Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ is someone recognized as fulfilling the Biblical prophecies about one who will oppose Christ and substitute himself in Christ's place. The term is found five times in the New Testament in the First and Second Epistle of John; the Antichrist is announced as the one "who denies the Father and the Son."The similar term pseudokhristos or "false Christs" is found in the Gospels. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus alerts his disciples not to be deceived by the false prophets, which will claim themselves as being Christ, performing "great signs and wonders". Two other images associated with the Antichrist are the "little horn" in Daniel's final vision and the "man of sin" in Paul the Apostle's Second Epistle to the Thessalonians. In Islamic eschatology, Al-Masih ad-Dajjal is an anti-messiah figure, who will appear to deceive humanity before the second coming of "Isa", as Jesus is known by Muslims; the concept of an antichrist is absent in traditional Judaism, although in some medieval texts the symbolic figure Armilus appears.'Antichrist' is translated from the combination of two ancient Greek words αντί + Χριστός.
In Greek, Χριστός means the word Christ derives from it. "Αντί" means not only anti in the sense of “against” and “opposite of”, but “in place of". Therefore, an antichrist opposes Christ by substituting himself for Christ. Whether the New Testament contains an individual Antichrist is disputed; the Greek term antikhristos originates in 1 John. The similar term pseudokhristos is first found in the New Testament, but never used by Josephus in his accounts of various false messiahs; the concept of an antikhristos is not found in Jewish writings in the period 500 BC–50 AD. However, Bernard McGinn conjectures that the concept may have been generated by the frustration of Jews subject to often-capricious Seleucid or Roman rule, who found the nebulous Jewish idea of a Satan, more of an opposing angel of God in the heavenly court insufficiently humanised and personalised to be a satisfactory incarnation of evil and threat; the five uses of the term "antichrist" or "antichrists" in the Johannine epistles do not present a single latter-day individual Antichrist.
The articles "the deceiver" or "the antichrist" are seen as marking out a certain category of persons, rather than an individual. Little children, it is the last hour: and as you have heard that Antichrist cometh now there are become many Antichrists: whereby we know that it is the last hour. Many deceivers have gone out into the world, those who do not confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh. Who is the liar but the one who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the one who denies the Father and the Son. By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God, every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God, and this is the spirit of the antichrist. Attention for an individual Antichrist figure focuses on the second chapter of 2 Thessalonians. However, the term "antichrist" is never used in this passage: As to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our being gathered together to him, we beg you and sisters, not to be shaken in mind or alarmed, either by spirit or by word or by letter, as though from us, to the effect that the day of the Lord is here.
Let no one deceive you in any way. He opposes and exalts himself above every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, declaring himself to be God. For the mystery of lawlessness is at work, but only until the one who now restrains it is removed, and the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will destroy with the breath of his mouth, annihilating him by the manifestation of his coming. The coming of the lawless one is apparent in the working of Satan, who uses all power, lying wonders, every kind of wicked deception for those who are perishing, because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. Although the word "antichrist" is used only in the Epistles of John, the similar word "pseudochrist" is used by Jesus in the Gospels: For false messiahs and false prophets will appear and produce great signs and omens, to lead astray, if possible the elect; the only one of the late 1st/early 2nd century Apostolic Fathers to use the term is Polycarp who warned the Philippians that everyone who preached false doctrine was an antichrist.
His use of the term Antichrist follows that of the New Testament in not identifying a single personal Antichrist, but a class of people. Irenaeus wrote Against Heresies to refute the teachings of the Gnostics. In Book V of Against Heresies he addresses the figure of the Antichrist referring to him as the "recapitulation of apostasy and rebellion." He uses "666", the Number of the Beast from Revelation 13:18, to numerologically decode several possible names. Some names that he loosely proposed were "Evanthos", "Lateinos". In his exegesis of Daniel 7:21, he stated that the ten horns of the beast will be the Roman empire divided into ten kingdoms before the Antichrist's arrival. However, his readings of the Antichrist were more in broader theological terms rather than
Avalon, sometimes written Avallon or Avilion, is a legendary island featured in the Arthurian legend. It first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 1136 pseudo-historical account Historia Regum Britanniae as the place where King Arthur's sword Excalibur was forged and where Arthur was taken to recover from his wounds after the Battle of Camlann. Avalon was associated from an early date with mystical figures such as Morgan le Fay, it is traditionally identified as the former island of Glastonbury Tor. Geoffrey of Monmouth referred to it in Latin as Insula Avallonis in Historia Regum Britanniae. In the Vita Merlini he called it Insula Pomorum the "isle of fruit trees"; the name is considered to be of Welsh origin, derived from Old Welsh, Old Cornish, or Old Breton aball or avallen, "apple tree, fruit tree". It is possible that the tradition of an "apple" island among the British was related to Irish legends concerning the otherworld island home of Manannán mac Lir and Lugh, Emain Ablach, where Ablach means "Having Apple Trees"—derived from Old Irish aball —and is similar to the Middle Welsh name Afallach, used to replace the name Avalon in medieval Welsh translations of French and Latin Arthurian tales.
All are etymologically related to the Gaulish root *aballo "fruit tree"— and are derived from a Common Celtic *abal- "apple", related at the Proto-Indo-European level to English apple, Russian яблоко, Latvian ābele, et al. According to Geoffrey in the Historia, much subsequent literature which he inspired, Avalon is the place where King Arthur is taken after fighting Mordred at the Battle of Camlann to recover from his wounds. Welsh and Breton tradition claimed that Arthur had never died, but would return to lead his people against their enemies. Historia states that Avalon is where his sword Excalibur was forged. Geoffrey dealt with Avalon in more detail in the Vita Merlini, in which he describes for the first time in Arthurian legend the enchantress Morgan as the chief of nine sisters who rule Avalon. Geoffrey's description of the island indicates, his description of Avalon here, indebted to the early medieval Spanish scholar Isidore of Seville, shows the magical nature of the island: In Erec and Enide by Chrétien de Troyes, the consort of Morgan is the Lord of the Isle of Avalon, Arthur's nephew named Guinguemar.
In Layamon's Brut, Arthur is taken to Avalon to be healed there through means of magic water by a distinctively Anglo-Saxon redefinition of Geoffrey's Morgen: an elf queen of Avalon named Argante. In the narrative of Alliterative Morte Arthure devoid of supernatural elements, it is physicians from Salerno who try, fail, to save Arthur's life in Avalon. Many versions of the Arthurian legend have Morgan and some other magical queens or enchantresses arrive after the battle to take the mortally wounded Arthur from the battlefield of Camlann to Avalon in a black boat. In the Vulgate Cycle, Morgan tells Arthur of her intention to relocate to the isle of Avalon, the place where "the ladies live who know all the magic in the world", shortly before Camlann. In Lope Garcia de Salazar's Spanish summary of the Post-Vulgate Roman du Graal, Morgan uses her magic to hide Avalon in mist. Arthur's fate is left untold. Conversely, Stephen of Rouen's chronicle Draco Normannicus contains a fictional letter from King Arthur to Henry II of England, in which Arthur claims that he has been healed of his wounds and made immortal by his "deathless/eternal nymph" sister Morgan on Avalon, using the island's restorative herbs.
Morgan features as an immortal ruler of a fantastic Avalon, sometimes alongside the still alive Arthur, in some subsequent and otherwise non-Arthurian chivalric romances such as Tirant lo Blanch, as well as the tales of Huon of Bordeaux, where Oberon is a son of either Morgan by name or "the Lady of the Secret Isle", the legend of Ogier the Dane, where Avalon can be described as a castle. In his La Faula, Guillem de Torroella claims to have visited the Enchanted Island and met Arthur, brought back to life by Morgan and they both of them are now forever young, sustained by the Grail. In the chanson de geste La Bataille Loquifer and her sister Marsion bring the hero Renoart to Avalon, where Arthur now prepares his return alongside Morgan, Ywain and Guinevere; such stories take place centuries after the times of King Arthur. Around 1190, Avalon became associated with Glastonbury, when monks at Glastonbury Abbey claimed to have discovered the bones
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books; the project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on any computer. As of 23 June 2018, Project Gutenberg reached 57,000 items in its collection of free eBooks; the releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, Plucker. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts. Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence.
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The Holy Grail is a treasure that serves as an important motif in Arthurian literature. Different traditions describe it as a cup, dish or stone with miraculous powers that provide happiness, eternal youth or sustenance in infinite abundance in the custody of the Fisher King; the term "holy grail" is used to denote an elusive object or goal, sought after for its great significance. A "grail", wondrous but not explicitly holy, first appears in Perceval, le Conte du Graal, an unfinished romance written by Chrétien de Troyes around 1190. Here, Chrétien's story attracted many continuators and interpreters in the 12th and early 13th centuries, including Wolfram von Eschenbach, who perceived the Grail as a stone. In the late 12th century, Robert de Boron wrote in Joseph d'Arimathie that the Grail was Jesus's vessel from the Last Supper, which Joseph of Arimathea used to catch Christ's blood at the crucifixion. Thereafter, the Holy Grail became interwoven with the legend of the Holy Chalice, the Last Supper cup, a theme continued in works such as the Vulgate Cycle, the Post-Vulgate Cycle, Le Morte d'Arthur.
Grail literature divides into two classes. The first concerns King Arthur's knights questing after the object; the second concerns the Grail's history in the time of Joseph of Arimathea. The word graal, as it is earliest spelled, comes from Old French graal or greal, cognate with Old Provençal grazal and Old Catalan gresal, meaning "a cup or bowl of earth, wood, or metal"; the most accepted etymology derives it from Latin gradalis or gradale via an earlier form, cratalis, a derivative of crater or cratus, which was, in turn, borrowed from Greek krater. Alternative suggestions include a derivative of cratis, a name for a type of woven basket that came to refer to a dish, or a derivative of Latin gradus meaning "'by degree','by stages', applied to a dish brought to the table in different stages or services during a meal". In the 15th century, English writer John Hardyng invented a fanciful new etymology for Old French san-graal, meaning "Holy Grail", by parsing it as sang real, meaning "royal blood".
This etymology was used by some medieval British writers such as Thomas Malory, became prominent in the conspiracy theory developed in the book The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, in which sang real refers to the Jesus bloodline. The nine works from the first group are: the Story of the Grail by Chrétien de Troyes. Four Continuations of Chrétien's poem, by authors of differing vision and talent, designed to bring the story to a close. Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach, which adapted at least the holiness of Robert's Grail into the framework of Chrétien's story. In Wolfram's telling, the Grail was kept safe at the castle of Munsalvaesche, entrusted to Titurel, the first Grail King. Some, not least the Benedictine monks, have identified the castle with their real sanctuary of Montserrat in Catalonia; the Didot Perceval, named after the manuscript's former owner, purportedly a prosification of Robert de Boron's sequel to Joseph d'Arimathie. Welsh romance Peredur son of Efrawg, a loose translation of Chrétien's poem and the Continuations, with some influence from native Welsh literature.
Perlesvaus, called the "least canonical" Grail romance because of its different character. German poem Diu Crône, in which Gawain, rather than Perceval, achieves the Grail; the Lancelot section of the vast Vulgate Cycle, which introduces the new Grail hero, Galahad. The Queste del Saint Graal, another part of the Vulgate Cycle, concerning the adventures of Galahad and his achievement of the Grail. Of the second group there are: Robert de Boron's Joseph d'Arimathie; the Estoire del Saint Graal, the first part of the Vulgate Cycle, based on Robert's tale but expanding it with many new details. Verses by Rigaut de Barbezieux, a late 12th or early 13th-century Provençal troubador, where mention is made of Perceval, the lance, the Grail; the Grail was considered a dish when first described by Chrétien de Troyes. There, it is a tray, used to serve at a feast. Hélinand of Froidmont described a grail as a "wide and deep saucer". Robert de Boron portrayed it as the vessel of the Last Supper. Peredur son of Efrawg had no Grail as such, presenting the hero instead with a platter containing his kinsman's bloody, severed head.
The Grail is first featured in Perceval, le Conte du Graal by Chrétien de Troyes, who claims he was working from a source book given to him by his patron, Count Philip of Flanders. In this incomplete poem, dated sometime between 1180 and 1191, the object has not yet acquired the implications of holiness it would have in works. While dining in the magical abode of the Fisher King, Perceval witnesses a wondrous procession in which youths carry magnificent objects from one chamber to another, passing before him at each course of the meal. First comes a young man carrying a bleeding lance two boys carrying candelabras. A beautiful young girl emerges bearing an elaborately decorated graal, or "grail". Chrétien refers to this object not as "The Grail" but as "a grail", showing the word was used, in its earliest literary context, as a common noun. For Chrétien a