photography of Atget, he wrote Mirrors and Windows: American Photography Since 1960 describing photography which dichotomized two strategies of pictoral expression. The'Mirror' strategy focuses on self-expressive photography and the'Window' element in which photographers like Diane Arbus, Lee Friedlander, Henry Wessel, Garry Winogrand leave their comfort zone to explore, he taught at Harvard and New York University, continued to lecture and teach. From 1983 to 1989, he was an Andrew Dickson White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University. In 1990, U. S. News & World Report said: "Szarkowski's thinking, whether Americans know it or not, has become our thinking about photography".
In 1991 Szarkowski retired from his post at the MoMA, during which he had developed a reputation for being somewhat autocratic, became the museum's photography director emeritus. He was succeeded by Peter Galassi, the Joel and Anne Ehrenkranz chief curator of the department of photography at The Museum of Modern Art. 1963: The Photographer and the American Landscape. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1964: Andre Kertesz. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Retrospective exhibition. 1964: The Photographer's Eye. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1965: The Photo Essay. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1966: Dorthea Lange. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Retrospective exhibition. 1967: Once Invisible. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1967: New Documents. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1968: Henri Cartier Bresson. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Retrospective exhibition. 1968: Brassai. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Retrospective exhibition. 1969: Bill Brandt. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Retrospective exhibition. 1969: Eugene Atget.
Museum of Modern Art, New York. Retrospective exhibition. 1969: Garry Winorgrand: The Animals. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1970: New Acquisitions. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1970: Bruce Davidson: East 100th Street. Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1970: E. J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits. Museum of Modern Art, New York 1971: Photographs by Walker Evans. Museum of Modern Art, New York Retrospective exhibition. 1972: Diane Arbus. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Retrospective exhibition. 1990: Photography Until Now. Museum of Modern Art, New York 1995: Ansel Adams at 100. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, CA. Curated with Sandra S. Phillips. In retirement, Szarkowski served on the boards of several of the mutual funds sold by Dreyfus Corporation. Szarkowski returned to making his own photographic work attempting to picture a spirit of place in the American landscape. In 2005 he had several major solo exhibitions across the USA; the first retrospective of his work was exhibited at MoMA in early 2006. Szarkowski died from complications of a stroke on July 7, 2007 in Pittsfield, aged 81.
"The Photographs of Jacques Henri Lartigue", New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1963. ASIN B0018MX7JK The Animals, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1969. ASIN B0006BWLBO E. J. Bellocq Storyville Portraits, New York: Little Brown & Co, 1970. ISBN 978-0870702501 From the Picture Press, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1973. ISBN 978-0870703348 New Japanese Photography, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1974. ISBN 978-0870705021 William Eggelston's Guide, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1976. ISBN 978-0262050180 Callahan, New York: Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 978-0900406836 Mirrors and Windows: American Photography since 1960, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1978. ISBN 978-0870704765 American Landscapes, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1981. ISBN 978-0870702075 Irving Penn, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1984. ISBN 978-0870705625 Winogrand: Figments from the Real World, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1988. ISBN 978-0870706400 Photography Until Now, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1989. ISBN 978-0870705731 Ansel Adams at 100, 2001.
ISBN 978-0821225158 The Photographer's Eye, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1966. ISBN 978-0870705250 Looking at Photographs. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1973. ISBN 978-0-87070-515-1 The Portfolios of Ansel Adams. New York: Bulfinch, 1977. ISBN 978-0821207239. Wright Morris: Origin of a Species. San Francisco: San Francisco Museum o
Edson Arantes do Nascimento, known as Pelé, is a Brazilian retired professional footballer who played as a forward. He is regarded by many in the sport, including football writers and fans, as the greatest player of all time. In 1999, he was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics, was one of the two joint winners of the FIFA Player of the Century award; that same year, Pelé was elected Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee. According to the IFFHS, Pelé is the most successful domestic league goal-scorer in football history scoring 650 goals in 694 League matches, in total 1281 goals in 1363 games, which included unofficial friendlies and is a Guinness World Record. During his playing days, Pelé was for a period the best-paid athlete in the world. Pelé began playing for Santos at age 15 and the Brazil national team at 16. During his international career, he won three FIFA World Cups: 1958, 1962 and 1970, being the only player to do so.
Pelé is the all-time leading goalscorer for Brazil with 77 goals in 92 games. At club level he is the record goalscorer for Santos, led them to the 1962 and 1963 Copa Libertadores. Known for connecting the phrase "The Beautiful Game" with football, Pelé's "electrifying play and penchant for spectacular goals" made him a star around the world, his teams toured internationally in order to take full advantage of his popularity. Since retiring in 1977, Pelé has been a worldwide ambassador for football and has made many acting and commercial ventures. In 2010, he was named the Honorary President of the New York Cosmos. Averaging a goal per game throughout his career, Pelé was adept at striking the ball with either foot in addition to anticipating his opponents' movements on the field. While predominantly a striker, he could drop deep and take on a playmaking role, providing assists with his vision and passing ability, he would use his dribbling skills to go past opponents. In Brazil, he is hailed as a national hero for his accomplishments in football and for his outspoken support of policies that improve the social conditions of the poor.
Throughout his career and in his retirement, Pelé received several individual and team awards for his performance in the field, his record-breaking achievements, legacy in the sport. Pelé was born Edson Arantes do Nascimento on 23 October 1940, in Três Corações, Minas Gerais, the son of Fluminense footballer Dondinho and Celeste Arantes, he was the elder of two siblings. He was named after the American inventor Thomas Edison, his parents decided to remove the "i" and call him "Edson", but there was a mistake on the birth certificate, leading many documents to show his name as "Edison", not "Edson", as he is called. He was nicknamed "Dico" by his family, he received the nickname "Pelé" during his school days, when it is claimed he was given it because of his pronunciation of the name of his favorite player, local Vasco da Gama goalkeeper Bilé, which he misspoke but the more he complained the more it stuck. In his autobiography, Pelé stated he had no idea what the name did his old friends. Apart from the assertion that the name is derived from that of Bilé, that it is Hebrew for "miracle", the word has no known meaning in Portuguese.
Pelé grew up in poverty in Bauru in the state of São Paulo. He earned extra money by working in tea shops as a servant. Taught to play by his father, he could not afford a proper football and played with either a sock stuffed with newspaper and tied with a string or a grapefruit, he played for several amateur teams in his youth, including Sete de Setembro, Canto do Rio, São Paulinho, Amériquinha. Pelé led Bauru Athletic Club juniors to two São Paulo state youth championships. In his mid-teens, he played. Indoor football had just become popular in Bauru, he was part of the first Futebol de Salão competition in the region. Pelé and his team won several others. According to Pelé, indoor football presented difficult challenges. Pelé accredits indoor football for helping. In addition, indoor football allowed him to play with adults. In one of the tournaments he participated, he was considered too young to play, but went on to end up top scorer with fourteen or fifteen goals. "That gave me a lot of confidence", Pelé said, "I knew not to be afraid of whatever might come".
In 1956, de Brito took Pelé to Santos, an industrial and port city located near São Paulo, to try out for professional club Santos FC, telling the directors at Santos that the 15-year-old would be "the greatest football player in the world." Pelé impressed Santos coach Lula during his trial at the Estádio Vila Belmiro, he signed a professional contract with the club in June 1956. Pelé was promoted in the local media as a future superstar, he made his senior team debut on 7 September 1956 at the age of 15 against Corinthians Santo Andre and had an impressive performance in a 7–1 victory, scoring the first goal in his prolific career during the match. When the 1957 season started, Pelé was given a starting place in the first team and, at the age of 16, became the top scorer in the league. Ten months after signing professionally, the teenager was called up to the Brazil national team. After the 1958 and the 1962 World Cup, wealthy Euro
Willie Howard Mays, Jr. nicknamed "The Say Hey Kid", is an American former Major League Baseball center fielder who spent all of his 22-season career playing for the New York/San Francisco Giants, before finishing with the New York Mets. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1979. Mays won two National League Most Valuable Player awards, he ended his career with 660 home runs—third at the time of his retirement and fifth all-time—and won a record-tying 12 Gold Glove awards beginning in 1957, when the award was introduced. Mays shares the record of most All-Star Games played with Hank Aaron and Stan Musial. In appreciation of his All-Star record, Ted Williams said "They invented the All-Star Game for Willie Mays."Mays' career statistics and his longevity in the pre-performance-enhancing drugs era have drawn speculation that he may be the finest five-tool player and many surveys and expert analyses, which have examined Mays' relative performance, have led to a growing opinion that Mays was the greatest all-around offensive baseball player of all time.
In 1999, Mays placed second on The Sporting News's "List of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players", making him the highest-ranking living player. That year, he was elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. Mays is one of five National League players to have had eight consecutive 100-RBI seasons, along with Mel Ott, Sammy Sosa, Chipper Jones, Albert Pujols. Mays hit over 50 home runs in 1955 and 1965, representing the longest time span between 50-plus home run seasons for any player in Major League Baseball history, his final Major League Baseball appearance came on October 16 during Game 3 of the 1973 World Series. Mays was born in 1931 in Westfield, Alabama, a former black settlement near Fairfield, his father, Cat Mays, was a talented baseball player with the Negro team for the local iron plant. His mother, Annie Satterwhite, was a gifted track star in high school, his parents never married. As a baby, Mays was cared for by his mother's younger sisters Ernestine. Sarah became the primary female role model in Mays' life.
At age 3 Mays' parents separated. Though his mother remarried, his father took in a set of older orphan girls to help with raising young Willie. Mays always saw these two as his aunts, his father exposed him to baseball at an early age, by the age of five he was playing catch with his father. At age 10, Mays was allowed to sit on the bench of his father's League games. Mays played multiple sports at Fairfield Industrial High School, averaging a then-record 17 points a game in basketball and more than 40 yards a punt in football, while playing quarterback. Mays graduated from Fairfield in 1950. Mays' professional baseball career began in 1947. A short time Mays left the Choo-Choos and returned to his home state to join the Birmingham Black Barons of the Negro American League. Mays helped them win the pennant and advance to the 1948 Negro League World Series, where they lost the series 4-1 to the Homestead Grays. Mays hit a respectable.262 for the season, but it was his excellent fielding and baserunning that made him a standout.
By playing professionally with the Black Barons, Mays jeopardized his opportunities to play high school sports in Alabama. This created some problems for him with high school administrators at Fairfield, who wanted him to help the teams and ticket sales. Over the next several years, a number of major league baseball franchises sent scouts to watch him play; the first was the Boston Braves. The scout who discovered him, Bud Maughn, had been following him for over a year and referred him to the Braves, who packaged a deal that called for $7,500 down and $7,500 in 30 days, they planned to give Mays $6,000. The obstacle in the deal was that Tom Hayes, owner of the Birmingham Black Barons, wanted to keep Mays for the balance of the season. Had the team been able to act more the Braves franchise might have had both Mays and Hank Aaron in their outfield from 1954 to 1973; the Brooklyn Dodgers scouted him and wanted Ray Blades to negotiate a deal, but were too late. The New York Giants had signed Mays for $4,000 and assigned him to their Class-B affiliate in Trenton, New Jersey.
After Mays batted.353 in Trenton, he began the 1951 season with the class AAA Minneapolis Millers of the American Association. During his short time span in Minneapolis, Mays played with two other future Hall of Famers: Hoyt Wilhelm and Ray Dandridge. Batting.477 in 35 games and playing excellent defense, Mays was called up to the Giants on May 24, 1951. Mays was at a movie theater in Iowa when he found out he was being called up. A message flashed up on the screen that said: "WILLIE MAYS CALL YOUR HOTEL." He appeared in his first major league game the next day in Philadelphia. Mays moved to Harlem, New York, where his mentor was a New York State Boxing Commission official and former Harlem Rens basketball legend "Strangler" Frank Forbes. Mays began his major league career with no hits in his first 12 at bats. On his 13th at-bat, however, he hit a towering home run over the left field roof of the Polo Grounds off of future Hall of Famer Warren Spahn. Spahn joked, "I'll never forgive myself. We might have gotten rid of Willie forever if I'd only struck him out."
Mays's batting average improved throughout the rest of the season. Although his.274 average, 68 RBI and 20 homers were among the lowest of his career, he still won the 1951 Rookie of the Year Award. During the Giants' comeback in August and September 1951 to tie the Dodgers in the pennant race, Mays'
Nadia Elena Comăneci is a Romanian retired gymnast and a five-time Olympic gold medalist, all in individual events. Comăneci is the first gymnast to be awarded a perfect score of 10.0 at the Olympic Games, at the same Games, she received six more perfect 10s en route to winning three gold medals. At the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, she won two more gold medals and attained two more perfect 10s. During her career, Comăneci won nine Olympic medals and four World Artistic Gymnastics Championship medals. Comăneci is one of the world's best-known gymnasts and is credited with popularizing the sport around the globe. In 2000, she was named as one of the Athletes of the 20th Century by the Laureus World Sports Academy, she has lived in the United States since 1989 and is married to American Olympic gold medal gymnast Bart Conner. Nadia Elena Comăneci was born on 12 November 1961, in Onești, a small town in the Carpathian Mountains, in Bacău County, Romania, in the historical region of Western Moldavia.
Comăneci was born to Gheorghe and Ștefania Comăneci, has a younger brother. Her parents separated in the 1970s, her father moved to Bucharest, she and her younger brother Adrian were raised in the faith of the Romanian Orthodox Church. In a 2011 interview, Nadia's mother Ștefania said that she enrolled her daughter into gymnastics classes because she was a child, so full of energy and active that she was difficult to manage. Comăneci graduated from Politehnica University of Bucharest with a degree in sports education that gave her the qualifications to coach gymnastics. Comăneci began gymnastics in kindergarten with a local team called Flacăra, with coaches Duncan and Munteanu. At age 6, she was chosen to attend Béla Károlyi's experimental gymnastics school after Károlyi spotted a friend and her turning cartwheels in a schoolyard. Károlyi was looking for gymnasts he could train from a young age and saw the two girls during recess; when recess ended, the girls ran inside. Károlyi went around the classrooms trying to find them, spotted Comăneci.
Comăneci was training with Károlyi by the time she was seven years old, in 1968. She was one of the first students at the gymnastics school established in Onești by Béla and his wife, Márta. Unlike many of the other students at the Károlyi school, Comăneci was able to commute from home for many years because she lived in the town. In 1970, she began competing as a member of her hometown team and became the youngest gymnast to win the Romanian Nationals. In 1971, she participated in her first international competition, a dual junior meet between Romania and Yugoslavia, winning her first all-around title and contributing to the team gold. For the next few years, she competed as a junior in numerous national contests in Romania and dual meets with countries such as Hungary and Poland. At the age of 11, in 1973, she won the all-around gold, as well as the vault and uneven bars titles, at the Junior Friendship Tournament, an important international meet for junior gymnasts. Comăneci's first major international success came at the age of 13, when she nearly swept the 1975 European Women's Artistic Gymnastics Championships in Skien, winning the all-around and gold medals on every event but the floor exercise, in which she placed second.
She continued to enjoy success that year, winning the all-around at the "Champions All" competition and placing first in the all-around, vault and bars at the Romanian National Championships. In the pre-Olympic test event in Montreal, Comăneci won the all-around and the balance beam golds, as well as silvers in the vault and bars behind accomplished Soviet gymnast Nellie Kim, one of her greatest rivals over the next five years. In March 1976, Comăneci competed in the inaugural edition of the American Cup at Madison Square Garden in Manhattan, she received rare scores of 10, which signified a perfect routine without any deductions, for her vault in the preliminary stage and for her floor exercise routine in the final of the all-around competition which she went on to win. During this event, Comăneci first met American gymnast Bart Conner. While he remembered this meeting, Comăneci noted in her memoirs that she had to be reminded of it in life, she was 14 and Conner was celebrating his 18th birthday.
They both were photographed together. A few months they participated in the 1976 Summer Olympics that Comăneci dominated while Conner was a marginal figure. Conner stated, "Nobody knew me, didn't pay attention to me." At Montreal received four of her seven 10s on the uneven bars. The apparatus demands such a spectacular burst of energy in such a short time—only 23 seconds—that it attracts the most fanfare, but it is on the beam. She scored three of her seven 10s on the beam, her hands speak there as much as her body. Her pace magnifies her balance, her command and distance hush the crowd. On 18 July 1976, Comăneci made history at the Montreal Olympics. During the team compulsory portion of the competition, she was awarded the first perfect 10 in Olympic gymnastics for her routine on the uneven bars. However, Omega SA—the traditional Olympics scoreboard manufacturer— was led to believe that it was impossible to receive a perfect ten, thus the scoreboard was not programmed to display that score. Comăneci's perfect 10 thus appeared as "1.00," the only means by which the judges could indicate that she had indeed received a 10.
During the remainder of the Montreal Game