M*A*S*H (TV series)
M*A*S*H is an American war comedy-drama television series that aired on CBS from 1972 to 1983. It was developed by Larry Gelbart, adapted from the 1970 feature film M*A*S*H, which, in turn, was based on Richard Hooker's 1968 novel MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors; the series, produced with 20th Century Fox Television for CBS, follows a team of doctors and support staff stationed at the "4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital" in Uijeongbu, South Korea, during the Korean War. The show's title sequence features an instrumental-only version of "Suicide Is Painless," the original film's theme song; the show was created after an attempt to film the original book's sequel, M*A*S*H Goes to Maine, failed. The television series is the best-known of the M*A*S*H works, one of the highest-rated shows in U. S. television history. M * A * S * H aired weekly with most episodes being a half-hour in length; the series is categorized as a situation comedy, though it has been described as a "dark comedy" or a "dramedy" because of the dramatic subject matter.
The show is an ensemble piece revolving around key personnel in a United States Army Mobile Army Surgical Hospital in the Korean War. The "4077th MASH" was one of several surgical units in Korea. While the show is traditionally viewed as a comedy, many episodes had a more serious tone. Early seasons aired on network prime time while the Vietnam War was still going on, the show was forced to walk the fine line of commenting on that war while at the same time not seeming to protest it. For this reason, the show's discourse, under the cover of comedy questioned and grappled with America's role in the Cold War. Episodes were both plot- and character-driven, with several narrated by one of the show's characters as the contents of a letter home; the show's tone could move from silly to sobering from one episode to the next, with dramatic tension occurring between the civilian draftees of 4077th – Hawkeye, Trapper John, B. J. Hunnicutt, for example – who are forced to leave their homes to tend the wounded and dying of the war, the "regular Army" characters, such as Margaret Houlihan and Colonel Potter, who tend to represent patriotism and duty.
Other characters, such as Col. Blake, Maj. Winchester, Cpl. Klinger, help demonstrate various American civilian attitudes toward Army life, while guest characters played by such actors as Eldon Quick, Herb Voland, Mary Wickes, Tim O'Connor help further the show's discussion of America's place as Cold War war maker and peace maker. Through changes of personnel M*A*S*H maintained a constant ensemble cast, with four characters – Hawkeye, Father Mulcahy, Margaret Houlihan, Maxwell Klinger – on the show for all 11 seasons. Several other main characters departed or joined the program during its run, numerous guest actors and recurring characters were used; the writers found creating so many names difficult, used names from elsewhere. Note: Character appearances include double-length episodes as two appearances, making 260 in total; as the series progressed, it made a significant shift from being a comedy with dramatic undertones to a drama with comedic undertones. This was a result of changes in writing and production staff, rather than the cast defections of McLean Stevenson, Larry Linville, Wayne Rogers and Gary Burghoff.
Series co-creator and joke writer Larry Gelbart departed after Season 4, the first featuring Mike Farrell and Harry Morgan. This resulted in Farrell and Morgan having only a single season reading scripts featuring Gelbart's masterful comic timing, which defined the feel and rhythm of Seasons 1–4 featuring predecessors Rogers and Stevenson, respectively. Larry Linville and Executive Producer Gene Reynolds both departed at the conclusion of Season 5 in 1977, resulting in M*A*S*H being stripped of its original tight comedic foundation by the beginning of Season 6 — the debut of the Charles Winchester era. Whereas Gelbart and Reynolds were the comedic voice of M*A*S*H for the show's first five seasons, Alan Alda and newly promoted Executive Producer Burt Metcalfe became the new dramatic voice of M*A*S*H for Seasons 6–11. By the start of Season 8, the writing staff had been overhauled, with the departure of Gary Burghoff, M*A*S*H displayed a distinctively different feel, consciously moving between comedy and drama, unlike the seamless integration of its first five years.
The end of the Vietnam War in 1975 was a significant factor as to why storylines become less political in nature and more character driven. Several episodes experimented with the sitcom format: "Point of View" – shown from the perspective of a soldier with a throat wound "Dreams" – an idea of Alda's, where during a deluge of casualties, members of the 4077 take naps on a rotation basis, allowing the viewer to see the lyrical and disturbing dreams "A War For All Seasons" – features a story line that takes place over the course of 1951 "Life Time" – a precursor to the American television series 24, it utilizes the real time method of narrationAnother change was the infusion of story lines based on actual events and medical developments that materialized during the Korean War. Considerable research was done by the producers, including interviews with actual MASH surgeons and personnel to develop story lines roote
Gray Lady Down
Gray Lady Down is a 1978 American submarine disaster film by Universal Studios starring Charlton Heston, David Carradine, Stacy Keach, Ned Beatty, Ronny Cox and Rosemary Forsyth, includes the feature film debut of Christopher Reeve. It is based on David Lavallee's 1971 novel Event 1000. Aging, respected Captain Paul Blanchard is on his final submarine tour before promotion to command of a submarine squadron. Surfaced and returning to port, the submarine, USS Neptune, is struck by a Norwegian freighter enroute to New York in heavy fog. With the engine room flooded and its main propulsion disabled, the Neptune sinks to a depth of 1,450 feet on a canyon ledge above the ocean floor. A United States Navy rescue force, commanded by Captain Bennett, arrives on the scene, but Neptune is subsequently rolled by a gravity slide to a greater angle that does not allow the Navy's Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle to complete its work. A small experimental submersible, Snark, is brought in to assist with the rescue.
Snark is capable, but run by a U. S. Navy officer misfit, Captain Gates; the tiny submersible is the only hope for a rescue. The surviving members of the crew are rescued by the DSRV, thanks to Gates sacrificing himself by using the Snark to jam the Neptune in place as another gravity slide begins while the rescue is taking place. Moments the gravity slide pushes the Neptune and the Snark off the ledge and into the ocean's abyss; the film ends with a somber Blanchard climbing out of the DSRV and being welcomed aboard the rescue ship USS Pigeon by Bennett and his officers. Charlton Heston as Captain Paul Blanchard David Carradine as Captain Don Gates Stacy Keach as Captain Hal Bennett Ned Beatty as Mickey Stephen McHattie as Lieutenant Danny Murphy Ronny Cox as Commander David Samuelson Dorian Harewood as Lieutenant Fowler Rosemary Forsyth as Vickie Blanchard Hilly Hicks as HM3 Page Charles Cioffi as Vice Admiral Michael Barnes William Jordan as Waters Jack Rader as Chief of the Boat Harkness Michael O'Keefe as RM2 Harris Charlie Robinson as McAllister Christopher Reeve as Lieutenant JG Phillips Melendy Britt as Liz Bennett David Wilson as SK1 Hanson Robert Symonds as Secretary of Navy Charles Cyphers as Larson William Bryant as Rear Admiral at Pentagon Meeting Ted Gehring as Admiral at Pentagon Meeting James Davidson as Officer Michael Cavanaugh as P03 Peña Even though the submarine depicted in the movie is a Skate-class submarine, in the opening credits, footage of the real-life submarine USS Trout was filmed for Gray Lady Down, depicting the fictional USS Neptune.
Gray Lady Down re-used submarine special-effects footage and the large-scale submarine model used to portray the fictional submarine USS Tigerfish in the 1968 movie Ice Station Zebra to depict USS Neptune. The US Navy's USS Cayuga is featured in the film as the rescue ship USS Cayuga; the USS Pigeon and her DSRV were prominently featured in the movie. A Fall of Moondust, 1961 science-fiction novel about vehicle trapped under lunar surface with similar plot elements Gray Lady Down on IMDb Gray Lady Down at Rotten Tomatoes Gray Lady Down at AllMovie
Cold Case is an American police procedural television series which ran on CBS from September 28, 2003 to May 2, 2010. The series revolved around a fictionalized Philadelphia Police Department division that specializes in investigating cold cases. On May 18, 2010, CBS announced; the series aired in syndication, on Ion Television in the U. S. and on Viva in Canada. Sleuth aired the series occasionally. In 2011, the show aired on MyNetworkTV. Since September 3, the show made its debut on the new over-the-air channel Start TV; this show still airs on MBC Action. Due to the use of contemporary music in each episode, none of the seasons are presently available on DVD, due to music licensing issues; the show is set in Philadelphia and follows Detective Lilly Rush, a homicide detective with the Philadelphia Police Department, who specializes in "cold cases", or investigations which are no longer being pursued by the department. Rush was partnered with Detective Chris Lassing in the first five episodes and with Detective Scotty Valens for the remainder of the series.
They work under Lieutenant John Stillman and are assisted by other detectives from their squad—Nick Vera, Will Jeffries, beginning in season three, Kat Miller. Each episode would focus on a single investigation. All cases involved murders committed in Philadelphia, although investigations required travel outside the city. Cases were spread out over much of the previous century, with some as recent as a year or two old and others dating back to the 1910s; the show had cases begin with the team receiving a new lead or "new direction", such as an episode wherein a gun recovered at a gun buyback program turned out to be a murder weapon. As seasons went on this conceit was abandoned. Over the course of the episode, the detectives would interview witnesses associated with the crime and piece together the story of what led the victims to their death; these interviews were accompanied by flashback sequences to the time of the murder which dramatized the testimony. Witness testimony from people who would be revealed as the killer, was never false.
At most the guilty party would lie by omission, leaving out critical details, or stopping their narrative before they implicated themselves. The witness testimony was generally presented in chronological order so that it formed a cohesive linear story for the audience; the climax of the episode would include a true confession from the killer, along with a flashback showing what happened. There would be a montage of the offender being arrested, with the spirit of the victim seen by one of the detectives, looking on approvingly. During this sequence a song from the time period would play. Through the flashbacks, the show examined many issues related to 20th century American history, including: racism, sexism and police brutality; some of the cases were based on real life events or victims, akin to the "ripped from the headlines" style from shows like Law & Order. The theme song is an excerpt from "Nara" by E. S. Posthumus, with an introduction by series composer Michael A. Levine that begins with an otherworldly wail from vocalist Elise Morris.
Besides Levine's original music, each episode makes extensive use of era-appropriate music for flashbacks to the year in question. Some episodes contain music only from one artist such as Ray Charles, U2, Bruce Springsteen, Pearl Jam, The Doors, John Mellencamp, Johnny Cash, Bob Seger, Pink Floyd, Tim McGraw, Bob Dylan, Frank Sinatra and John Lennon. Pearl Jam's music was used in the two-part season-six finale, the first time one artist's music has been used for two full episodes. In one episode, the music from the movie The Rocky Horror Picture Show and in another episode only music from Cabaret was used. In the series finale, music from The Rolling Stones was used, for the first time, it featured an unreleased song. Original Songs of the series: "Best Friends" – Episode: "Best Friends" "One Dress Left" – Episode: "Beautiful Little Fool" "300 Flowers" – Episode: "Beautiful Little Fool" "Scarlet Rose" – Episode: "Static" "Goin' Off" – Episode: "Read Between The Lines" "Read Between The Lines" – Episode: "Read Between The Lines" Kathryn Morris as Lilly Rush, a senior detective assigned to the Philadelphia Homicide Division.
Justin Chambers as Chris Lassing, a detective. Lilly's original partner. Danny Pino as Scotty Valens, a detective. Lilly's second partner. John Finn as John Stillman, a lieutenant and the head of Philadelphia Homicide. Jeremy Ratchford as Nick Vera, a detective assigned to Homicide. Thom Barry as Will Jeffries, a senior detective, Homicide's second-in-command. Tracie Thoms as Kat Miller, a Narcotics detective who joins Homicide. Danny Pino appeared as Valens in the CSI: NY episode “Cold Reveal”; this episode connected Cold Case to not only CSI: NY, but to CSI: Miami, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, CSI: Cyber, Without a Trace. A Japanese remake of the series was broadcast from October 22, 2016 to December 24, 2016. A second season was broadcast from October 13, 2018 to December 15, 2018. In 2005, John Finn, Kathryn Morris and Jeremy Ratchford appeared in a satirical promo on the Irish language television station TG4; the commercial won a Gol
Dynasty (1981 TV series)
Dynasty is an American prime time television soap opera that aired on ABC from January 12, 1981 to May 11, 1989. The series, created by Richard and Esther Shapiro and produced by Aaron Spelling, revolves around the Carringtons, a wealthy family residing in Denver, Colorado. Dynasty stars John Forsythe as oil magnate Blake Carrington, Linda Evans as his new wife Krystle, Joan Collins as his former wife Alexis. Dynasty was conceived by ABC to compete with CBS's prime time series Dallas. Ratings for the show's first season were unimpressive, but a revamp for the second season that included the arrival of Collins as scheming Alexis saw ratings enter the top 20. By the fall of 1982, it was a top 10 show, by the spring of 1985, it was the #1 show in the United States; the series declined in popularity during its final two seasons, it was cancelled in the spring of 1989 after nine seasons and 220 episodes. A two-part miniseries, Dynasty: The Reunion, aired in October 1991. A reboot series with a new cast premiered on The CW in October 2017.
Dynasty was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best TV Drama Series every year from 1981 to 1986, winning in 1983. The series spawned a successful line of fashion and luxury products, a spin-off series called The Colbys. Other notable cast members included Pamela Sue Martin, Lloyd Bochner, Heather Locklear, Catherine Oxenberg, Michael Nader, Diahann Carroll, Emma Samms, Rock Hudson, Kate O'Mara and Stephanie Beacham. Aaron Spelling well known for his successful ABC series, including Starsky and Hutch, Charlie's Angels, The Love Boat, Fantasy Island, Vega$ and Hart to Hart, took on Richard and Esther Shapiro's vision of a rich and powerful family who "lived and sinned" in a 48-room Denver mansion. Esther Shapiro said that an inspiration for the show was I, Claudius, a fictionalized depiction of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of Roman emperors. Shapiro said in 1985, "We wanted to do something that would be an American fantasy. We thought. We wanted a strong, nineteenth-century sort of family where people were in conflict but loved each other in spite of everything."Intended by ABC to be a competitor for CBS's Dallas, the working title for Dynasty was Oil.
In early drafts of the pilot script, the two main families featured in the series were known as the Parkhursts and Corbys. George Peppard was cast as series patriarch Blake Carrington, but had difficulties dealing with the somewhat unsympathetic role, was replaced with John Forsythe. Filmed in 1980, the pilot was among many delayed due to a strike precipitated by animosity between the television networks and the partnership of the Screen Actors Guild and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. Dynasty premiered on ABC as a three-hour event on January 12, 1981. During its run, Dynasty explored issues like rape and racial integration, put middle-aged women in the forefront. Acknowledging that the show is, however entertaining, producer Douglas S. Cramer said, "We walk a fine line, just this side of camp. Careful calculations are made. We sense that while it might be wonderful for Krystle and Alexis to have a catfight in a koi pond, it would be inappropriate for Joan to smack Linda with a koi."
As Dynasty begins on January 12, 1981, powerful oil tycoon Blake Carrington is about to marry the younger Krystle Jennings, his former secretary. Beautiful and new to Blake's world, Krystle finds a hostile reception in the Carrington household — the staff patronizes her, Blake's headstrong and promiscuous daughter Fallon resents her. Though devoted to Krystle, Blake himself is too preoccupied with his company, Denver-Carrington, blind to Krystle's predicament, her only ally is her stepson Steven, whose complicated relationship with Blake stems from their fundamental political differences and Steven's resistance to step into his role as future leader of the Carrington empire. Meanwhile, better suited to follow in Blake's footsteps, is underestimated by and considered little more than a trophy to her father, she channels her energies into toying with various male suitors, including the Carrington chauffeur Michael Culhane. At the end of the three-hour premiere episode "Oil", Steven confronts his father, criticizing Blake's capitalistic values and amoral business practices.
Blake explodes, revealing the secret of which Steven thought his father was unaware: Blake is disgusted by Steven's homosexuality, his refusal to "conform" sets father and son at odds for some time. In counterpoint to the Carringtons are the Blaisdels. Returning from an extended assignment in the Middle East, Matthew quits and goes into business with wildcatter Walter Lankershim, as Blake's behavior begins pushing Krystle toward Matthew, the men are set as both business and romantic rivals. Blake is further enraged when Steven goes to work for longtime friend Matthew, in whom Steven sees qualities lacking in Blake. Though in a relationship with another man, Steven finds himself drawn to Claudia, putting her life back together after spending time in a psychiatric hospital. Esther Shapiro said in the DVD commentary of the first season, "The audience told us immediately: All they wanted to do was be in the mansion. Couldn't care less about the oil fields, they didn't want to see grubby rooms."Fallon makes a secret business deal with Blake's old frie
Primary Colors (film)
Primary Colors is a 1998 American comedy-drama film directed by Mike Nichols. The screenplay by Elaine May was adapted from the novel Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics, a roman à clef about Bill Clinton's first presidential campaign in 1992, published anonymously, but in 1996 was revealed to have been written by journalist Joe Klein, covering Clinton's campaign for Newsweek; the film starred John Travolta, Emma Thompson, Billy Bob Thornton, Kathy Bates, Maura Tierney, Larry Hagman and Adrian Lester. It was critically acclaimed but was a box office bomb, earning $52 million from a $65 million budget. Bates was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance, May was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay. Young political idealist and grandson of a civil rights leader Henry Burton is recruited to join the campaign of Jack Stanton, a charismatic Southern governor, trying to win the Democratic Party nomination for President of the United States.
Henry is impressed by empathy with people. He joins Stanton's inner circle of political advisers: Susan Stanton. After Stanton completes an impressive debate performance against his Democratic rivals, Henry's ex-girlfriend shows up to question Stanton about his arrest for an anti-war protest during the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago. In addition it's revealed that Stanton called a U. S. senator to help him get released Stanton persuaded the mayor of Chicago to have his police record expunged. The team becomes worried that Stanton's past indiscretions may be used against him by the press and his political opponents, they hire Jack and Susan's old friend, tough but unbalanced Libby Holden, to investigate allegations that could be used by Stanton's political opponents to undermine his candidacy such as Stanton's notorious womanizing. One of Stanton's mistresses and Susan's hairdresser, Cashmere McLeod, produces secret taped conversations between them to prove they had an affair. Henry discovers that the tapes have been doctored, so Libby tracks down the man responsible for the tapes and forces him at gunpoint to confess his guilt in a signed letter to the American public.
The campaign is rocked by a fresh allegation when Stanton's old friend, "Big Willie" McCollister approaches Henry to tell him that his 17-year-old daughter Loretta is pregnant and that Stanton is the father. Henry and Howard tell Willie he must allow his daughter to undergo an amniocentesis to determine paternity. Although they convince Willie to remain silent on the issue, Henry is nonetheless sickened and disillusioned with the experience. Realizing the campaign is falling behind in the polls, Stanton's team adopt a new strategy. Stanton begins going on the offensive by attacking his nearest rival, Senator Lawrence Harris for casting anti-Israel votes and favoring cuts in Social Security and Medicare. Harris confronts Stanton during a radio talk show in Florida but suffers two heart attacks after the encounter, he suffers a medical setback, subsequently withdraws from the race, is replaced by his friend, former Florida governor Fred Picker. Picker's wholesome, straight-talking image proves an immediate threat to the Stanton campaign.
Jack and Susan send Libby on an opposition research mission on Picker's past. They discover from his ex-brother-in-law, Eduardo Reyes, that Picker had a cocaine addiction as governor, which led to the disintegration of his first marriage, they meet with Picker's cocaine supplier Lorenzo Delgado, with whom Picker had a homosexual affair. Not expecting the information to be used and Henry share their findings with Jack and Susan, but are dismayed when they both decide to leak the information to the press. Libby says that if Jack does so, she will reveal that he tampered with the results of the paternity test, proving that he slept with Willie's daughter. Libby commits suicide after she realizes she spent her life idealizing Jack and Susan only to learn how flawed they are. Racked with guilt over Libby's death, Stanton takes the incriminating information to Picker, apologizes for seeking it out. Picker admits to his past indiscretions, agrees to withdraw from the race and to endorse Stanton. Henry intends to quit the campaign, admitting he has become disillusioned with the whole political process.
Stanton begs Henry to reconsider. Months President Stanton is dancing at the Inaugural Ball with First Lady, Susan, he shakes the hands of all his campaign staff. Following the publication of the book in 1996, director Mike Nichols paid more than $1 million for the screen rights; the film was scripted by writer and director Elaine May, who had collaborated with Nichols in a comedy double-act in the 1950s and 60s. At the Cannes Festival, Thompson said she did not base her performance on Hillary Clinton, while Travolta said he based his on several presidents, but on Bill Clinton. Nichols was criticized for cutting an interracial love scene from the final version of the film, he responded. The film generated controversy for its depiction of a Clinton-like character as it was released close to th
The Blue and the Gray (miniseries)
The Blue and the Gray is a television miniseries that first aired on CBS in three installments on November 14, November 16, November 17, 1982. Set during the American Civil War, the series starred John Hammond, Stacy Keach, Lloyd Bridges, Gregory Peck as President Abraham Lincoln, it was executive produced by Larry White and Lou Reda, in association with Columbia Pictures Television. A novel of the same name by John Leekley was published as a companion to the series in 1982, based on a story by John Leekley and Bruce Catton and the teleplay by Ian McLellan Hunter; the title refers to the colors of the uniforms worn by United States Army and Confederate States Army soldiers respectively. The plot revolves around the families of two sisters; the Geysers are farmers who reside near Charlottesville and the Hales own a small newspaper in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The Geysers are indifferent to the issue of slavery, but are sympathetic to the Southern cause; the lone exception in the family is son John, an artistic young man who becomes sympathetic to the plight of Southern slaves and free Negroes.
The Hales are pro-Union and anti-slavery, like many Northerners at the time, they hope for a peaceful solution to the nation's problems. The drama begins in 1859 when John leaves the Geyser family farm for Pennsylvania, where he gets a job as an artist correspondent for the paper owned by his uncle, Jacob Hale, Sr. John's first assignment takes him to the trial of abolitionist John Brown, where he meets and befriends the mysterious Jonas Steele, a former Jayhawker and Pinkerton detective. Jonas returns with John to Gettysburg and falls in love with John's cousin Mary, but is afraid to commit to her, thanks to his troubling dreams that seem to predict the future. After falling out with his family over the issues of slavery and secession during Christmas of 1860, John returns to Pennsylvania, while John's brothers Matthew and Luke join the Confederate Army. John's cousins and Jake Hale, join the Union Army; the Hales' youngest child, 16-year-old James, lies about his age to join the Union Army, but contracts dysentery and dies before he sees any action.
Caught "betwixt and between", John will not fight for the South, but is unwilling to bear arms against his own brothers. After being reunited with Jonas Steele, who has joined the Union Army as a scout, John becomes a war correspondent for Harper's Weekly. John travels with the Union Army and witnesses many of the important events of the Civil War, including First Bull Run, the Peninsula Campaign, the Siege of Vicksburg, Battle of the Wilderness, Lee's surrender at Appomattox and Abraham Lincoln's assassination. At Bull Run, John meets Kathy Reynolds, the daughter of a senator, despite her higher social standing, proves to be a good war nurse. Jonas marries Mary. John's sister and her child are caught up in the Siege of Vicksburg, where her husband, Lester is killed; the Battle of Gettysburg is a prominent focal point of the story. John reconciles with his family as he, his father, Matthew join a group of Confederate troops in defending the Geyser homestead against a Union Army attack; the Union Army is driven off.
Despite being a Union officer, Jonas gains the respect of the Geysers by orchestrating Luke's rescue from a Union POW camp. His strange dream of President Lincoln arrives too late to save the President at Ford's Theatre; the Hales and the Geysers come together after the war to celebrate John and Kathy's wedding at the Geyser homestead in Virginia. Although the series is set in Virginia, it was filmed on location in Arkansas, except for the segment representing the Elmira, New York Federal prison camp, filmed in the stockade at nearby Fort Gibson State Park, Oklahoma. Bruce Broughton's entire 2-hour score presented in stereo from the only surviving complete 1/4" two-track master elements was released on limited edition CD limited in 2008 on the Intrada label; the Blue and the Gray was released on Region 1 DVD in 3- and 2-disc sets. The first was released on November 6, 2001, the second on July 26, 2005; the 3-disc edition runs 381 minutes. The Blue and the Gray on IMDb The Blue and the Gray at AllMovie
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts is a 16.3-acre complex of buildings in the Lincoln Square neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It hosts many notable performing arts organizations, which are nationally and internationally renowned, including the New York Philharmonic, the Metropolitan Opera, the New York City Ballet and the New York City Opera. A consortium of civic leaders and others led by, under the initiative of, John D. Rockefeller III built Lincoln Center as part of the "Lincoln Square Renewal Project" during Robert Moses' program of urban renewal in the 1950s and 1960s. Respected architects were contracted to design the major buildings on the site, over the next thirty years the diverse working class area around Lincoln Center was replaced with a conglomeration of high culture to please the tastes of the consortium. Rockefeller was Lincoln Center's inaugural president from 1956 and became its chairman in 1961, he is credited with raising more than half of the $184.5 million in private funds needed to build the complex, including drawing on his own funds.
The center's three buildings, David Geffen Hall, David H. Koch Theater and the Metropolitan Opera House were opened in 1962, 1964 and 1966, respectively. While the center may have been named because it was located in the Lincoln Square neighborhood, it is unclear whether the area was named as a tribute to U. S. President Abraham Lincoln; the name was bestowed on the area in 1906 by the New York City Board of Aldermen, but records give no reason for choosing that name. There has long been speculation that the name came from a local landowner, because the square was named Lincoln Square. City records from the time show only the names Johannes van Bruch, Thomas Hall, Stephan de Lancey, James de Lancey, James de Lancey, Jr. and John Somerindyck as area property owners. One speculation is that references to President Lincoln were omitted from the records because the mayor in 1906 was George B. McClellan Jr. son of General George B. McClellan, general-in-chief of the Union Army early in the American Civil War and a bitter rival of Lincoln's.
Architects who designed buildings at the center include: Diller Scofidio + Renfro: Public spaces, Hypar Pavilion and Lincoln Ristorante, The Juilliard School, Alice Tully Hall, School of American Ballet, Josie Robertson Plaza, Revson Fountain, President's Bridge and Infoscape Max Abramovitz: David Geffen Hall, original design of Josie Robertson Plaza Pietro Belluschi: The Juilliard School. Modified by Diller Scofidio + Renfro in association with FXFOWLE Architects Gordon Bunshaft: The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Wallace Harrison: the center's master plan, the Metropolitan Opera House, original design of Josie Robertson Plaza Lee S Jablin: 3 Lincoln Center, the adjacent condominium built by a private developer Philip Johnson: New York State Theater, now known as the David H. Koch Theater, original design of Josie Robertson Plaza and original Revson Fountain Eero Saarinen: Vivian Beaumont Theater Davis and Associates: The Samuel B. and David Rose Building. Billie Tsien, Tod William: The David Rubenstein Atrium Hugh Hardy/H3 Hardy Collaboration Architecture LLC: The Claire Tow Theater WET Design: Revson Fountain The first structure to be completed and occupied as part of this renewal was the Fordham Law School of Fordham University in 1962.
Located between Columbus and Amsterdam Avenues, from West 60th to 66th Streets in Lincoln Square, on Manhattan's Upper West Side, the complex was the first gathering of major cultural institutions into a centralized location in an American city. The development of the condominium at 3 Lincoln Center, completed in 1991, designed by Lee Jablin of Harman Jablin Architects, made possible the expansion of The Juilliard School and the School of American Ballet; the center's cultural institutions make use of facilities located away from the main campus. In 2004, the center expanded through the addition of Jazz at Lincoln Center's newly built facilities, the Frederick P. Rose Hall, at the new Time Warner Center, located a few blocks to the south. In March 2006, the center launched construction on a major redevelopment plan that modernized and opened up its campus. Redevelopment was completed in 2012 with the completion of the President's Bridge over West 65th Street; when first announced in 1999, Lincoln Center's campuswide redevelopment was to cost $1.5 billion over 10 years and radically transform the campus.
The center management held an architectural competition, won by the British architect Norman Foster in 2005, but did not approve a full scale redesign until 2012, in part because of the need to raise $300 million in construction costs and the New York Philharmonic's fear that it might lose audiences and revenue while it was displaced. Among the architects that have been involved were Frank Gehry. In March 2006, the center launched the 65th Street Project – part of a major redevelopment plan continuing through the fall of 2012 – to create a new pedestrian promenade designed to improve accessibility and the aesthetics of that area of the campus. Additionally, Alice Tully Hall was modernized and reopened to critical and popular acclaim in 2009 and the Film Society of Lincoln Center expanded with the new Elinor Bunin Munroe Film Center. Top