Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works
Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works was a 19th-century manufacturer of railroad steam locomotives based in Paterson, in Passaic County, New Jersey, in the United States. It built more than six thousand steam locomotives for railroads around the world. Most railroads in 19th-century United States rostered at least one Rogers-built locomotive; the company's most famous product was a locomotive named The General, built in December 1855, one of the principals of the Great Locomotive Chase of the American Civil War. The company was founded by Thomas Rogers in an 1832 partnership with Morris Ketchum and Jasper Grosvenor as Rogers and Grosvenor. Rogers remained president until his death in 1856 when his son, Jacob S. Rogers, took the position and reorganized the company as Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works; the younger Rogers led the company until he retired in 1893. Robert S. Hughes became president and reorganized the company as Rogers Locomotive Company, which he led until his death in 1900. Rogers avoided the American Locomotive Company merger in 1901 through closing and reopening as Rogers Locomotive Works.
The company remained independent until 1905. ALCO used the Rogers facilities through the 1920s as a parts storage facility and warehouse, but sold the property to private investors. Today, several Rogers-built locomotives exist in railroad museums around the world, the plant's erecting shop is preserved as the Thomas Rogers Building; the firm, to become Rogers Locomotive Works began in 1831. Thomas Rogers had been designing and building machinery for textile manufacturing for nearly 20 years when he sold his interest in Godwin, Rogers & Company in June of that year. Rogers set out on his own with a new company called Jefferson Works in New Jersey; the Jefferson Works built textile and agricultural machinery for a year before Rogers met the two men who would help transform the company into a major locomotive manufacturer. In 1832, Rogers partnered with two investors from New York City, Morris Ketchum and Jasper Grosvenor. Jefferson Works was renamed Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvenor, the company began to diversify into the railroad industry.
The company soon manufactured springs and other small parts for railroad use. The first locomotive that Rogers' company assembled was built by Robert Stephenson and Company of England in 1835; this locomotive was the McNeil for the Hudson River Railroad. It took another two years. In 1837, the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad ordered two locomotives from Rogers to form the beginning of the railroad's roster; the first of these two locomotives was the Sandusky, which became the first locomotive to cross the Allegheny Mountains, the first locomotive to operate in Ohio. Sandusky included features designed by Thomas Rogers that had not been seen in locomotive construction to date, it was the first locomotive to use cast iron driving wheels, the wheels included built-in counterweights to reduce the amount of wear on the track caused by the weight of the driving rod and wheel all coming down at once during the wheels' rotations. Before Sandusky's construction, driving wheels were built with wooden spokes, much like wagon wheels.
Some accounts state that Sandusky was the first locomotive to feature a whistle, but this has since been proven false. Rogers was not working alone in American locomotive manufacturing. In 1837, in addition to building the company's first locomotive, Rogers filled orders from fellow locomotive builders Matthias W. Baldwin and William Norris for locomotive tires of various sizes. Once Rogers started working on his own locomotives, however, no further orders from either Baldwin or Norris were forthcoming. Within Rogers' own shop, William Swinburne worked as the shop foreman until he moved on to form his own locomotive manufacturing company, Swinburne and Company in 1845. After Swinburne left Rogers, John Cooke worked at the Rogers plant. Like Swinburne, Cooke went on to form his own locomotive manufacturing firm, Cooke & Company. Another engineer who worked at Rogers was Zerah Colburn, the well known locomotive engineer and editor and publisher. Colburn was, around 1854, "superintendent and/or consultant" at the works where he introduced a number of improvements in locomotive design.
His assistant was William S. Hudson who succeeded Rogers after he died in 1856, was responsible for further engineering enhancement. Hudson would remain with Rogers until his own death in 1881. Rogers locomotives were, from early in the company's history, seen as powerful, capable engines on American railroads; the Uncle Sam, serial number 11, a 4-2-0 built in 1839 for the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company, was noted by American Railroad Journal for hauling a 24-car train up a grade of 26 feet per mile or 0.49% at 24.5 mph. In 1846, Rogers built. Arguably, the most famous locomotive to come out of the Rogers shops wa
Paterson, New Jersey
Paterson is the largest city in and the county seat of Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 146,199, making it New Jersey's third-most-populous city. Paterson has the second-highest density of any U. S. city with over 100,000 people, behind only New York City. For 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 148,678, an increase of 1.7% from the 2010 enumeration, making the city the 174th-most-populous in the nation. Paterson is known as the "Silk City" for its dominant role in silk production during the latter half of the 19th century, it has since evolved into a major destination for Hispanic immigrants as well as for immigrants from India, South Asia, the Arab and Muslim world. Paterson has the second-largest Muslim population in the United States by percentage; the area of Paterson was inhabited by the Algonquian-speaking Native American Acquackanonk tribe of the Lenape known as the Delaware Indians.
The land was known as the Lenapehoking. The Dutch claimed the land as New Netherlands the British as the Province of New Jersey. In 1791 Alexander Hamilton, first United States Secretary of the Treasury, helped found the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures, which helped encourage the harnessing of energy from the Great Falls of the Passaic River to secure economic independence from British manufacturers; the society founded Paterson. Paterson was named for William Paterson, signer of the Constitution and Governor of New Jersey, who signed the 1792 charter that established the Town of Paterson. Architect and city planner Pierre Charles L'Enfant, who had earlier developed the initial plans for Washington, D. C. was the first planner for the S. U. M. Project, his plan proposed to harness the power of the Great Falls through a channel in the rock and an aqueduct. The society's directors felt he was taking too long and was over budget, he was replaced by Peter Colt, who used a less complicated reservoir system to get the water flowing to factories in 1794.
Colt's system developed some problems and a scheme resembling L'Enfant's original plan was used after 1846. Paterson was formed as a township from portions of Acquackanonk Township on April 11, 1831, while the area was still part of Essex County, it became part of newly created Passaic County on February 7, 1837, was incorporated as a city on April 14, 1851, based on the results of a referendum held that day. The city was reincorporated on March 14, 1861; the industries developed in Paterson were powered by the 77-foot-high Great Falls and a system of water raceways that harnessed the falls' power, providing power for the mills in the area until 1914 and fostering the growth of the city around them. The district included dozens of mill buildings and other manufacturing structures associated with the textile industry and the firearms and railroad locomotive manufacturing industries. In the latter half of the 19th century silk production became the dominant industry and formed the basis of Paterson's most prosperous period, earning it the nickname "Silk City."In 1835 Samuel Colt began producing firearms in Paterson, but within a few years he moved his business to Hartford, Connecticut.
In the 19th century Paterson was the site of early experiments with submarines by Irish-American inventor John Philip Holland. Two of Holland's early models—one found at the bottom of the Passaic River—are on display in the Paterson Museum, housed in the former Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works near the Passaic Falls. Behind Newark and New York, the brewing industry was booming in Paterson in the late 1800s. Braun Brewery, Sprattler & Mennell, Graham Brewery, The Katz Brothers, Burton Brewery merged in 1890 to form Paterson Consolidated Brewing Company. Hinchliffe Brewing and Malting Company, founded in 1861, produced 75,000 barrels a year from its state-of-the-art facility at 63 Governor Street. All the breweries closed after Prohibition; the city was a mecca for immigrant laborers, who worked in its factories Italian weavers from the Naples region. Paterson was the site of historic labor unrest that focused on anti-child labor legislation, the six-month-long Paterson silk strike of 1913 that demanded the eight-hour day and better working conditions.
It was defeated with workers forced to return under pre-strike conditions. Factory workers labored long hours for low wages under dangerous conditions and lived in crowded tenement buildings around the mills; the factories moved to the South, where there were no labor unions, still moved overseas. In 1919 Paterson was one of eight locations bombed by self-identified anarchists. In 1932 Paterson opened Hinchliffe Stadium, a 10,000-seat stadium named in honor of John V. Hinchliffe, the city's mayor at the time. Hinchliffe Stadium served as the site for high school and professional athletic events. From 1933 to 1937 and 1939 to 1945, it was the home of the New York Black Yankees, from 1935 to 1936 the home of the New York Cubans of the Negro National League; the ballpark was a venue for professional football games and field events, boxing matches, auto and motorcycle racing. The comedy team of Bud Abbott and Lou Costello performed at Hinchliffe. Hinchliffe is one of only three Negro League stadiums left standing in the United States and is on the National Register of Historic Places.
Paterson Public Schools acquired the stadium in 1963 and used it for public school events until 1997, but it is now in di