Ipomoea cairica is a species of morning glory which has many common names, including mile-a-minute vine, Messina creeper, Cairo morning glory, coast morning glory and railroad creeper. This vining perennial large, showy white to lavender flowers; each fruit contains hairy seeds. Its native range is uncertain, though it is believed to originate from a rather wide area, ranging from Cape Verde to the Arabian Peninsula, including northern Africa; because of human dispersal, it occurs today on most continents as an introduced species and is sometimes a noxious weed. It is a major problem along the coast of New South Wales. In the United States it occurs in Hawaii, all the gulf coast states, as well as Arkansas and Missouri; some plant nurseries sell this plant as an ornamental. It can grow as a separate plant. Media related to Ipomoea cairica at Wikimedia Commons Jepson Manual Treatment Ipomoea cairica in West African plants – A Photo Guide
Cockington is a village in Torquay in the English county of Devon. It has old cottages within its boundaries, is about a half a mile away from Torquay; the village was founded 2,500 years ago during the Iron Age with evidence of two hill forts on either side of Cockington valley. Little is known about Cockington from that point up until the remains of a small Saxon village were found near the Drum Inn; the evidence from this village shows that it was a fishing and farming village. The first official documentation of the village was in the 10th century; the manor was owned by Alric the Saxon, before William Hostiarus, William de Falesia and Robert FitzMartin, who passed it down to his son Roger, who renounced his name to become Roger de Cockington. The Cockington family owned Cockington Estate from 1048–1348; the Cary family owned the court from 1375 to 1654. It was sold to the Mallock family a family of rich silversmiths from Exeter, who owned it from 1654 to 1932 when they sold the estate to the Torquay Corporation.
There are several buildings of note in Cockington. The park, now home to the cricket grounds was a medieval deer park. Cricket started to be played on it in 1947; the current cricket pavilion was built after the original burnt down ten years ago. The Drum Inn is the local pub/restaurant in Cockington. Designed by Edwin Lutyens, it opened in 1936 to replace the old ale-house; the Almshouses consist of seven terraced cottages built during the reign of King James I of England by the Cary family to house the poor and those who could not work within the village. When the Mallock family took over the Cockington estate, the almshouses fell into disrepair, they were rebuilt between 1790 and 1810. The Court was the mansion house of the Mallock family, remains the focal point of the estate. Built in the 16th century, it has few architectural features remaining from but was altered and extended several times in 1673 by Rawlyn Mallock and about 1820 by the Rev'd Roger Mallock, he had the top floor removed and the interior remodelled.
Its historical significance merits great care in maintaining its existing fabric and in ensuring new elements are sympathetically designed. Cockington Court was built over the remains of a medieval court. A far cry from the days of the Cary family when it was an actual court, it is now filled with various arts and crafts workshops. In her youth, Agatha Christie visited Cockington, her novel Why Didn't They Ask Evans? is dedicated to Christopher Mallock. The Mallock family were friends of Christie's from the years before her first marriage; the Mallocks staged amateur theatricals at Cockington Court, in which Christie, managing to overcome her usual crippling shyness, took part. Cockington Church, estimated to have been standing since 1069 built by William de Falaise. A water mill, in the middle of the village. Chronologer Robert Cary was born in Cockington in about 1615. Robert Sweet and author, was born in the village. History of Torquay Cockington Court
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Torquay is a seaside town in Devon, part of the unitary authority area of Torbay. It lies 18 miles south of the county town of Exeter and 28 miles east-north-east of Plymouth, on the north of Tor Bay, adjoining the neighbouring town of Paignton on the west of the bay and across from the fishing port of Brixham; the town's economy, like Brixham's, was based upon fishing and agriculture, but in the early 19th century it began to develop into a fashionable seaside resort frequented by members of the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars while the Royal Navy anchored in the bay. As the town's fame spread, it was popular with Victorian society. Renowned for its mild climate, the town earned the nickname the English Riviera; the writer Agatha Christie was born in the town and lived there during her early years and there is an "Agatha Christie Mile", a tour with plaques dedicated to her life and work. Torquay's name originates in its being the quay of the ancient village of Torre. In turn, Torre takes its name from the tor, the extensively quarried remains of which can be seen by the town's Lymington Road thus giving this the original name of Torrequay Torkay and Tor Quay before joining the words together to Torquay.
The area comprising modern Torquay has been inhabited since Paleolithic times. Hand axes found in Kents Cavern have been dated as 40,000 years old, a maxilla fragment, known as Kents Cavern 4, may be the oldest example of a modern human in Europe, dating back to 37,000–40,000 years ago. Roman soldiers are known to have visited Torquay during the period when Britain was a part of the Roman Empire, leaving offerings at a curious rock formation in Kents Cavern, known as "The Face". No evidence has been found of Roman settlement in the town; the first major building in Torquay was Torre Abbey, a Premonstratensian monastery founded in 1196. Torquay remained a minor settlement until the Napoleonic wars, when Torbay was used as a sheltered anchorage by the Channel Fleet, relatives of officers visited Torquay; the mild climate attracted many visitors who considered the town a convalescence retreat where they could recover from illness away from the cold and cloudy winters of more northerly or easterly locations.
The population of Torquay grew from 838 in 1801, to 11,474 in 1851. The second phase in the expansion of Torquay began when Torre railway station was opened on 18 December 1848; the improved transport connections resulted in rapid growth at the expense of nearby towns not on Isambard Kingdom Brunel's railways. The more central Torquay railway station was opened on 2 August 1859 with views of the sea from the platforms. After the growth of the preceding decades, Torquay was granted borough status in 1872. Regarded as a convalescence retreat, Torquay began to encourage summer visitors, 1902 saw the first advertising campaign to market Torquay to summer tourists. Torquay Tramways operated electric street trams from 1907, they were powered by the unusual Dolter stud-contact electrification so as not to disfigure the town with overhead wires, but in 1911 was converted to more conventional overhead-line supply. The line was extended into Paignton in 1911 but the network was closed in 1934; the Royal National Lifeboat Institution's Torquay Lifeboat Station was at the Ladies Bathing Cove from 1876 until 1923.
A second lifeboat was kept at the harbour from 1917 until 1928. Torquay was regarded as a "Spa Town". Called the "Bath Saloons complex", it had an open air tide-filled swimming bath; the complex was opened in 1853. Charles Dickens was said to have made readings there. In the 1900s a ballroom and a new sea water-filled swimming pool were built; the Marine Spa provided various therapies such as seaweed baths, douche showers and cold water baths and electric shock treatment. Bands such as Ivy Benson and Ted Heath played at Marine Spa ballroom. Four stone arches that were part of the Marine Spa are still visible on the outside of the harbour wall. During World War I, military hospitals were sited in Torquay – many survivors from the Battle of Gallipoli recuperated in the town – and it was used as a troop staging area. In September 1915 King George V and Queen Mary visited. After the war the Great Western Railway launched an advertising campaign to attract tourists, this helped the town grow to a major south coast resort.
During World War II Torquay was regarded as safer than the towns of South East England, played host to evacuees from the London area, the town did however suffer minor bomb damage during the war from planes dumping excess loads after participating in the Plymouth Blitz. The last air raid on Torquay took place on 29 May 1944 shortly before the D-Day landings in June and, in the months leading up to D-Day, thousands of US Army personnel arrived with the 3204th Quartermaster Service Company billeted in Chelston and Cockington. During Operation Overlord more than 23,000 men of the American 4th Infantry Division departed Torquay for Utah Beach; the water sport events of the 1948 Summer Olympic Games were held in Torquay, the Olympic flame brought from London to Torre Abbey Gardens. Although it did not host any Olympic events for the 2012 Summer Olympics, with the sailing taking place in Weymouth, Torbay looked to host teams as a preparation camp and the flame passed through once more on its route around the UK.
After World War II several private high-rise blocks of flats were constructed above the Rock Walk cliffs and harbour, giving the area a Monte Carlo feel. In 1971, after a tragedy, the Marine Spa was demolished to make way for the ill-fated Coral Island l
Lablab purpureus is a species of bean in the family Fabaceae. It is native to Africa and it is cultivated throughout the tropics for food. English language common names include hyacinth bean, lablab-bean bonavist bean/pea, dolichos bean, seim bean, lablab bean, Egyptian kidney bean, Indian bean and Australian pea, it is the only species in the monotypic genus Lablab. The plant is variable due to extensive breeding in cultivation, but in general, they are annual or short-lived perennial vines; the wild species is perennial. The thick stems can reach six meters in length; the leaves are made up of three pointed leaflets each up to 15 centimeters long. They may be hairy on the undersides; the inflorescence is made up of racemes of many flowers. Some cultivars have white flowers, others may have purplish or blue; the fruit is a legume pod variable in shape and color. It is several centimeters long and bright purple to pale green, it contains up to four seeds. The seeds are white, red, or black depending on the cultivar, sometimes with a white hilum.
Wild plants have mottled seeds. The seed is about a centimeter long; the hyacinth bean is multi-purpose crop. Due to seed availability of one forage cultivar, it is grown as forage for livestock and as an ornamental plant. In addition, it is cited both as a poisonous plant; the fruit and beans are edible. Otherwise, they are toxic due to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides, glycosides that are converted to hydrogen cyanide when consumed. Signs of poisoning include weakness, dyspnea, twitching and convulsions, it has been shown. The leaves are cooked like spinach; the flowers can be eaten steamed. The root can be baked for food; the seeds are used to make tempeh. In Bangladesh and West Bengal, the green pods along with the beans, known as Sheem, are cooked as vegetables or cooked with fish as a curry. In China, the seeds are known as Bai Bian Dou, they are dried and baked before being used in traditional Chinese herbal remedies to strengthen spleen, reduce heat and dampness, promote appetite. In Kerala, it is known as Avara or Amara Payar.
The beans as well as the bean pods are used in cooking curries. The bean pods are used for preparing stir-fried dish known as Thoran. In Maharashtra, dry preparations with green masala is made out of these green beans found at the end of monsoon during fasting festivals of Shravan month. In Karnataka, the hyacinth bean is made into curry, added to upma, as a flavoring to Akki rotti. Sometimes the outer peel of the seed is taken out and the inner soft part is used for a variety of dishes; this form is called hitakubele avarekalu, which means "pressed hyancinth bean, a curry known as Hitikida Avarekaalu Saaru is made out of this deskinned beans. In Telangana and Andra Pradesh, the bean pods are cut into small pieces and cooked as spicy curry in Pongal festival season. Sometimes the outer peel of the seed when tender and soaked over night is taken out and the inner soft part is used for a variety of dishes; this form is called pitakapappu,hanupa/anapa, which means "pressed hyancinth bean, a curry known as Pitikida Anapaginjala Chaaru is made out of this deskinned beans along with bajra bread.
In Huế, hyacinth beans are the main ingredient of the dish chè đậu ván. In Kenya, the bean called'Njahe' is popular among several communities the Kikuyu. Seasons were based on it i.e the Season of Njahe. It is thought to encourage lactation and has been the main dish for breastfeeding mothers. Beans are mashed with ripe and/or semi-ripe bananas, giving the dish a sweet taste. Today the production is in decline in eastern Africa; this is attributed to the fact that under colonial rule in Kenya, farmers were forced to give up their local bean in order to produce common beans for export. Other common names include Tonga bean, papaya bean, poor man bean and butter bean. According to the British biologist and taxonomist Bernard Verdcourt, there are two cultivated subspecies of Lablab purpureus Sweet: Lablab purpureus subsp. Bengalensis Verdc. and Lablab purpureus subsp. Purpureusin addition to one wild subspecies: Lablab purpureus subsp. Uncinatusof which a special variant with lobed leaflets exists only in Namibia: Lablab purpureus var. rhomboïdeus.
Fakhoury, A. M.. P.. "Inhibition of Growth of Aspergillus flavusand Fungal α-Amylases by a Lectin-Like Protein from Lablab purpureus". Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 14: 955–61. Doi:10.1094/MPMI.2001.14.8.955. PMID 11497467. Hendricksen, R.. J.. "The feed intake and grazing behaviour of cattle grazing a crop of Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai"; the Journal of Agricultural Science. 95: 547–54. Doi:10.1017/S0021859600087955. Hendricksen, RE. "The voluntary intake and retention time by cattle and sheep of stem and leaf fractions of a tropical legume". Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 32: 389–98. Doi:10.1071/AR9810389. Hum
George Bentham was an English botanist, described by the weed botanist Duane Isely as "the premier systematic botanist of the nineteenth century". Bentham was born in Stoke, Plymouth, on 22 September 1800, his father, Sir Samuel Bentham, a naval architect, was the only brother of Jeremy Bentham to survive into adulthood. His mother, Mary Sophia Bentham, was a author. George Bentham had a remarkable linguistic aptitude. By the age of seven he could speak French and Russian, he learned Swedish during a short residence in Sweden while still a child; the family made a long tour through France, staying two years at Montauban, where Bentham studied Hebrew and mathematics in the Protestant Theological School. They settled near Montpellier where Sir Samuel bought a large estate. While studying at Angoulême, Bentham came across a copy of A. P. de Candolle's Flore française, became interested in the analytical tables for identifying plants. He tested them on the first plant he saw; the result was successful and he applied it to every plant he came across.
In London in 1823, he met English botanists. His uncle pushed him to study law at Lincoln's Inn, he was called in 1832 held his first and only legal brief. However, his interest in botany never flagged and he became secretary of the Horticultural Society of London from 1829 to 1840. In 1832, he inherited the property of Jeremy Bentham. Having inherited his father's estate the previous year, he was now sufficiently well off to do whatever he wanted, botany and logic. Bentham married Sarah Jones, daughter of Sir Harford Jones Brydges, on 11 April 1833. Bentham died at his London home on 10 September 1884, aged 83, he was laid to rest in Brompton Cemetery. Bentham's life spanned the Darwinian revolution, his young colleague Joseph Dalton Hooker was Darwin's closest friend and one of the first to accept Darwin's ideas; until Bentham unquestioningly believed that species were fixed. In 1874 he wrote that "Fifteen years have sufficed to establish a theory ". Bentham's conversion to the new line of thought was complete, included a change from typology in taxonomy to an appreciation that "We cannot form an idea of a species from a single individual, nor of a genus from a single one of its species.
We can no more set up a typical species than a typical individual." Bentham was awarded the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 1859 and elected a Fellow in 1862. He served as president of the Linnean Society of London from 1861 to 1874, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1866. He was appointed CMG in 1878, his foreign awards included the Clarke Medal of the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1879. Bentham's first publication was his Catalogue des plantes indigènes des Pyrénées et du Bas Languedoc, the result of a careful exploration of the Pyrenees in company with G. A. Walker Arnott, afterwards professor of botany in the University of Glasgow. In the catalogue Bentham adopted the principle from which he never deviated, of citing nothing at second-hand; this was followed by articles on various legal subjects: on codification, in which he disagreed with his uncle, on the laws affecting larceny and on the law of real property. But the most remarkable production of this period was the Outline of a new system of logic, with a critical examination of Dr Whately's Elements of Logic.
In this the principle of the quantification of the predicate was first explicitly stated. This Stanley Jevons declared to be undoubtedly the most fruitful discovery made in abstract logical science since the time of Aristotle. Before sixty copies had been sold the publisher became bankrupt and the stock went for wastepaper; the book passed into oblivion, it was not till 1873 that Bentham's claims to priority were vindicated against those of Sir William Hamilton by Herbert Spencer. In 1836 he published his Labiatarum genera et species. In preparing this work he visited, between 1830–1834, every European herbarium, several more than once; the following winter was passed in Vienna, where he produced his Commentationes de Leguminosarum generibus, published in the annals of the Vienna Museum. In 1842 he moved to Pontrilas in Herefordshire, his chief occupation for the next few years was his contributions to the Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, being carried on by his friend, A. P. de Candolle.
In all these dealt with some 4,730 species. In 1844, he provided the botanical descriptions for The Botany of the Voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; the editor, Richard Brinsley Hinds, had been surgeon on HMS Sulphur 1835-41 while she explored the Pacific coast of the Americas. In 1854 he found the maintenance of a library too expensive, he therefore offered them to the government on the understanding that they should form the foundation of such necessary aids to research in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. At the same time he contemplated the abandonment of botanical work. However, he yielded to the persuasion of Sir William Jackson Hooker, John Lindley and other scientific friends. In 1855 he took up his residence in London, worked at Kew for five days a week, with a brief summer holiday, from this time onwards till the end of his life. In 1857, the government sanctioned a scheme for the preparation of a series of Floras or descriptions in the English language of the indigenous plants of British colonies and possessions.
Bentham began with the Flora Hongkongensis in 1861, the first comprehensive work on any part of the little-known flora of China and Hong Kong, incl
Agonis flexuosa is a species of tree that grows in the south west of Western Australia. It is the most common of the Agonis species, is one of the most recognisable trees of Western Australia, being grown in parks and on road verges in Perth; the species is known as Western Australian peppermint, Swan River peppermint or peppermint, willow myrtle for its weeping habit. The Noongar peoples know the tree as Wanil, Wonong or Wannang. A. flexuosa occurs as a small and robust tree less than 10 metres tall, although it may grow to 15 metres. It has fibrous brown bark, long narrow dull-green leaves, clustered inflorescences of small white flowers in the axes, it grows in a weeping habit, looks remarkably like the weeping willow from a distance. Leaves reach a length of 150 mm, it is most identified by the powerful odour of peppermint emitted when the leaves are crushed or torn. It flowers between December; the fruit is 3 -- 4 mm across, with three valves containing many small seeds. The genus name Agonis comes from the Greek agon, "a cluster", referring to the arrangement of the fruits.
The species name flexuosa is Latin for "full of bends", referring to the zig-zag course of the stem, which changes direction at each leaf node. It was placed in the genus Leptospermum by Sprengel in 1819, but Schauer placed it in Agonis in 1844; the two recognised varieties are, Agonis flexuosa var. flexuosa, found in coastal areas of the Southwest, common. Agonis flexuosa var. latifolia, range restricted to West of Walpole to Cheyne Beach found at the Stirling Range. Horticultural variants are derived from the widespread population, growing as shrubs or trees and being flowerless; some commercially produced cultivars include Agonis ‘Belbra Gold’ and Agonis ‘Fairy Foliage’. The cultivar Agonis'Nana' is a dwarf form, seen in Perth as a hedge. Agonis flexuosa occurs in a subcoastal strip from just north of Perth, southward through the Swan Coastal Plain along the coast to outlying records east of Bremer Bay; the habitat includes limestone heath, stable dunes, sandy soils. The tree is used in mass plantings, such as street trees, has been introduced to Rottnest and Garden Islands near its native region.
Agonis flexuosa is an attractive specimen tree in temperate climates. However, care must be exercised in selecting it for small areas, as in a yard setting. Quick growing, the tree produces a large amount of detritus and its trunk sometimes becomes large and disproportionate to the rest of the tree. There are few species that grow under flexuosa trees, as the leaf litter can suppress understorey species. Flexuosa and var. Nana respond well to pruning and is pruned back to its main trunk to promote new growth and to keep a tidy and dense canopy. Without pruning, the canopy can become thin; the species, in some circumstances - such as when grown on rocky, terraced terrain - can grow buttress roots, but does in flat, sandy areas. Flexuosa trees can have a twist or spiral effect in the bark of their main trunks that increases with age evident in seedlings, it is not a species, used for Bonsai. The Noongar peoples used. "Agonis flexuosa". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
Boland, D. J.. Forest Trees of Australia. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0-643-05423-5. Blackall, W. E.. J.. How to Know Western Australian Wildflowers, Part 3A. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-160-6. Powell, Robert. Leaf and Branch: Trees and Tall Shrubs of Perth. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. ISBN 0-7309-3916-2