Jack N. Rakove
Jack Norman Rakove is an American historian and professor at Stanford University. He is a Pulitzer Prize winner. Rakove was born in Chicago to his wife, Shirley; the elder Rakove taught at the University of Illinois at Barat College. Jack Rakove earned his AB in 1968 from Haverford College and his PhD in 1975 from Harvard University, he was a student at the University of Edinburgh from 1966 to 1967. At Harvard, he was a student of Bernard Bailyn. Rakove is the W. R. Coe Professor of History and American Studies and professor of political science at Stanford University, where he has taught since 1980, he taught at Colgate University from 1975 to 1980. He has been a visiting professor at the NYU School of Law. Rakove won the 1997 Pulitzer Prize for History and the 1998 Cox Book Prize for Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the Constitution which questioned whether originalism is a comprehensive and exhaustive means of interpreting the Constitution. Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America, was a finalist for the George Washington Book Prize.
The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress Alfred Knopf, 1979. A. Knopf, 1996, ISBN 9780394578583. Martin's, 1998, ISBN 9780312137342 Making a Hash of Sovereignty, Part I, The Green Bag, pages 35–44 Making a Hash of Sovereignty, Part II, The Green Bag The Unfinished Election of 2000. Basic Books. 1 September 2002. ISBN 978-0-465-06838-8. Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 11 May 2010. ISBN 0-547-48674-X. "Jack Rakove: Faculty Webpage", Stanford University Alan Pell Crawford, "A Revolution from Below", The Wall Street Journal, May 21, 2010 "Faculty Focus: Jack Rakove,", NYU School of Law, Autumn 2003 The Milton L. Rakove Papers, 1943–1984, University of Illinois at Chicago Video of discussion/debate with Rakove and Eugene Volokh on Bloggingheads.tv Appearances on C-SPAN Jack Rakove: Reflections on the Founding Period
Harvard Law Review
The Harvard Law Review is a law review published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the Harvard Law Review's 2015 impact factor of 4.979 placed the journal first out of 143 journals in the category "Law".<re>"Journals Ranked by Impact: Law". 2011 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science. Thomson Reuters. 2012.</ref> It is published monthly from November through June, with the November issue dedicated to covering the previous year's term of the Supreme Court of the United States. The journal publishes the online-only Harvard Law Review Forum, a rolling journal of scholarly responses to the main journal's content; the Harvard Law Review Association, in conjunction with the Columbia Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, the Yale Law Journal, publishes the Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, a followed authority for legal citation formats in the United States. The Harvard Law Review published its first issue on April 15, 1887, making it one of the oldest operating student-edited law reviews in the United States.
The establishment of the journal was due to the support of Louis Brandeis a recent Harvard Law School alumnus and Boston attorney who would go on to become a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. From the 1880s to the 1970s, editors were selected on the basis of their grades; the first female editor of the journal was Priscilla Holmes. The first female African-American president, ImeIme Umana, was elected in 2017. Gannett House, a white building constructed in the Greek Revival style, popular in New England during the mid-to-late 19th century, has been home to the Harvard Law Review since the 1920s. Before moving into Gannett House, the journal resided in the Law School's Austin Hall. Since the change of criteria in the 1970s, grades are no longer the primary basis of selection for editors. Membership in the Harvard Law Review is offered to select Harvard law students based on first-year grades and performance in a writing competition held at the end of the first year except for twelve slots that are offered on a discretionary basis.
The writing competition includes two components: an edit of an unpublished article and an analysis of a recent United States Supreme Court or Court of Appeals case. The writing competition submissions are graded blindly to assure anonymity. Fourteen editors are selected based on a combination of their first-year grades and their competition scores. Twenty editors are selected based on their competition scores; the remaining twelve editors are selected on a discretionary basis. According to the law review's webpage, "Some of these discretionary slots may be used to implement the Review's affirmative action policy." The president of the Harvard Law Review is elected by the other editors. It has been a long tradition since the first issue, that the works of students published in the Harvard Law Review are called "notes," and they are unsigned as part of a policy reflecting "the fact that many members of the Review besides the author make a contribution to each published piece." Prominent alumni of the Harvard Law Review include: Barack Obama, served as president of volume 104 Stephen Breyer, served as articles editor of volume 77 Felix Frankfurter Ruth Bader Ginsburg, served as editor for one year before transferring to Columbia Law School Elena Kagan, served as supervising editor of volume 99 John G. Roberts, Jr. served as managing editor for volume 92 Antonin Scalia, served as notes editor for volume 73 Edward Sanford David J. Barron, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, served as articles editor Michael Boudin, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, served as president of volume 77 Henry Friendly, late judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, served as president Merrick Garland, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, served as articles editor Harris Hartz, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, served as case and developments editor Ketanji Brown Jackson, judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, supervising editor of volume 109.
Gregory G. Katsas, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, executive editor of volume 102. William Kayatta, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit Pierre Leval, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, served as notes editor Debra Ann Livingston, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit James Kenneth Logan, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit Kevin C. Newsom, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, articles editor of volume 110. Nina Pillard, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit James L. Oakes, late judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit Learned Hand, late judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, served as an editor but res
The Diane Rehm Show
The Diane Rehm Show is a call-in show based in the United States that aired nationally on NPR. In October 2007, The Diane Rehm Show was named to the Audience Research Analysis list of the top ten most powerful national programs in public radio, the only talk show on the list. ACT 1 Systems Inc. using Nielsen audience data, estimated that the program at that time had "1.7 million listeners," a number, revised upward to 2.4 million listeners in December 2015. It hosted by Diane Rehm; the show debuted on WAMU in the 1970s as Kaleidoscope, a weekday morning arts and discussion program. Diane took over as host in 1979, the show became The Diane Rehm Show in 1984; the final broadcast of The Diane Rehm Show was aired on December 23, 2016. As of January 2, 2017, WAMU broadcasts 1A in the same timeslot; the show aired live Monday through Friday from 10:00 to 12:00 EST, but some local stations re-aired it at times. The first hour of the show was an in-depth discussion of a theme in the news, it was an interview with a newsmaker.
Two examples of past show topics for the first hour include "European & Arab Media on the U. S. in Iraq" and "Drug-Resistant Bacteria". The second hour was either an interview with an author about a book or a segment of general interest; the books covered a wide range of subjects and opinions. Rhem allowed callers to call in an interact with the author directly resulting in a lively debate. There were recurring features; each Friday, there was a two-hour weekly "News Roundup" where the major national and international headlines of the past week were discussed by reporters. The first hour was devoted to the second to international stories. A monthly "Reader's Review" was when older books are discussed; the show was produced by Sandra Pinkard, Nancy Robertson, Susan Nabors and Denise Couture, Monique Nazareth and Sarah Ashworth. The engineers were Tobey Schreiner, Jonathan Charry, Timothy Olmstead, Andrew Chadwick. Natalie Yuravlivker answered the phones. Streaming recordings of the show are available via the official web site.
Diane Rehm hosted the show from 1979, when it was titled'Kaleidoscope'. The show was sometimes guest hosted when Rehm was out for treatment for her spasmodic dysphonia, by a rotating list of NPR and NPR-related hosts including Susan Page, Tom Gjelten, Steve Roberts, Terence Smith, Frank Sesno, Andrea Seabrook, Katty Kay. In March 2007, Rehm missed shows due to a bout of pneumonia. In March 2007, Diane Rehm suffered severe and painful corneal burns when she sprayed perfume on her contact lens during a trip to Oklahoma City. Rehm said that she labeled the identical three-ounce tinted plastic bottles to show they held different solutions but that the labels became blurred and hard to read without her lenses in. From August 21 into September 2009, Susan Page, of USA Today, filled in for the sidelined host reporting that Rehm "caught her heel in the hem of her slacks while she was dashing across the street yesterday afternoon, she cracked her pelvis when she fell." Rehm's spasmodic dysphonia has required her to miss several shows in recent years.
Rehm announced her retirement from the show on December 8, 2015. The final broadcast of The Diane Rehm Show was aired on December 23, 2016. Awards won include: the 2002 New York Festival Bronze World Medal for Best Regularly Scheduled Talk Program Interview, the 2002 American Bar Association Silver Gavel Honorable Mention, the 1999 New York Festival's Bronze World Medal, two 1999 American Women in Radio and Television first place Gracie Allen Awards. In 2009, Diane Rehm won a coveted George Foster Peabody Award; the Diane Rehm Show webpage University of Maryland Television interview with Diane Rehm posted by the Research Channel
Second Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, 1791 as part of the Bill of Rights. In the 2008 Heller decision, the Supreme Court affirmed for the first time that the right belongs to individuals for self-defense in the home, while including, as dicta, that the right is not unlimited and does not preclude the existence of certain long-standing prohibitions such as those forbidding "the possession of firearms by felons and the mentally ill" or restrictions on "the carrying of dangerous and unusual weapons." State and local governments are limited to the same extent as the federal government from infringing this right. The Second Amendment was based on the right to keep and bear arms in English common law and was influenced by the English Bill of Rights of 1689. Sir William Blackstone described this right as an auxiliary right, supporting the natural rights of self-defense and resistance to oppression, the civic duty to act in concert in defense of the state.
While both James Monroe and John Adams supported the Constitution being ratified, its most influential framer was James Madison. In Federalist No. 46, Madison wrote how a federal army could be kept in check by state militias, "a standing army... would be opposed a militia." He argued that state militias "would be able to repel the danger" of a federal army, "It may well be doubted, whether a militia thus circumstanced could be conquered by such a proportion of regular troops." He contrasted the federal government of the United States to the European kingdoms, which he described as "afraid to trust the people with arms," and assured that "the existence of subordinate governments... forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition". By January 1788, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Connecticut ratified the Constitution without insisting upon amendments. Several amendments were not adopted at the time the Constitution was ratified. For example, the Pennsylvania convention debated fifteen amendments, one of which concerned the right of the people to be armed, another with the militia.
The Massachusetts convention ratified the Constitution with an attached list of proposed amendments. In the end, the ratification convention was so evenly divided between those for and against the Constitution that the federalists agreed to the Bill of Rights to assure ratification. In United States v. Cruikshank, the Supreme Court ruled that, "The right to bear arms is not granted by the Constitution; the Second Amendments means no more than that it shall not be infringed by Congress, has no other effect than to restrict the powers of the National Government." In United States v. Miller, the Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment did not protect weapon types not having a "reasonable relationship to the preservation or efficiency of a well regulated militia."In the twenty-first century, the amendment has been subjected to renewed academic inquiry and judicial interest. In District of Columbia v. Heller, the Supreme Court handed down a landmark decision that held the amendment protects an individual's right to keep a gun for self-defense.
This was the first time the Court had ruled that the Second Amendment guarantees an individual's right to own a gun. In McDonald v. Chicago, the Court clarified that the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment incorporated the Second Amendment against state and local governments. In Caetano v. Massachusetts, the Supreme Court reiterated its earlier rulings that "the Second Amendment extends, prima facie, to all instruments that constitute bearable arms those that were not in existence at the time of the founding" and that its protection is not limited to "only those weapons useful in warfare." The debate between various organizations regarding gun control and gun rights continues. There are several versions of the text of the Second Amendment, each with capitalization or punctuation differences. Differences exist between the drafted and ratified copies, the signed copies on display, various published transcriptions; the importance of these differences has been a source of debate regarding the meaning and interpretation of the amendment regarding the importance of the prefatory clause.
One version was passed by the Congress, a different version was ratified. As passed by the Congress and preserved in the National Archives, with the rest of the original handwritten copy of the Bill of Rights prepared by scribe William Lambert, the amendment says: A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed; the amendment was ratified by the States and authenticated by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson as: A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. The right to bear arms in English history is regarded in English law as a subordinate auxiliary right of the primary rights to personal security, personal liberty, private property. According to Sir William Blackstone, "The... last auxiliary right of the subject... is that of having arms for their, suitable to their condition and degree, such as are allowed by law.
Which is... declared by... statute, is indeed a public allowance, under due restrictions, of the natural right of resistance and self-preservation, when the sanctions of society and laws are found insufficient to restrain the violence of oppression."The English Bill of Rights of 1689 emerged from a tempestuous period in English politi
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Founding Fathers of the United States
The Founding Fathers of the United States, or the Founding Fathers, were a group of philosophers and writers who led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain. Most were descendants of colonists settled in the Thirteen Colonies in North America. Historian Richard B. Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as the key Founding Fathers: Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison. Adams and Franklin were members of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence. Hamilton and Jay were authors of The Federalist Papers, advocating ratification of the Constitution; the constitutions drafted by Jay and Adams for their respective states of New York and Massachusetts were relied upon when creating language for the U. S. Constitution. Jay and Franklin negotiated the Treaty of Paris that would end the American Revolutionary War. Washington was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and was President of the Constitutional Convention.
All held additional important roles in the early government of the United States, with Washington, Adams and Madison serving as President. Jay was the nation's first Chief Justice, Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury, Franklin was America's most senior diplomat, the governmental leader of Pennsylvania; the term Founding Fathers is sometimes used to refer to the Signers of the embossed version of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Signers should not be confused with the term Framers. Of the 55 Framers, only 39 were signers of the Constitution. Two further groupings of Founding Fathers include: 1) those who signed the Continental Association, a trade ban and one of the colonists' first collective volleys protesting British control and the Intolerable Acts in 1774, or 2) those who signed the Articles of Confederation, the first U. S. constitutional document. The phrase "Founding Fathers" is a 20th-century appellation, coined by Warren G. Harding in 1916. Prior to, during the 19th century, they were referred to as the "Fathers".
The term has been used to describe first settlers of the original royal colonies. The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1774, consisting of 56 delegates from all thirteen American colonies except Georgia. Among them was George Washington, who would soon be drawn out of military retirement to command the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. In attendance was Patrick Henry, John Adams, who like all delegates were elected by their respective colonial assemblies. Other delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts, John Dickinson from Pennsylvania and New York's John Jay; this congress in addition to formulating appeals to the British crown, established the Continental Association to administer boycott actions against Britain. When the Second Continental Congress convened on May 10, 1775, it reconstituted the First Congress. Many of the same 56 delegates who attended the first meeting participated in the second. New arrivals included Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, John Hancock of Massachusetts, John Witherspoon of New Jersey.
Hancock was elected Congress President two weeks into the session when Peyton Randolph was recalled to Virginia to preside over the House of Burgesses. Thomas Jefferson replaced Randolph in the Virginia congressional delegation; the second Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Witherspoon was the only active clergyman to sign the Declaration, he signed the Articles of Confederation and attended the New Jersey convention that ratified the Federal Constitution. The newly founded country of the United States had to create a new government to replace the British Parliament; the U. S. adopted the Articles of Confederation, a declaration that established a national government with a one-house legislature. Its ratification by all thirteen colonies gave the second Congress a new name: the Congress of the Confederation, which met from 1781 to 1789; the Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia. Although the Convention was called to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset for some including James Madison and Alexander Hamilton was to create a new frame of government rather than amending the existing one.
The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the United States Constitution and the replacement of the Continental Congress with the United States Congress; the Founding Fathers represented a cross-section of 18th-century U. S. leadership. According to a study of the biographies by Caroline Robbins: The Signers came for the most part from an educated elite, were residents of older settlements, belonged with a few exceptions to a moderately well-to-do class representing only a fraction of the population. Native or born overseas, they were of the Protestant faith. All of them were leaders in their communities. Many were prominent in national affairs; every one had taken part in the American Revolution. Scholars have examined the collective biography of them as well as the signers of the Declaration and the Constitution. Many of the Founding Fathers attended or held degrees from the colonial colleges, most notably Columbia known at the time as "King's College", Princeton or