Harper is a 1966 American Technicolor mystery film based on Ross Macdonald's novel The Moving Target in Panavision and adapted for the screen by novelist William Goldman, who admired MacDonald's writings. The film stars Paul Newman as the eponymous Lew Harper, it is directed by Jack Smight, with an ensemble cast that includes Robert Wagner, Julie Harris, Janet Leigh, Shelley Winters and Arthur Hill. Goldman received a 1967 Edgar Award for Best Motion Picture Screenplay; the film pays homage to Humphrey Bogart's portrayals of Sam Spade and Phillip Marlowe by featuring Bogart's widow, Lauren Bacall, who plays a wounded wife searching for her missing husband, a role similar to General Sternwood in the 1946 Bogart-and-Bacall film, The Big Sleep. In 1975, Newman reprised the role in The Drowning Pool. Private investigator Lew Harper does not have many friends and has an appointment to sign his divorce papers. One of his friends, mild-mannered Albert Graves, is one of several attorneys of multi-millionaire Ralph Sampson, described as crazy and egotistical.
Sampson disappeared after flying from Las Vegas to Los Angeles. Sampson is married to the physically disabled but hard-boiled Elaine Sampson, she doesn't like her husband and believes he is off with another woman, which she doesn’t mind, she says she has no intention of divorcing him, she would like to know who he is with but she just wants to be sure her husband is not off squandering his fortune. Harper interviews Ralph Sampson's seductive daughter, who hates and is hated by her stepmother, Miranda’s amiable boyfriend, Allan Taggert, the missing man's private pilot, he is told. The hotel staff say. An old photo of a glamorous starlet in Sampson’s bungalow leads Harper to Fay Estabrook, now an overweight alcoholic. Harper gets her drunk to see. While she is passed out he answers her phone and pretends to be the "Mr. Troy" the caller, "Betty", assumed him to be. Betty warns the man she thinks is Troy that Fay was seen with a stranger and that they need to be careful "when the truck goes through."
Harper asks about Ralph Sampson, which alerts Betty that she is not speaking to Troy, so she hangs up. Harper hangs up too, is confronted by Troy, holding a gun. Troy is Fay's husband, Dwight Troy, the house is his, he menacingly asks Harper some questions, but is satisfied by Harper’s cover story that he is just a lovesick fan of the ex-star, Fay. Harper tracks down Betty Fraley, a lounge singer; when he asks about Ralph, she recognizes his voice from the phone call. Harper, noticing fresh needle marks on her arm, threatens to turn her over to the narcotics squad, Betty admits she knows Sampson, but says it is only casually, as a drunk who frequents the bar. Harper becomes more insistent and Betty has the bouncer, throw him out. Puddler assaults Harper in a back alley, until Taggert comes out of nowhere and knocks Puddler unconscious. Taggert had been investigating the case himself, they head back to Troy's house to check on the truck. While Harper is inside the house he hears gunshots. Taggert, standing watch outside, spotted the shot at it.
Harper tries to run the truck down on foot, but the truck, which has distinctive tire tracks, attempts to run Harper over and speeds away. Elaine receives a message from Ralph asking her to cash in $500,000 worth of bonds, she verifies that the handwriting is Ralph's, Harper deduces that he has been kidnapped. After Graves cashes the bonds for her and puts the money in the estate's safe, Harper advises him to call in the police to guard it, while he goes up to a remote mountaintop property that Sampson had given away to Claude, a bogus holy man, for his cult's Temple in the Clouds. Despite Claude's attempts to distract him, Harper looks around, he finds a huge kettle of beans cooking and a tire print identical to the truck's. Back at the Sampson estate, Harper finds a ransom note with instructions to drop the cash that night at an oilfield outside of town. Since the note assumes they have the cash, Harper suspects the kidnapper has an inside source. During the ransom drop the man picking up the money is shot dead and the cash is taken by someone following in a white convertible.
A matchbook on the body leads Harper to The Corner, a seedy bar in Castle Beach, a beachfront community. Harper cons the barmaid into revealing the dead man was "Eddie", a regular customer who had made a long-distance call to Las Vegas from the bar three nights before. Outside, Harper spots the truck that earlier tried to run him over, driven by Puddler, which he follows back to the mountaintop temple. There, he uncovers a smuggling operation of illegal immigrant labor run by Troy, using Claude's temple as a front, with Eddie as the smuggler. Harper is caught and questioned by Troy, who knows nothing of the kidnapping or Eddie's part in it, but realizes the white convertible belongs to Betty Fraley. Puddler takes Harper to another location and beats him up, but Harper is able to escape and kill the pursuing Puddler. Shaken, Harper makes his way to his soon-to-be ex-wife Susan, she comforts him and they spend the night together, but the next morning he leaves her again and she realizes Harper’s only true love is for his work.
At the estate, Graves tells Harper that the dead man was Eddie Rossiter, a small-time car thief and junkie who has a sister, Bett
Malibu is a beach city in western Los Angeles County, situated about 30 miles west of Downtown Los Angeles. It is known for its Mediterranean climate and its 21-mile strip of the Malibu coast, incorporated in 1991 into the City of Malibu; the area is known for being the home of Hollywood movie stars, people in the entertainment industry, other affluent residents. Most Malibu residents live within a few hundred yards of Pacific Coast Highway, which traverses the city, with some residents living up to a mile away from the beach up narrow canyons; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,645. Nicknamed "the'Bu" by surfers and locals, beaches along the Malibu coast include Surfrider Beach, Zuma Beach, Malibu Beach, Topanga Beach, Point Dume Beach, County Line, Dan Blocker Beach. State parks and beaches on the Malibu coast include Malibu Creek State Park, Leo Carrillo State Beach and Park, Point Mugu State Park, Robert H. Meyer Memorial State Beach, with individual beaches: El Pescador, La Piedra and El Matador.
The many parks within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area lie along the ridges above the city along with local parks that include Malibu Bluffs Park, Trancas Canyon Park, Las Flores Creek Park, Legacy Park. Signs around the city proclaim "21 miles of scenic beauty", referring to the incorporated city limits; the city updated the signs in 2017 from the historical 27-mile length of the Malibu coast spanning from Tuna Canyon on the southeast to Point Mugu in Ventura County on the northwest. For many residents of the unincorporated canyon areas, Malibu has the closest commercial centers and they are included in the Malibu ZIP Codes; the city is bounded by Topanga on the east, the Santa Monica Mountains to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south, Solromar in Ventura County to the west. Malibu is named for the Ventureño Chumash settlement of Humaliwo, which translates to “The Surf Sounds Loudly.” This pre-colonial village is now part of the State Park. Malibu was settled by the Chumash, Native Americans whose territory extended loosely from the San Joaquin Valley to San Luis Obispo to Malibu, as well as several islands off the southern coast of California.
They named it "Humaliwo" or "the surf sounds loudly". The city's name derives from this; the village of Humaliwo was located next to Malibu Lagoon and was an important regional center in prehistoric times. The village, identified as CA-LAN-264, was occupied from 2,500 BCE, it was the second-largest Chumash coastal settlement by the Santa Monica Mountains, with just Muwu being more populated. A total of 118 individuals were baptized in Humaliwo. Humaliwo was considered an important political center, but there were additional minor settlements in today’s Malibu. One village, known as Ta’lopop, was located few miles up Malibu Canyon from Malibu Lagoon. Research have shown that Humaliwo had ties to other villages in pre-colonial times, including Hipuk and Huwam. Explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo is believed to have moored at Malibu Lagoon, at the mouth of Malibu Creek, to obtain fresh water in 1542; the Spanish presence returned with the California mission system, the area was part of Rancho Topanga Malibu Sequit—a 13,000-acre land grant—in 1802.
That ranch passed intact to Frederick Hastings Rindge in 1891. He and his widow, May K. Rindge, guarded their privacy zealously by hiring guards to evict all trespassers and fighting a lengthy court battle to prevent the building of a Southern Pacific railroad line through the ranch. Interstate Commerce Commission regulations would not support a railroad condemning property in order to build tracks that paralleled an existing line, so Frederick H. Rindge decided to build his own railroad through his property first, he died, May K. Rindge followed through with the plans, building the Hueneme and Port Los Angeles Railway; the line started at Carbon Canyon, just inside the ranch's property eastern boundary, ran 15 miles westward, past Pt. Dume. Few roads entered the area before 1929, when the state won another court case and built what is now known as the Pacific Coast Highway. By May Rindge was forced to subdivide her property and begin selling and leasing lots; the Rindge house, known as the Adamson House, is now part of Malibu Creek State Park and is situated between Malibu Lagoon State Beach and Surfrider Beach, beside the Malibu Pier, used to provide transportation to/from the ranch, including construction materials for the Rindge railroad, to tie up the family's yacht.
In 1926, in an effort to avoid selling land to stave off insolvency, May K. Rindge created a small ceramic tile factory. At its height, Malibu Potteries employed over 100 workers, produced decorative tiles which furnish many Los Angeles-area public buildings and Beverly Hills residences; the factory, located one-half mile east of the pier, was ravaged by a fire in 1931. Although the factory reopened in 1932, it could not recover from the effects of the Great Depression and a steep downturn in Southern California construction projects. A distinct hybrid of Moorish and Arts and crafts designs, Malibu tile is considered collectible. Fine examples of the tiles may be seen at the Adamson House and Serra Retreat, a fifty-room mansion, started in the 1920s as the main Rindge home on a hill overlooking the lagoon; the unfinished building was sold to the Franciscan Order in 1942 and is
The Great White Hope (film)
The Great White Hope is a 1970 American biographical romantic drama film written and adapted from the Howard Sackler play of the same name. The film was directed by Martin Ritt, starring James Earl Jones, Jane Alexander, Chester Morris, Hal Holbrook, Beah Richards and Moses Gunn. Jones and Alexander, who appeared in the same roles in the stage versions, both received Best Actor and Actress Academy Award nominations for their performances; the film and play is based on the true story of Jack Johnson and his first wife, Etta Terry Duryea, the controversy over their marriage and Duryea's death by suicide in 1912. Set between 1910 and 1915, the story follows Jack Jefferson, patterned after real-life boxer, Jack Johnson, going on a hot streak of victories in the boxing ring as he defeats every white boxer around. Soon the press and racists announce the search for a "great white hope", a boxer who will defeat Jefferson for the heavyweight title. Meanwhile, Jefferson prepares for a few more matches, but he lets his guard down by courting the beautiful, white, Eleanor Bachman, when everyone, including Jack's black "wife", discover this, the tensions grow to fever pitch.
Jack's close black friends become scared over his pushing the envelope of success and the white authorities conspire to frame him with unlawful sexual relations with Eleanor and thereby take away his title. It leads to jealousy, a run from the law, disaster. James Earl Jones as Jack Jefferson Jane Alexander as Eleanor Bachman Chester Morris as Pop Weaver Hal Holbrook as Al Cameron Beah Richards as Mama Tiny Moses Gunn as Scipio Lou Gilbert as Goldie Robert Webber as Dixon The film opened to positive responses from both audiences and critics, they loved the performances of both James Earl Jones and Jane Alexander, who were in the original stage play: they won Tonys for the play. Jones would get bigger roles after this film, Alexander made a debut here. Jones contributed commentary to a documentary about Jack Johnson that would sum up this film, saying: "To know the story of Jack Johnson is to know that it is a study in hubris." However, critical opinion of the film has declined in recent years.
The Great White Hope maintains a 43% "Rotten" approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes from 7 reviews, indicating mixed-to-negative reviews. Critic Vincent Canby referred to the film as "One of those liberal, well-meaning, fervently uncontroversial works that pretend to tackle contemporary problems by finding analogies at a safe remove in history" while critic Emanuel Levy wrote "The movie is too theatrical and every idea is spelled out for the audience." According to Fox records the film required $16,075,000 in rentals to break and by 11 December 1970 had made $9,325,000 so made a loss to the studio. List of American films of 1970 The Great White Hope on IMDb The Great White Hope at AllMovie The Great White Hope at Rotten Tomatoes The Great White Hope at the Internet Broadway Database
Santa Ana, California
Santa Ana is the county seat and second most populous city in Orange County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The United States Census Bureau estimated its 2011 population at 329,427, making Santa Ana the 57th most-populous city in the United States. Santa Ana is in Southern California, adjacent to the Santa Ana River, about 10 miles from the coast. Founded in 1869, the city is part of the Greater Los Angeles Area, the second largest metropolitan area in the United States, with 18 million residents in 2010. Santa Ana is a densely populated city, ranking fourth nationally in that regard among cities of over 300,000 residents. In 2011, Forbes ranked Santa Ana the fourth-safest city of over 250,000 residents in the United States. Santa Ana lends its name to the Santa Ana Freeway, it shares its name with the nearby Santa Ana Mountains, the Santa Ana winds, which have fueled seasonal wildfires throughout Southern California. The current Office of Management and Budget metropolitan designation for the Orange County Area is Santa Ana–Anaheim–Irvine, California.
Members of the Tongva and Juaneño/Luiseño are indigenous to the area. The Tongva called the Santa Ana area "Hotuuk."After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolá out of Mexico City capital of New Spain, Friar Junípero Serra named the area Vallejo de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano was established within this valley; this Santa Ana Valley comprised. In 1810, year of the commencement of the war of Mexican Independence, Jose Antonio Yorba, a sergeant of the Spanish army, was granted land that he called Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. Yorba's rancho included the lands where the cities of Olive, Irvine, Yorba Linda, Villa Park, Santa Ana, Costa Mesa and unincorporated El Modena, Santa Ana Heights, are today; this rancho was the only land grant in Orange County granted under Spanish Rule. Surrounding land grants in Orange County were granted after Mexican Independence by the new government. After the Mexican-American war ended in 1848, Alta California became part of the United States and American settlers arrived in this area.
Santa Ana was listed as a township of Los Angeles County in the 1860 and 1870 census, with an area encompassing most of what is now northern and central Orange County. It had a population of 756 in 1860 and 880 in 1870; the Annaheim district was enumerated separately from Santa Ana in 1870Claimed in 1869 by Kentuckian William H. Spurgeon on land obtained from the descendents of Jose Antonio Yorba, Santa Ana was incorporated as a city in 1886 with a population of 2000 and in 1889 became the seat of the newly formed Orange County. In 1877, the Southern Pacific Railroad built a branch line from Los Angeles to Santa Ana, which offered free right of way, land for a depot, $10,000 in cash to the railroad in exchange for terminating the line in Santa Ana and not neighboring Tustin. In 1887, the California Central Railway broke the Southern Pacific's local monopoly on rail travel, offering service between Los Angeles and San Diego by way of Santa Ana as a major intermediate station. By 1905 the Los Angeles Interurban Railway, a predecessor to the Pacific Electric Railway, extended from Los Angeles to Santa Ana, running along Fourth Street downtown.
Firestone Boulevard, the first direct automobile route between Los Angeles and Santa Ana, opened in 1935. Santa Ana was the home of the original Glenn L. Martin aviation company, founded in 1912 before merging with the Wright Company in 1916. Glenn Luther Martin created a second company of the same name in Cleveland, Ohio which merged with the Lockheed Corporation to form the largest defense contractor in the world, Lockheed Martin. During World War II, the Santa Ana Army Air Base was built as a training center for the United States Army Air Forces; the base was responsible for continued population growth in Santa Ana and the rest of Orange County as many veterans moved to the area to raise families after the end of the war. In 1958, Fashion Square Mall was built, adjoining the existing Bullock's Department Store building, built in 1954, it became a major retail center for the area. In 1987, the mall was renovated and became MainPlace Mall. Having been a charter city since November 11, 1952, the citizens of Santa Ana amended the charter in November 1988 to provide for the direct election of the Mayor who until that point had been appointed from the council membership.
The current mayor of Santa Ana is Miguel A. Pulido, the first mayor of Latino descent in the city's history and the first Mayor directly elected by the voters. Since the 1980s, Santa Ana has been characterized by an effort to revitalize the downtown area which had declined in influence; the Santa Ana Artist's Village was created around Cal State Fullerton's Grand Central Art Center to attract artists and young professionals to live-work lofts and new businesses. The process continued into 2009 with the reopening of the historic Yost Theater. Santa Ana is located at 33°44′27″N 117°52′53″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.5 square miles. 27.3 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. It is the 4th most densely populated place in the United States, with a population of 300,000 or more with 12,471.5 people per sq. mile. Santa Ana is ne
The Rockford Files
The Rockford Files is an American television drama series starring James Garner that aired on the NBC network between September 13, 1974, January 10, 1980, has remained in syndication to the present day. Garner portrays Los Angeles–based private investigator Jim Rockford, with Noah Beery Jr. in the supporting role of his father, a retired truck driver nicknamed "Rocky". The show was created by Stephen J. Cannell. Huggins created the television show Maverick, which starred Garner, he wanted to recapture that magic in a "modern day" detective setting, he teamed with Cannell, who had written for Jack Webb productions such as Adam-12 and Chase, to create The Rockford Files. The show was credited as "A Public Arts/Roy Huggins Production" along with Cherokee Productions in association with Universal Television. Cherokee was owned by Garner, with partners Meta Rosenberg and Juanita Bartlett, who doubled as story editor during most of The Rockford Files run. In 2002, The Rockford Files was ranked No. 39 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time.
Producers Roy Huggins and Stephen J. Cannell devised the Rockford character as a rather significant departure from typical television detectives of the time Bret Maverick as a modern detective. Rockford had served time in California's San Quentin Prison in the 1960s due to a wrongful conviction. After five years, he was pardoned, his infrequent jobs as a private investigator allow him to maintain his dilapidated mobile home in a parking lot on a Malibu, California beach. In early episodes of the first season, Rockford's trailer is located in a parking lot alongside the highway at 2354 Beach Boulevard and near the ocean. In the television movies from 1994–99, Rockford is living in a trailer, extensively enlarged and remodeled. In contrast to most television private eyes, Rockford wears low-budget "off the rack" clothing and does his best to avoid fights—although he will engage in fistfights when there's no other option, he carries his Colt Detective Special revolver, for which he has no permit, preferring to talk his way out of trouble.
He works on cold cases, missing persons investigations, low-budget insurance scams, states that he does not handle "open cases" to avoid trouble with the police. He has been a P. I. since 1968, his usual fee is $200 per day plus expenses. Listed in the opening credits: James Garner as Jim Rockford Noah Beery Jr. as Joseph "Rocky" Rockford, Jim's father, a retired truck driver. Joe Santos as Sergeant Dennis Becker, Jim's friend on the Los Angeles Police Department. Recurring cast: Stuart Margolin as Evelyn "Angel" Martin, Jim's former prison friend. Angel is an untrustworthy, pathologically lying con artist whose schemes get Jim in trouble, yet Jim remains his friend. Gretchen Corbett as Elizabeth "Beth" Davenport, Jim's lawyer and sometime girlfriend. James Luisi as Lieutenant Douglas J. "Doug" Chapman, Becker's superior officer. He and Jim despise each other. Tom Atkins as Lieutenant Alex/Thomas Diehl, Becker's superior officer who has an antagonistic relationship with Rockford. Seen in multiple episodes: Pat Finley as Peggy Becker, Sergeant Becker's wife Isaac Hayes as Gandolph "Gandy" Fitch, a brutal, violent acquaintance of Rockford from his prison days.
He always calls Jim "Rockfish". Jim helps prove; the two become friendly. In episodes Fitch tags along with an unscrupulous investigator Marcus Hayes trying to cash in on one of Rockford's cases. Jim remains on good terms with Fitch, towards whom he seems to display an naive blind spot despite Fitch's refusal to take Jim's "no" for an answer, his lack of compunction about using violence, including on a recalcitrant Jim himself. Bo Hopkins as John "Coop" Cooper, Jim's disbarred attorney friend. Tom Selleck as Lance White, a successful private investigator with an uncynical approach to the business. Liked and admired by everyone but Jim, who considers him naive and lucky and to cause others to get hurt. Dennis Dugan as Richie Brockelman, a young and naive private investigator who seeks Jim's help from time to time. Bereft of Jim's cynicism and physical toughness, Richie was a sharp operator who used his outwardly trusting'gee whiz' persona to mask his dogged cleverness; this character was spun off for Private Eye.
Kathryn Harrold as Dr. Megan Dougherty, a blind psychiatrist who hires Jim, their relationship blossoms into a romance. Jim is upset in a episode to learn that she has become engaged to another man. Simon Oakland as Vern St. Cloud, a blustery and untrustworthy fellow private investigator. St. Cloud and Rockford grudgingly accept each other's assistance from time to time, trading insults along the way. Louis Gossett Jr. as Marcus Aurelius "Gabby" Hayes, an impecc
Okinawa Prefecture is the southernmost prefecture of Japan. It encompasses two thirds of the Ryukyu Islands in a chain over 1,000 kilometres long; the Ryukyu Islands extend southwest from Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu to Taiwan. Naha, Okinawa's capital, is located in the southern part of Okinawa Island. Although Okinawa Prefecture comprises just 0.6 percent of Japan's total land mass, about 75 percent of all United States military personnel stationed in Japan are assigned to installations in the prefecture. About 26,000 U. S. troops are based in the prefecture. The oldest evidence of human existence on the Ryukyu islands is from the Stone Age and was discovered in Naha and Yaeyama; some human bone fragments from the Paleolithic era were unearthed from a site in Naha, but the artifact was lost in transportation before it was examined to be Paleolithic or not. Japanese Jōmon influences are dominant on the Okinawa Islands, although clay vessels on the Sakishima Islands have a commonality with those in Taiwan.
The first mention of the word Ryukyu was written in the Book of Sui. Okinawa was the Japanese word identifying the islands, first seen in the biography of Jianzhen, written in 779. Agricultural societies begun in the 8th century developed until the 12th century. Since the islands are located at the eastern perimeter of the East China Sea close to Japan and South-East Asia, the Ryukyu Kingdom became a prosperous trading nation. During this period, many Gusukus, similar to castles, were constructed; the Ryukyu Kingdom entered into the Imperial Chinese tributary system under the Ming dynasty beginning in the 15th century, which established economic relations between the two nations. In 1609, the Shimazu clan, which controlled the region, now Kagoshima Prefecture, invaded the Ryukyu Kingdom; the Ryukyu Kingdom was obliged to agree to form a suzerain-vassal relationship with the Satsuma and the Tokugawa shogunate, while maintaining its previous role within the Chinese tributary system. The Satsuma clan earned considerable profits from trade with China during a period in which foreign trade was restricted by the shogunate.
Although Satsuma maintained strong influence over the islands, the Ryukyu Kingdom maintained a considerable degree of domestic political freedom for over two hundred years. Four years after the 1868 Meiji Restoration, the Japanese government, through military incursions annexed the kingdom and renamed it Ryukyu han. At the time, the Qing Empire asserted a nominal suzerainty over the islands of the Ryukyu Kingdom, since the Ryūkyū Kingdom was a member state of the Chinese tributary system. Ryukyu han became Okinawa Prefecture of Japan in 1879 though all other hans had become prefectures of Japan in 1872. In 1912, Okinawans first obtained the right to vote for representatives to the National Diet, established in 1890. Near the end of World War II, in 1945, the US Army and Marine Corps invaded Okinawa with 185,000 troops. A third of the civilian population died; the dead, of all nationalities, are commemorated at the Cornerstone of Peace. After the end of World War II, the Ryukyu independence movement developed, while Okinawa was under United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands administration for 27 years.
During this "trusteeship rule", the United States established numerous military bases on the Ryukyu islands. During the Korean War, B-29 Superfortresses flew bombing missions over Korea from Kadena Air Base on Okinawa; the military buildup on the island during the Cold War increased a division between local inhabitants and the American military. Under the 1952 Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, the United States Forces Japan have maintained a large military presence. Since 1960, the U. S. and Japan have maintained an agreement that allows the U. S. to secretly bring nuclear weapons into Japanese ports. The Japanese tended to oppose the introduction of nuclear arms into Japanese territory by the government's assertion of Japan's non-nuclear policy and a statement of the Three Non-Nuclear Principles. Most of the weapons were alleged to be stored in ammunition bunkers at Kadena Air Base. Between 1954 and 1972, 19 different types of nuclear weapons were deployed in Okinawa, but with fewer than around 1,000 warheads at any one time.
Between 1965 and 1972, Okinawa was a key staging point for the United States in its military operations directed towards North Vietnam. Along with Guam, it presented a geographically strategic launch pad for covert bombing missions over Cambodia and Laos. Anti-Vietnam War sentiment became linked politically to the movement for reversion of Okinawa to Japan. In 1965, the US military bases, earlier viewed as paternal post war protection, were seen as aggressive; the Vietnam War highlighted the differences between the United States and Okinawa, but showed a commonality between the islands and mainland Japan. As controversy grew regarding the alleged placement of nuclear weapons on Okinawa, fears intensified over the escalation of the Vietnam War. Okinawa was perceived, by some inside Japan, as a potential target for China, should the communist government feel threatened by the United States. American military secrecy blocked any local reporting on what was occurring at bases such as Kadena Air Base.
As information leaked out, images of air strikes were published, the local population began to fear the potential for retaliation. Political leaders such as Oda Makoto
Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor was a British-American actress and humanitarian. She began her career as a child actress in the early 1940s, was one of the most popular stars of classical Hollywood cinema in the 1950s, she continued her career into the 1960s, remained a well-known public figure for the rest of her life. In 1999, the American Film Institute named her the seventh-greatest female screen legend. Born in London to wealthy prominent American parents, Taylor moved with her family to Los Angeles in 1939, she was soon given a film contract by Universal Pictures, she made her screen debut in a minor role in There's One Born Every Minute, but Universal terminated her contract after a year. Taylor was signed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, had her breakthrough role in National Velvet, becoming one of the studio's most popular teenaged stars, she made the transition to adult roles in the early 1950s, when she starred in the comedy Father of the Bride and received critical acclaim for her performance in the drama A Place in the Sun.
Despite being one of MGM's most bankable stars, Taylor wished to end her career in the early 1950s. She disliked many of the films to which she was assigned, she began receiving roles she enjoyed more in the mid-1950s, beginning with the epic drama Giant, starred in several critically and commercially successful films in the following years. These included two film adaptations of plays by Tennessee Williams: Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Suddenly, Last Summer. Although she disliked her role as a call girl in BUtterfield 8, her last film for MGM, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance. Taylor was paid a then-record-breaking $1 million to play the title role in the historical epic Cleopatra, the most expensive film made up to that point. During the filming, Taylor and co-star Richard Burton began an extramarital affair, which caused a scandal. Despite public disapproval and Burton continued their relationship and were married in 1964. Dubbed "Liz and Dick" by the media, they starred in 11 films together, including The V.
I. P.s, The Sandpiper, The Taming of the Shrew, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?. Taylor received the best reviews of her career for Woolf, winning her second Academy Award and several other awards for her performance, she and Burton divorced in 1974, but reconciled soon after, remarried in 1975. The second marriage ended in divorce in 1976. Taylor's acting career began to decline in the late 1960s, although she continued starring in films until the mid-1970s, after which she focused on supporting the career of her sixth husband, Senator John Warner. In the 1980s, she acted in her first substantial stage roles and in several television films and series, became the first celebrity to launch a perfume brand. Taylor was one of the first celebrities to take part in HIV/AIDS activism, she co-founded the American Foundation for AIDS Research in 1985, the Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation in 1991. From the early 1990s until her death, she dedicated her time to philanthropy, for which she received several accolades, including the Presidential Citizens Medal.
Throughout her career, Taylor's personal life was the subject of constant media attention. She was married eight times to seven men, endured several serious illnesses, led a jet set lifestyle, including assembling one of the most expensive private collections of jewelry in the world. After many years of ill health, Taylor died from congestive heart failure in 2011, at the age of 79. Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor was born on February 27, 1932, at Heathwood, her family's home on 8 Wildwood Road in Hampstead Garden Suburb, London, she received dual British-American citizenship at birth, as her parents, art dealer Francis Lenn Taylor and retired stage actress Sara Sothern, were United States citizens, both from Arkansas City, Kansas. They moved to London in 1929, opened an art gallery on Bond Street; the family led a privileged life in London during Taylor's childhood. Their social circle included artists such as Augustus John and Laura Knight, politicians such as Colonel Victor Cazalet. Cazalet was Taylor's unofficial godfather, an important influence in her early life.
She was enrolled in Byron House, a Montessori school in Highgate, was raised according to the teachings of Christian Science, the religion of her mother and Cazalet. In early 1939, the Taylor decided to return to the United States due to fear of impending war in Europe. United States ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy contacted Francis and encouraged him to return to the US with his family. Sara and the children left first in April 1939 aboard the ocean liner SS Manhattan, moved in with Taylor's maternal grandfather in Pasadena, California. Francis stayed behind to close the London gallery, joined them in December. In early 1940, he opened a new gallery in Los Angeles, after living in Pacific Palisades with the Chapman family, the family settled in Beverly Hills, where Taylor and her brother were enrolled in Hawthorne School. In California, Taylor's mother was told that her daughter should audition for films. Taylor's eyes in particular drew attention. Sara was opposed to Taylor appearing in films, but after the outbreak of war in Europe made return there unlikely, she began to view the film industry as a way of assimilatin