Callington is a civil parish and town in south-east Cornwall, United Kingdom about 7 miles north of Saltash and 9 miles south of Launceston. Callington parish had a population of 4,783 according to the 2001 census; this had increased to 5,786 in the 2011 census. The town is situated in east Cornwall between Dartmoor to the east and Bodmin Moor to the west. A former agricultural market town, it lies at the intersection of the south-north A388 Saltash to Launceston road and the east-west A390 Tavistock to Liskeard road. Kit Hill is a mile north-east of the town and rises to 333 metres with views of Dartmoor, Bodmin Moor and the River Tamar; the hamlets of Bowling Green, Kelly Bray and Downgate are in the parish. Callington railway station was the terminus of a branch line from Bere Alston, the junction with the Southern Railway's Tavistock to Plymouth line; the railway line beyond Gunnislake to the Callington terminus was closed in the 1960s, due to low usage and difficult operating conditions on the final sections of the line due to several severe gradients and speed restrictions.
One can still travel by rail on the Tamar Valley Line from Plymouth as far as Gunnislake via Bere Alston, where trains reverse. For most of its journey the line follows the River Tamar. Gunnislake is the nearest railway station to Callington, although the nearest mainline station is at Saltash. Food manufacturers Ginsters and The Cornwall Bakery are the largest employers in the town. Ginsters uses local produce in many of its products, buying potatoes and other vegetables from local farmers and suppliers. Historic listed building The Old Clink on Tillie St, built in 1851 as a lock-up for drunks and vagrants, is now used as the offices for a local driving school. There is a Tesco supermarket, opened in 2010, which employs 200 local people. Callington has been postulated as one of the possible locations of the ancient site of Celliwig, associated with King Arthur. Nearby ancient monuments include Castlewitch Henge with a diameter of 96m and Cadsonbury Iron Age hillfort, as well as Dupath Well built in 1510 on the site of an ancient sacred spring.
Callington was recorded in the Domesday Book. The lord had land for three ploughs with eleven serfs. Twenty-four villeins and fourteen smallholders had land for fifteen ploughs. There were one and a half square leagues of pasture and a small amount of woodland; the income of the manor was £6 sterling. In 1601 Robert Rolle purchased the manor of Callington, thereby gaining the pocket borough seat of Callington in Parliament, which in future served to promote the careers of many Rolles, he nominated to this seat his brother William Rolle in 1604 and 1614, his son Sir Henry Rolle, of Shapwick, in 1620 and 1624, his son-in-law Thomas Wise of Sydenham in Devon, in 1625, another son John Rolle, In the 19th-century, Callington was one of the most important mining areas in Great Britain. Deposits of silver were found nearby in Silver Valley. Today, the area is marked by mining remains. Granite is still quarried on Hingston Down; the former Callington constituency, a rotten borough, elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons but was abolished by the Reform Act 1832.
The town is now in the South East Cornwall constituency. St Mary's Church was a chapel of ease to South Hill. Unusually for Cornwall there is a clerestory; the parish church contains the fine brass of Nicholas Assheton and his wife, 1466. In the churchyard there is a Gothic lantern cross, it was first mentioned by the historian William Borlase in 1752. Each of the four faces of the cross head features a carved figure beneath an ogee arch; the heads of these figures have been chiselled off, no doubt in the Commonwealth period. Callington is one of a small number of towns to continue to appoint a Portreeve. Callington Town Council covers the civil parish of Callington. At the Council elections in 2013 only ten candidates stood, eight Independents and two Mebyon Kernow Councillors. In recent years, the town has seen much residential development with more, including social housing, planned for the next few years; the neighbouring village of Kelly Bray has doubled in size in recent years with houses still being built in the area.
Callington is twinned with Guipavas in Brittany and Barsbüttel near Hamburg in Germany. It has unofficial friendship links with Keila in Estonia and a suburb of Malaga, Spain. Callington has both cricket teams. Callington Town Football Club has four adult teams playing in the South West Peninsula League, East Cornwall League, Duchy League and South West Regional Women's Football League, they all play at Marshfield Parc. Callington Cricket Club has three teams playing in the Cornwall Cricket League and play their games at Moores Park. People from Callington Dupath Well East Cornwall Mineral Railway Callington Community College Callington Town Council website Online Catalogue for Callington at the Cornwall Record Office Callington at Curlie
Order of the Garter
The Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of England's patron saint. Appointments are made at the Sovereign's sole discretion. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, no more than 24 living members, or Companions; the order includes supernumerary knights and ladies. New appointments to the Order of the Garter are announced on St George's Day, as Saint George is the order's patron saint; the order's emblem is a garter with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense in gold lettering. Members of the order wear it on ceremonial occasions. King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter around the time of his claim to the French throne; the traditional year of foundation is given as 1348. However, the Complete Peerage, under "The Founders of the Order of the Garter", states the order was first instituted on 23 April 1344, listing each founding member as knighted in 1344.
The list includes Sir Sanchet D'Abrichecourt, who died on 20 October 1345. Other dates from 1344 to 1351 have been proposed; the King's wardrobe account shows Garter habits first issued in the autumn of 1348. Its original statutes required that each member of the Order be a knight and some of the initial members listed were only knighted that year; the foundation is to have been inspired by the Spanish Order of the Band, established in about 1330. The earliest written mention of the Order is found in Tirant lo Blanch, a chivalric romance written in Catalan by Valencian Joanot Martorell, it was first published in 1490. This book devotes a chapter to the description of the origin of the Order of the Garter. At the time of its foundation, the Order consisted of King Edward III, together with 25 Founder Knights, listed in ascending order of stall number in St George's Chapel: King Edward III Edward, the Black Prince, Prince of Wales Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Lancaster Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch Ralph de Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford William de Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March John de Lisle, 2nd Baron Lisle Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp John de Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun Sir Hugh de Courtenay Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent John de Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Rotherfield Sir Richard Fitz-Simon Sir Miles Stapleton Sir Thomas Wale Sir Hugh Wrottesley Sir Nele Loring Sir John Chandos Sir James Audley Sir Otho Holand Sir Henry Eam Sir Sanchet D'Abrichecourt Sir Walter Paveley They are all depicted in individual portraits in the Bruges Garter Book made c.
1431, now in the British Library. Various legends account for the origin of the Order; the most popular involves the "Countess of Salisbury", whose garter is said to have slipped from her leg while she was dancing at a court ball at Calais. When the surrounding courtiers sniggered, the king picked it up and returned it to her, exclaiming, "Honi soit qui mal y pense!", the phrase that has become the motto of the Order. However, the earliest written version of this story dates from the 1460s, it seems to have been conceived as a retrospective explanation for the adoption of what was seen as an item of female underclothing as the symbol of a band of knights. In fact, at the time of the Order's establishment in the mid-14th century, the garter was predominantly an item of male attire. According to another legend, King Richard I was inspired in the 12th century by St George the Martyr while fighting in the Crusades to tie garters around the legs of his knights, who subsequently won the battle. King Edward recalled the event in the 14th century when he founded the Order.
This story is recounted in a letter to the Annual Register in 1774: In Rastel's Chronicle, I. vi. under the life of Edward III is the following curious passage: "About the 19 yere of this kinge, he made a solempne feest at Wyndesore, a greate justes and turnament, where he devysed, perfyted substanegally, the order of the knyghtes of the garter. And afterwarde they were called the knyghtes of the blew thonge." I am obliged for this passage to Esq.. Hence some affirm, that the origin of the garter is to be dated from Richard I* and that it owes its pomp and splendor to Edward III. *Winstanley, in his Life of Edward III says that the original book of the institution deduces the invention from King Richard the First. The motto in fact refers to Edward's claim to the French throne, the Order of the Garter was created to help pursue this claim; the use of the garter as an emblem may have derived from straps used t
Westbury is a town and civil parish in the west of the English county of Wiltshire, most famous for the Westbury White Horse. The most origin of the West- in Westbury is that the town is near the western edge of the county of Wiltshire, the bounds of which have been much the same since the Anglo-Saxon period; the -bury part of the name is a form of borough, which has cognates in many languages, such as the German -burg and the Greek -pyrgos. It carries the idea of a fortified town. In Wiltshire, -bury indicates an Iron Age or Bronze Age fortified hill fort, such a site is to be found above the Westbury White Horse. Westbury is in the far west of Wiltshire, close to the border with Somerset, it lies at the northwestern edge of Salisbury Plain, 18 miles southeast of the city of Bath 5 miles south of the county town of Trowbridge and 4.5 miles north of the garrison town of Warminster. Other nearby towns and cities include Frome and Salisbury; the villages in the Westbury postal area are Bratton, Dilton Marsh, Edington and Hawkeridge, Coulston.
Nearby are Upton Scudamore, North Bradley, Yarnbrook. There are several suburbs, including Frogmore, Bitham Park, the Ham, Leigh Park, Westbury Leigh. Westbury Leigh is sometimes considered a separate village, with its own church and chapel, although it has always been within the town's boundaries. Leigh Park is a large housing estate developed since the late 1990s to the north of Westbury Leigh, includes a large medical centre, a community hall, a district centre with a Tesco Express store. In the past, Westbury was sometimes known as Westbury-under-the-Plain to distinguish it from other towns of the same name. Westbury is nestled under the northwestern bluffs of Salisbury Plain, it is there that the town's most famous feature can be seen: the Westbury White Horse, it is sometimes claimed locally that the White Horse was first cut into the chalk face as long ago as the year 878, to commemorate the victory of Alfred the Great over the Danes in the Battle of Eðandun. However, scholars believe this to be an invention of the late 18th century, no evidence has yet been found for the existence of the horse before the 1720s.
The form of the current White Horse dates from 1778. In the 1950s it was decided that the horse would be more maintained if it were set in concrete and painted white; the horse's original form may have been quite different from the horse seen today. One 18th-century engraving shows the horse facing to the right, but in its current form it faces to the left. Westbury centres with the churchyard of All Saints' Church behind it. All Saints' has a heavy ring of bells, an Erasmus Bible, a 16th-century clock with no face constructed by a local blacksmith, a marble bust of William Phipps by Robert Taylor; the west window of the church was donated by Abraham Laverton, who built Prospect Square and the nearby Laverton Institute, which he donated to a local charity, known today as "the Laverton". In the early part of September 1877, there was found on Bremeridge Farm, in the parish of Dilton Marsh, belonging to Charles Paul Phipps, esq. of Chalcot House, a hoard of 32 gold coins. They were found during repairs and improvements of the homestead, about a foot and a half below the surface, in the courtyard, one above another, without any appearance of a purse or box.
Until the 1940s, the Westbury Hill Fair was an important annual event for the sale of sheep. The town has been home to the Army Officer Selection Board and the Cadet Force Commissioning Board, located at Leighton House, since 1949, its closure was announced in 2016. A former Lafarge cement production plant lies about 1.3 miles northeast of the town centre. From 1961 until its demolition in 2016, the plant's 400 feet chimney was the tallest unsupported structure in southwestern England; the majority of local government functions are carried out by Wiltshire Council, a unitary authority. Westbury is divided into three council divisions, each electing one member of Wiltshire Council. Westbury is a civil parish with an elected town council of fifteen members; this has significant consultative roles, in addition to increasing responsibility for services in the town. The chairman of the town council has the title of Mayor of Westbury, a wholly ceremonial role; the council has taken over the running of the town's play areas and flower planting from Wiltshire Council and has supplemented reduced services from Wiltshire Council with its own staff.
The council runs the Grade II listed Laverton Institute which serves as the town hall and as a venue for events and meetings. The parliamentary constituency of Westbury dated back to the 15th century, but the name was abandoned in 2010, when the town and most of the former constituency became part of the new South West Wiltshire constituency. Before the parliamentary reforms of the mid-19th century, Westbury was considered a pocket borough, at one point having as few as twenty-four electors; this status led to gifts to the town from the owners of the parliamentary borough, including the notable former town hall in the Market Place, donated by Sir Manasseh Masseh Lopes. Westbury has one of the oldest working Victorian swimming pools in the country, built
Baron Willoughby de Broke
Baron Willoughby de Broke is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created by writ in 1491 for Sir Robert Willoughby, of the manor of Broke, part of Westbury, who according to modern doctrine was de jure 9th Baron Latimer. On the death of his son, the two baronies fell into abeyance. Around 1535, the abeyance was terminated when the second Baron's granddaughter Elizabeth, who had married Sir Fulke Greville, became the only surviving co-heir, passing her claim to her son Sir Fulke Greville, father of the poet of the same name; the title stayed in the Greville family until after the death of the 5th Baron, when it passed to his sister, Margaret Greville, the wife of a Verney. Thereafter it remained in the Verney family; the Barons Willoughby de Broke remain heirs to the ancient Barony of Latimer. The current family seat is Ditchford Farm, near Gloucestershire. Robert Willoughby, 1st Baron Willoughby de Broke Robert Willoughby, 2nd Baron Willoughby de Broke, on whose death title became abeyant Elizabeth Willoughby, 3rd Baroness Willoughby de Broke Fulke Greville, 4th Baron Willoughby de Broke Fulke Greville, 5th Baron Willoughby de Broke Margaret Greville, 6th Baroness Willoughby de Broke Greville Verney, 7th Baron Willoughby de Broke Greville Verney, 8th Baron Willoughby de Broke Greville Verney, 9th Baron Willoughby de Broke William Verney, 10th Baron Willoughby de Broke Richard Verney, 11th Baron Willoughby de Broke George Verney, 12th Baron Willoughby de Broke Richard Verney, 13th Baron Willoughby de Broke John Peyto-Verney, 14th Baron Willoughby de Broke John Peyto-Verney, 15th Baron Willoughby de Broke Henry Peyto-Verney, 16th Baron Willoughby de Broke Robert John Verney, 17th Baron Willoughby de Broke Henry Verney, 18th Baron Willoughby de Broke 1844–1902) Richard Greville Verney, 19th Baron Willoughby de Broke John Henry Peyto Verney, 20th Baron Willoughby de Broke Leopold David Verney, 21st Baron Willoughby de Broke The heir apparent is the present holder's son the Hon. Rupert Greville Verney.
Baron Latimer Earl Brooke
The Lord Steward or Lord Steward of the Household, in England, is an important official of the Royal Household. He is always a peer; until 1924, he was always a member of the Government. Until 1782, the office carried Cabinet rank; the Lord Steward receives his appointment from the Sovereign in person and bears a white staff as the emblem and warrant of his authority. He is the first dignitary of the court. In the House of Lords Precedence Act 1539, an Act of Parliament for placing of the lords, he is described as the grand master or lord steward of the king's most honourable household, he presided at the Board of Green Cloth, until the Board of Green Cloth disappeared in the reform of local government licensing in 2004, brought about by the Licensing Act 2003. In his department are the Treasurer of the Household and Comptroller of the Household, who rank next to him; these officials were peers or the sons of peers and Privy Councillors. They sat at the Board of Green Cloth, carry white staves, belong to the ministry.
The offices are now held by Government whips in the House of Commons. The duties which in theory belong to the Lord Steward and Comptroller of the Household are in practice performed by the Master of the Household, a permanent officer and resides in the palace. However, by the Coroners Act 1988, the Lord Steward still appoints the Coroner of the Queen's Household; the Master of the Household is a white-staff officer and was a member of the Board of Green Cloth but not of the ministry, among other things he presided at the daily dinners of the suite in waiting on the sovereign. He is not named in the Black Book of Edward IV or in the Statutes of Henry VIII and is entered as master of the household and clerk of the green cloth in the Household Book of Queen Elizabeth, but he has superseded the lord steward of the household, as the lord steward of the household at one time superseded the Lord High Steward of England. In the Lord Steward's department were the officials of the Board of Green Cloth, the Coroner, Paymaster of the Household, the officers of the Royal Almonry.
Other offices in the department were those of the Cofferer of the Household, the Treasurer of the Chamber, the Paymaster of Pensions, but these, with six clerks of the Board of Green Cloth, were abolished in 1782. The Lord Steward had three courts besides the Board of Green Cloth under him—the Lord Steward's Court, superseded in 1541 by the Marshalsea Court, the Palace Court; the Lord Steward or his deputies administered the oaths to the members of the House of Commons. In certain cases the lords with white staves are the proper persons to bear communications between the Sovereign and the Houses of Parliament. Sir Thomas Rempston 1399–1401 Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester 1401–1402 William Heron, Lord Say 1402–1404 Sir Thomas Erpingham 1404 Sir John Stanley 1405–1412 Sir Thomas Erpingham 1413–1417 Sir Walter Hungerford 1413–1421 Robert Babthorp 1421–1424 Sir Walter Hungerford 1424–1426 Sir John Tiptoft 1426–1432 Robert Babthorp 1432–1433 William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk 1433–1446 Ralph Boteler, 1st Baron Sudeley 1447–1457 John Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1457–1461 William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent 1461–1463 John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester 1463–1467 Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex 1467–1470 Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby 1471–?1485 The Lord FitzWalter 1485–aft.
1486 The Lord Willoughby de Broke 1488–1502 The Earl of Shrewsbury 1502–1538 The Earl of Sussex 1538–1540? The Duke of Suffolk 1541–1544 The Lord St John 1544–1551 The Duke of Northumberland 1551–1553 The Earl of Arundel 1553–1568 The Earl of Pembroke 1568–1570 no Lord Steward appointed 1570–1588 The Earl of Leicester 1587–1588 no Lord Steward appointed 1588–1603 The Earl of Nottingham 1603–1618 The Duke of Richmond 1618–1623 The Marquess of Hamilton 1623–1625 The Earl of Pembroke 1625–1630 none 1630–1640 The Earl of Arundel and Surrey 1640–1644 The Duke of Richmond 1644–1655 none 1655–1660 The Duke of Ormonde 1660–1688 The Duke of Devonshire 1689–1707 The Duke of Devonshire 1707–1710 The Duke of Buckingham and Normanby 1710–1711 The Earl Poulett 1711–1714 The Duke of Devonshire 1714–1716 The Duke of Kent 1716–1718 The Duke of Argyll 1718–1725 The Duke of Dorset 1725–1730 The Earl of Chesterfield 1730–1733 The Duke of Devonshire 1733–1737 The Duke of Dorset 1737–1744 The Duke of Devonshire 1744–1749 The Duke of Marlborough 1749–1755 The Duke of Rutland 1755–1761 The Earl Talbot 1761–1782 The Earl of Carlisle 1782–1783 The Duke of Rutland 1783 The Earl of Dartmouth 1783 The Duke of Chandos 1783–1789 The Duke of Dorset 1789–1799 The Earl of Leicester 1799–1802 The Earl of Dartmouth 1802–1804 The Earl of Aylesford 1804–1812 The Marquess of Cholmondeley 1812–1821 The Marquess Conyngham 1821–1830 The Duke of Buckingham and Chandos 1830 The Marquess Wellesley 1830–1833 The Duke of Argyll 1833–1834 The Earl of Wilton 1835 The Duke of Argyll 1835–1839 The Earl of Erroll 1839–1841 The Earl of Liverpool 1841–1846 The Earl Fortescue 1846–1850 The Marquess of Westminster 1850–1852 The Duke of Montrose 1852–1853 The Duke of Norfolk 1853–1854 The Earl Spencer 1854–1857 The Earl of St Germans 1857–1858 The Marquess of Exeter 1858–1859 The Earl of St Germans 1859–1866 The Earl of Bessborough 1866 The Duke of Marlborough 1866–1867 The Earl of Tankerville 1867–1868 The Earl of Bessborough 1868–1874 The Earl Beauchamp 1874–1880 The Earl Sydney 1880–1885 The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe 1885–1886 The Earl Sydney 1886 The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe 1886–1892 The Marquess of Breadalbane 1892–1895 The Earl of Pembroke 1895–1905 The Earl of Liverpool 1905–1907 The Earl Beauchamp 1907–1910 The Earl
The title Baron Latimer or Latymer has been created, by the definitions of modern peerage law, four times in the Peerage of England. Of these, one was restored from abeyance in 1913. All of these, the title of Viscount Latimer, belong to the descendants of the same medieval family, whose surname was Latimer; the arms of Latimer appear to have been Gules, a cross patonce or. The stems of a cross patonce should expand, as a cross pattée terminate more or less like a cross flory; the earliest surviving representation is on the seal of William Latimer, 1st Baron Latimer, affixed to the Barons' Letter of 1301 to the Pope. The arms of William le Latimer were blazoned in Franco-Norman verse by the heralds in the Caerlaverock Roll of Arms made in Scotland during the Siege of Caerlaverock in 1300 as follows: De Guilleme le Latimer portoit en rouge bien pourtraite. Ki la crois patée de or mier The term "patee" in this verse of the poem should not be interpreted as paty, or pattée, but rather as patonce.
His cross patonce is displayed in a contemporary stained glass window in Dorchester Church. In the blazons of the Latimer arms in subsequent rolls the cross is blazoned as patee and patey, though in times as cross patonce: Sire William de LATIMER: de goules, a un croys patee de or (Roll, tempore. ED. II. Monsire Le LATIMER, port de gules a une crois patey or Gules, a cross patonce or The late-medieval heraldic Angevin French terms patee and patey were incorrectly considered equivalent to the 18th century heraldic English patée by most heralds of the 19th century, supposing an early variance in the family arms, but throughout the 14th century the arms displayed Gules, a cross patonce or. One 19th century archivist incorrectly described the cross patonce of William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, as a cross flory. By modern law the existence of a barony by writ requires three things: a writ, evidence that the recipient of the writ sat in Parliament, that the Parliament meets the modern legal definition by including representatives of the shires or towns.
The oldest writs for the Latimers date from 1299, although the first Baron Latimer sat in the Parliament of 1290. William Latimer, 1st Baron Latimer, he sealed the Barons' Letter of 1301 to the Pope as Wills le Latimer Dns de Corby, his seal showing a cross patonce. William Latimer, 2nd Baron Latimer, son. William Latimer, 3rd Baron Latimer, son. William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, son. Elizabeth Latimer, 5th Baroness Latimer, only surviving child. Within five months of her father's death she married John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, whom she survived and remarried to Robert Willoughby, 4th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, by whom she had a daughter Margaret. By her first husband John Neville she had children as follows: 6th Baron Latimer. Elizabeth Neville, who married her step-brother Sir Thomas Willoughby. John Nevill, 6th Baron Latimer, who secured a divorce from his wife, had no children, he left his lands to his half-brother, Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, although he was not descended from the Latimers.
The Earl died in 1425, the lands were passed on to George Neville, one of his younger sons, summoned to Parliament as Baron Latimer. By modern law, the ancient Latimer title could not be transferred by will. John Neville's sisters had both predeceased him. Margaret had died unmarried, Elizabeth had married Sir Thomas Willoughby, one of her step-father's younger sons, so the Barony of Latimer is held to have passed to her son and heir, Sir John Willoughby. Three generations of Willoughbys succeeded, are in modern law heirs to the barony of Latimer. Robert Willoughby, one of Henry VII's military commanders, was summoned to Parliament under the style of Baron Willoughby de Broke in 1491. Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer, the grandson of George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer above, sat in the same Parliament, having just come of age. There were land disputes between the two families, the new Baron Willoughby de Broke claimed that he should have been summoned as Baron Latimer. Richard Neville responded through his counsel.
The decision was. Robert Willoughby was heir to the older one, created in 1299, had a right to claim it, but the summons to George Neville in 1432 had created a second barony of Latimer; the land dispute was settled by a marriage between the younger members of the family, Robert Willoughby chose not to claim the barony of Latimer. He had a seat in the House of Lords. 9 Robert Willoughby, 1st Baron Willoughby de Broke 10 Robert Willoughby, 2nd Baron Willoughby de Broke called Lord Broke or Broo
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of 3,485 km2. It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire and Berkshire; the county town was Wilton, after which the county is named, but Wiltshire Council is now based in the county town of Trowbridge. Wiltshire is characterised by its high wide valleys. Salisbury Plain is noted for being the location of the Stonehenge and Avebury stone circles and other ancient landmarks, as a training area for the British Army; the city of Salisbury is notable for its medieval cathedral. Important country houses open to the public include Longleat, near Warminster, the National Trust's Stourhead, near Mere; the county, in the 9th century written as Wiltunscir Wiltonshire, is named after the former county town of Wilton. Wiltshire is notable for its pre-Roman archaeology; the Mesolithic and Bronze Age people that occupied southern Britain built settlements on the hills and downland that cover Wiltshire. Stonehenge and Avebury are the most famous Neolithic sites in the UK.
In the 6th and 7th centuries Wiltshire was at the western edge of Saxon Britain, as Cranborne Chase and the Somerset Levels prevented the advance to the west. The Battle of Bedwyn was fought in 675 between Escuin, a West Saxon nobleman who had seized the throne of Queen Saxburga, King Wulfhere of Mercia. In 878 the Danes invaded the county. Following the Norman Conquest, large areas of the country came into the possession of the crown and the church. At the time of the Domesday Survey the industry of Wiltshire was agricultural. In the succeeding centuries sheep-farming was vigorously pursued, the Cistercian monastery of Stanley exported wool to the Florentine and Flemish markets in the 13th and 14th centuries. In the 17th century English Civil War Wiltshire was Parliamentarian; the Battle of Roundway Down, a Royalist victory, was fought near Devizes. In 1794 it was decided at a meeting at the Bear Inn in Devizes to raise a body of ten independent troops of Yeomanry for the county of Wiltshire, which formed the basis for what would become the Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry, who served with distinction both at home and abroad, during the Boer War, World War I and World War II.
The Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry lives on as Y Squadron, based in Swindon, B Squadron, based in Salisbury, of the Royal Wessex Yeomanry. Around 1800 the Kennet and Avon Canal was built through Wiltshire, providing a route for transporting cargoes from Bristol to London until the development of the Great Western Railway. Information on the 261 civil parishes of Wiltshire is available on Wiltshire Council's Wiltshire Community History website which has maps, demographic data and modern pictures and short histories; the local nickname for Wiltshire natives is "Moonrakers". This originated from a story of smugglers who managed to foil the local Excise men by hiding their alcohol French brandy in barrels or kegs, in a village pond; when confronted by the excise men they raked the surface to conceal the submerged contraband with ripples, claimed that they were trying to rake in a large round cheese visible in the pond a reflection of the full moon. The officials took them for simple yokels or mad and left them alone, allowing them to continue with their illegal activities.
Many villages claim the tale for their own village pond, but the story is most linked with The Crammer in Devizes. Two-thirds of Wiltshire, a rural county, lies on chalk, a kind of soft, porous limestone, resistant to erosion, giving it a high chalk downland landscape; this chalk is part of a system of chalk downlands throughout eastern and southern England formed by the rocks of the Chalk Group and stretching from the Dorset Downs in the west to Dover in the east. The largest area of chalk in Wiltshire is Salisbury Plain, used for arable agriculture and by the British Army as training ranges; the highest point in the county is the Tan Hill–Milk Hill ridge in the Pewsey Vale, just to the north of Salisbury Plain, at 295 m above sea level. The chalk uplands run northeast into West Berkshire in the Marlborough Downs ridge, southwest into Dorset as Cranborne Chase. Cranborne Chase, which straddles the border, like Salisbury Plain, yielded much Stone Age and Bronze Age archaeology; the Marlborough Downs are part of a 1,730 km2 conservation area.
In the northwest of the county, on the border with South Gloucestershire and Bath and North East Somerset, the underlying rock is the resistant oolite limestone of the Cotswolds. Part of the Cotswolds AONB is in Wiltshire, in the county's northwestern corner. Between the areas of chalk and limestone downland are clay vales; the largest of these vales is the Avon Vale. The Avon cuts diagonally through the north of the county, flowing through Bradford-on-Avon and into Bath and Bristol; the Vale of Pewsey has been cut through the chalk into Greensand and Oxford Clay in the centre of the county. In the south west of the county is the Vale of Wardour; the southeast of the county lies on the sandy soils of the northernmost area of the New Forest. Chalk is a porous rock, so the chalk hills have little surface water; the main settlements in the county are therefore situated at wet points. Notably, Salisbury is situated between the chalk of marshy flood plains; the county has green belt along its western fringes as a part of the extensive Avon green belt, reaching as far as the outskirts of Rudloe/Corsham and Trowbridge, preventing urban spr