The Mississippi Company was a corporation holding a business monopoly in French colonies in North America and the West Indies. When land development and speculation in the region became frenzied and detached from economic reality, the Mississippi bubble became one of the earliest examples of an economic bubble. In May 1716, the Banque Générale Privée, which developed the use of paper money, was set up by John Law, it was a private bank, but three quarters of the capital consisted of government bills and government-accepted notes. In August 1717, he bought the Mississippi Company to help the French colony in Louisiana. In the same year Law conceived. Law was named the Chief Director of this new company, granted a trade monopoly of the West Indies and North America by the French government; the bank became the Banque Royale in 1718, meaning the notes were guaranteed by the king, Louis XV of France. The company absorbed the Compagnie des Indes Orientales, the Compagnie de Chine, other rival trading companies and became the Compagnie Perpetuelle des Indes on 23 May 1719 with a monopoly of commerce on all the seas.
The bank began issuing more notes than it could represent in coinage. Louis XIV's long reign and wars had nearly bankrupted the French monarchy. Rather than reduce spending, the Regency of Louis XV of France endorsed the monetary theories of Scottish financier John Law. In 1716, Law was given a charter for the Banque Royale under which the national debt was assigned to the bank in return for extraordinary privileges; the key to the Banque Royale agreement was that the national debt would be paid from revenues derived from opening the Mississippi Valley. The Bank was tied to the Companies of the Indies. All were known as the Mississippi Company; the Mississippi Company had a monopoly on mineral wealth. The Company boomed on paper. Law was given the title Duc d'Arkansas. Bernard de la Harpe and his party left New Orleans in 1719 to explore the Red River. In 1721, he explored the Arkansas River. At the Yazoo settlements in Mississippi he was joined by Jean Benjamin who became the scientist for the expedition.
In 1718, there were only 700 Europeans in Louisiana. The Mississippi Company arranged ships to move 800 more, who landed in Louisiana in 1718, doubling the European population. John Law encouraged Germans Germans of the Alsatian region who had fallen under French rule, the Swiss to emigrate, they give their name to the regions of the Côte des Allemands and the Lac des Allemands in Louisiana. Prisoners were set free in Paris in September 1719 onwards, under the condition that they marry prostitutes and go with them to Louisiana; the newly married couples were taken to the port of embarkation. In May 1720, after complaints from the Mississippi Company and the concessioners about this class of French immigrants, the French government prohibited such deportations. However, there was a third shipment of prisoners in 1721. Law exaggerated the wealth of Louisiana with an effective marketing scheme, which led to wild speculation on the shares of the company in 1719; the scheme promised success for the Mississippi Company by combining investor fervor and the wealth of its Louisiana prospects into a sustainable, joint-stock, trading company.
The popularity of company shares were such that they sparked a need for more paper bank notes, when shares generated profits the investors were paid out in paper bank notes. In 1720, the bank and company were merged and Law was appointed by Philippe II, Duke of Orleans Regent for Louis XV, to be Comptroller General of Finances to attract capital. Law's pioneering note-issuing bank thrived until the French government was forced to admit that the number of paper notes being issued by the Banque Royale exceeded the value of the amount of metal coinage it held; the "bubble" burst at the end of 1720, when opponents of the financier attempted to convert their notes into specie en masse, forcing the bank to stop payment on its paper notes. By the end of 1720 Philippe d'Orléans had dismissed Law from his positions. Law fled France for Brussels moving on to Venice, where he lived off his gambling, he was buried in the church San Moisè in Venice. Richard Cantillon – banker who made an early profit from the company List of trading companies European chartered companies founded around the 17th century "Learning from past investment manias".
"Mississippi Scheme". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. "Mississippi Scheme". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Richard Challoner was an English Roman Catholic bishop, a leading figure of English Catholicism during the greater part of the 18th century. The titular Bishop of Doberus, he is most famous for his revision of the Douay–Rheims translation of the Bible. Challoner was born in Lewes, Sussex, on 29 September 1691, his father Richard Challoner, was married by licence granted on 17 January, either 1690 or 1691, to Grace at Ringmer, Sussex, on 10 February. After the death of his father, a Presbyterian winecooper, his mother, now reduced to poverty, became housekeeper to the Catholic Gage family, at Firle, Sussex, it is not known for sure whether she was a Roman Catholic, or whether she subsequently became one under the influence of a Catholic household and surroundings. In any case, thus it came about that Richard was brought up as a Catholic, although he was not baptized a Roman Catholic until he was about thirteen years old; this was at Warkworth, seat of the recusant Roman Catholic family, that of George Holman, whose wife, Lady Anastasia Holman, was a daughter of Blessed William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, a Catholic unjustly condemned and beheaded in the Titus Oates hysteria of 1678.
In 1705 young Richard was sent to the English College at Douai on a sort of scholarship, entering the English College on 29 July. He was to spend the next twenty-five years there, first as student as professor, as vice-president of the university of Douai. At the age of twenty-one he was chosen to teach the classes of rhetoric and poetry, which were the two senior classes in the humanities, he graduated with a bachelor's degree in divinity from the University of Douai in 1719, was appointed professor of philosophy, a post which he held for eight years. At this period, though it was no longer necessary to have aliases, he was known by his mother's surname of Willard, his nickname was "Book". Ordained a priest at Tournai on 28 March 1716, in 1720 he was chosen by the president, Robert Witham, to be his vice-president, an office which involved the supervision of both professors and students. At the same time he was appointed professor of theology and prefect of studies, so that he had the direction of the whole course of studies.
Though in 1727 he defended his public thesis and obtained a doctorate in divinity, Challoner's success as a teacher was due rather to his untiring industry and devotion to this work than to any extraordinary mental gifts. He was not considered an original thinker, but his gift lay in enforcing the spiritual reality of the doctrines he was expounding. Challoner has been described as being gentle, generous to the poor, able to instill confidence in others. Having in 1708 taken the college oath, binding himself to return to England, when required, to labour on the mission, in 1730 Challoner was given permission to embark for England on August 18, was stationed in London. There he entered into the work of the ministry. Though the penal laws were no longer enforced with extreme severity, the life of many Catholic priests was still a difficult one in London. Disguised as a layman in London, Challoner ministered to his flock there, celebrating Mass secretly in obscure ale-houses and wherever small gatherings could assemble without exciting remark.
In this regard, he was an untiring worker, spent much time in the poorest quarters of the town and in the prisons. Recent scholarship notes, that the English Catholic community was not as marginalized as might be thought today for those recusant Catholics whose social position gave them access to the courtly centers of power and patronage. Challoner avoided the houses of the rich, preferred to live and work among the poor of London, in his spare hours gave himself to study and writing, which enabled him to produce several works of instruction and controversy, his first published work, a little book of meditations under the quaint title of Think Well On't dated from 1728. The controversial treatises which he published in rapid succession from London attracted much attention his Catholic Christian Instructed, prefaced by a witty reply to Conyers Middleton's Letter from Rome, showing an Exact Conformity between Popery and Paganism. Challoner was the author over the years of numerous controversial and devotional works, which have been reprinted and translated into various languages.
In 1740 he brought out a new prayer book for the laity, the Garden of the Soul, which until the mid 20th century remained a favourite work of devotion, though the many editions that have since appeared have been so altered that little of the original work remains. Of his historical works, the most valuable is one, intended to be a Catholic response to the Protestant John Foxe's well-known martyrology, Foxe's Book of Martyrs, it is entitled Memoirs of Missionary Priests and other Catholicks of both Sexes who suffered Death or Imprisonment in England on account of their Religion, from the year 1577 till the end of the reign of Charles II. This work, compiled from original records, was for a long while the only published source on the list of Catholic martyrs of the English Reformation, including the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales, among others, it remains a standard work on the subject. In 1745 he produced anonymously his longest and most learned book, Britannia Sancta, containing the lives of the British, English and Irish saints, an interesting work of hagiography, superseded by that of Alban Butler and by more recent publications.
In 1738 the president of Douai College, Robert Witham and efforts were made by the superiors of the college
Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer and critic. Lee was born Solomon Lazarus Lee in 1859 at 12 Keppel Street, London, he was educated at the City of London School and at Balliol College, where he graduated in modern history in 1882. In 1883, Lee became assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography. In 1890 he became joint editor, on the retirement of Sir Leslie Stephen in 1891, succeeded him as editor. Lee wrote over 800 articles in the Dictionary on Elizabethan authors or statesmen, his sister Elizabeth Lee contributed. While still at Balliol, Lee had written two articles on Shakespearean questions, which were printed in The Gentleman's Magazine. In 1884, he published a book with illustrations by Edward Hull. Lee's article on Shakespeare in the 51st volume of the Dictionary of National Biography formed the basis of his Life of William Shakespeare, which reached its fifth edition in 1905. In 1902, Lee edited the Oxford facsimile edition of the first folio of Shakespeare's comedies and tragedies, followed in 1902 and 1904 by supplementary volumes giving details of extant copies, in 1906 by a complete edition of Shakespeare's works.
Lee received a knighthood in 1911. Between 1913 and 1924, he served as Professor of English Literature and Language at East London College. Besides the editions of English classics, Lee's works include: Life of Queen Victoria Great Englishmen of the Sixteenth century, based on his Lowell Institute lectures at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1903 Shakespeare and the Modern Stage Shakespeare's England: an account of the life & manners of his age King Edward VII, a Biography. There are personal letters from Lee, including those written during his final illness, in the T. F. Tout Collection of the John Rylands Library in Manchester. John Denham Parsons Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lee, Sidney". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Sidney Lee Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome Works by Sidney Lee at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sidney Lee at Internet Archive Works by Sidney Lee at LibriVox Works by Sidney Lee at Open Library
Appleby, North Lincolnshire
Appleby is a small village and civil parish in North Lincolnshire, England. The village is situated about 3 miles north-east from Scunthorpe, on the B1207 road. Returns in the 2001 Census show an Appleby parish population of 597, reducing to 587 at the 2011 census. Media related to Appleby at Wikimedia Commons Appleby web site Appleby in the Domesday Book
The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the New Testaments together as sacred scripture; the New Testament has accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world. It serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are incorporated into the various Christian liturgies; the New Testament has influenced religious and political movements in Christendom and left an indelible mark on literature and music. The New Testament is a collection of Christian works written in the common Greek language of the 1st century AD, at different times by various writers, the modern consensus is that it provides important evidence regarding Judaism in the 1st century. In all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books: the four gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one epistles, Revelation.
The united Catholic Church defined the 27-book canon. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books is by the 4th-century eastern Catholic bishop Athanasius; the first time that church councils approved this list was with the councils of Hippo and Carthage in North Africa and Pope Innocent I ratified the same canon in 405, but it is probable that a Council in Rome in 382 under pope Damasus gave the same list first. These councils provided the canon of the Old Testament, which included the apocryphal books; the original texts were written in the first century of the Christian Era, in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the conquests of Alexander the Great until the Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD. All the works that became incorporated into the New Testament are believed to have been written no than around 120 AD. John A. T. Robinson, Dan Wallace, William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. Others give a final date of 80 AD or of 96 AD.
Collections of related texts such as letters of the Apostle Paul and the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John were joined to other collections and single works in different combinations to form various Christian canons of Scripture. Over time, some disputed books, such as the Book of Revelation and the Minor Catholic Epistles were introduced into canons in which they were absent. Other works earlier held to be Scripture, such as 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Diatessaron, were excluded from the New Testament; the Old Testament canon is not uniform among all major Christian groups including Roman Catholics, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Slavic Orthodox Churches, the Armenian Orthodox Church. However, the twenty-seven-book canon of the New Testament, at least since Late Antiquity, has been universally recognized within Christianity; the phrase new testament, or new covenant first occurs in Jeremiah 31:31. The same Greek phrase for'new covenant' is found elsewhere in the New Testament.
In early Bible translations into Latin, the phrase was rendered foedus,'federation', in Jeremiah 31:31, was rendered testamentum in Hebrews 8:8 and other instances, from which comes the English term New Testament. Modern English, like Latin, distinguishes testament and covenant as alternative translations, the treatment of the term Διαθήκη diathḗkē varies in Bible translations into English. John Wycliffe's 1395 version is a translation of the Latin Vulgate and so follows different terms in Jeremiah and Hebrews: Lo! Days shall come, saith the Lord, I shall make a new covenant with the house of Israel, with the house of Judah. For he reproving him saith, Lo! Days come, saith the Lord, when I shall establish a new testament on the house of Israel, on the house of Judah. Use of the term New Testament to describe a collection of first and second-century Christian Greek scriptures can be traced back to Tertullian. In Against Marcion, written c. 208 AD, he writes of: the Divine Word, doubly edged with the two testaments of the law and the gospel.
And Tertullian continues in the book, writing: it is certain that the whole aim at which he has strenuously laboured in the drawing up of his Antitheses, centres in this, that he may establish a diversity between the Old and the New Testaments, so that his own Christ may be separate from the Creator, as belonging to this rival god, as alien from the law and the prophets. By the 4th century, the existence—even if not the exact contents—of both an Old and New Testament had been established. Lactantius, a 3rd–4th century Christian author wrote in his early-4th-century Latin Institutiones Divinae: But all scripture is divided into two Testaments; that which preceded the advent and passion of Christ—that is, the law and the prophets—is called the Old.
Jacobite rising of 1715
The Jacobite rising of 1715, was the attempt by James Francis Edward Stuart to regain the thrones of England and Scotland for the exiled House of Stuart. The 1688 Glorious Revolution deposed James II and VII and replaced him with his Protestant daughter Mary II and her Dutch husband William III and II, ruling as joint monarchs. Since neither Mary nor her sister Anne had surviving children, the 1701 Act of Settlement ensured a Protestant successor by excluding Catholics from the English and Irish thrones, that of Great Britain after the 1707 Act of Union; when Anne became the last Stuart monarch in 1702, her heir was the distantly related but Protestant Sophia of Hanover, not her Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward. Sophia died two months before Anne in August 1714. French support had been crucial for the Stuart exiles, but their acceptance of the Protestant succession in Britain was part of the terms that ended the 1701-1714 War of the Spanish Succession; this ensured a smooth inheritance by George I in August 1714, the Stuarts were banished from France by the terms of 1716 Anglo-French Treaty.
The 1710-1714 Tory government had prosecuted their Whig opponents, who now retaliated, accusing the Tories of corruption: Robert Harley was imprisoned in the Tower of London while Lord Bolingbroke escaped to France and became James' new Secretary of State. On 14 March 1715, James appealed to Pope Clement XI for help with a Jacobite rising: "It is not so much a devoted son, oppressed by the injustices of his enemies, as a persecuted Church threatened with destruction, which appeals for the protection and help of its worthy pontiff". On 19 August, Bolingbroke wrote to James that "..things are hastening to that point, that either you, Sir, at the head of the Tories, must save the Church and Constitution of England or both must be irretrievably lost for ever". Believing the great general Marlborough would join him, on 23 August James wrote to the Duke of Berwick, his illegitimate brother and Marlborough's nephew, that. Despite receiving no commission from James to start the rising, the Earl of Mar sailed from London to Scotland and on 27 August at Braemar held the first council of war.
On 6 September at Braemar, Mar raised the standard of "James the 8th and 3rd", acclaimed by 600 supporters. Parliament responded with the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act of 1715, passed an Act that confiscated the land of rebelling Jacobite landlords in favor of their tenants who supported the London government; some of Mar's tenants travelled to Edinburgh to prove their loyalty to the Hanoverian crown and acquire title to Mar's land. In northern Scotland, the Jacobites were successful, they took Inverness, Gordon Castle and further south, although they were unable to capture Fort William. In Edinburgh Castle, the government stored arms for up to 10,000 men and £100,000 paid to Scotland when she entered the Union with England. Lord Drummond, with 80 Jacobites, tried under the cover of night to take the Castle, but the Governor of the Castle learnt of their plans and defended it. By October, Mar's force, numbering nearly 20,000, had taken control of all Scotland above the Firth of Forth, apart from Stirling Castle.
However, Mar was indecisive, the Jacobite capture of Perth and the move south by 2,000 men were at the initative of subordinates. Mar's hesitation gave the Hanoverian commander, the Duke of Argyll, time to increase his strength with reinforcements from the Irish Garrison. On 22 October Mar received his commission from James appointing him commander of the Jacobite army, his forces outnumbered Argyll's Hanoverian army by three-to-one, Mar decided to march on Stirling Castle. On 13 November at Sheriffmuir, the two forces joined battle; the fighting was indecisive, but near the end, the Jacobites numbered 4,000 to Argyll's 1,000. Mar's force began to advance on Argyll, poorly protected, but Mar did not close in believing that he had won the battle already. Instead, Mar retreated to Perth. On the same day as the Battle of Sherrifmuir, Inverness surrendered to Hanoverian forces, a smaller Jacobite force led by Mackintosh of Borlum was defeated at Preston. Amongst the leaders of a Jacobite conspiracy in western England were six MPs.
The government arrested the leaders, including Sir William Wyndham, on the night of 2 October, on the following day obtained Parliament's legitimation of these arrests. The government sent reinforcements to defend Bristol and Plymouth. Oxford, famous for its monarchist sentiment, fell under government suspicion, on 17 October General Pepper led the dragoons into the city and arrested some leading Jacobites without resistance. Though the main rising in the West had been forestalled, a planned secondary rising in Northumberland went ahead on 6 October 1715, including two peers of the realm, James Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Derwentwater, William Widdrington, 4th Baron Widdrington, a future peer, Charles Radclyffe de jure 5th Earl of Derwentwater. Another future English peer, Edward Howard 9th Duke of Norfolk, joined the rising in Lancashire, as did other prominent figures, including Robert Cotton, one of the leading gentlemen in Huntingdonshire; the English Jacobites joined with a force of Scottish Borderer Jacobites, led by William Gordon, 6th Viscount Kenmure, this small army received Mackintosh's contingent.
They marched into England, where the Government forces caught up with