Malcolm III of Scotland
Malcolm III was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093. He was nicknamed "Canmore". Malcolm's long reign of 35 years preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. Henry I of England and Eustace III of Boulogne were his sons-in-law, making him the maternal grandfather of Empress Matilda, William Adelin and Matilda of Boulogne. All three of them were prominent in English politics during the 12th century. Malcolm's kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern Scotland: the north and west of Scotland remained under Scandinavian rule following the Norse invasions. Malcolm III fought a series of wars against the Kingdom of England, which may have had as its objective the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria; these wars did not result in any significant advances southward. Malcolm's primary achievement was to continue a lineage that ruled Scotland for many years, although his role as founder of a dynasty has more to do with the propaganda of his youngest son David I and his descendants than with history.
Malcolm's second wife, St. Margaret of Scotland, is Scotland's only royal saint. Malcolm himself had no reputation for piety. Malcolm's father Duncan I became king in late 1034, on the death of Malcolm II, Duncan's maternal grandfather and Malcolm's great-grandfather. According to John of Fordun, whose account is the original source of part at least of William Shakespeare's Macbeth, Malcolm's mother was a niece of Siward, Earl of Northumbria, but an earlier king-list gives her the Gaelic name Suthen. Other sources claim that either a daughter or niece would have been too young to fit the timeline, thus the relative would have been Siward's own sister Sybil, which may have translated into Gaelic as Suthen. Duncan's reign was not successful and he was killed in battle with the men of Moray, led by Macbeth, on 15 August 1040. Duncan was young at the time of his death, Malcolm and his brother Donalbane were children. Malcolm's family attempted to overthrow Macbeth in 1045, but Malcolm's grandfather Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the attempt.
Soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for greater safety—exactly where is the subject of debate. According to one version, Malcolm was sent to England, his younger brother Donalbane was sent to the Isles. Based on Fordun's account, it was assumed that Malcolm passed most of Macbeth's seventeen-year reign in the Kingdom of England at the court of Edward the Confessor. Today's British Royal family can trace their family history back to Malcolm III via his daughter Matilda. According to an alternative version, Malcolm's mother took both sons into exile at the court of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney, an enemy of Macbeth's family, Duncan's kinsman by marriage. An English invasion in 1054, with Siward, Earl of Northumbria in command, had as its goal the installation of one "Máel Coluim, son of the king of the Cumbrians"; this Máel Coluim has traditionally been identified with the Malcolm III. This interpretation derives from the Chronicle attributed to the 14th-century chronicler of Scotland, John of Fordun, as well as from earlier sources such as William of Malmesbury.
The latter reported that Macbeth was killed in the battle by Siward, but it is known that Macbeth outlived Siward by two years. A. A. M. Duncan argued in 2002 that, using the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry as their source writers innocently misidentified "Máel Coluim" with the Scottish king of the same name. Duncan's argument has been supported by several subsequent historians specialising in the era, such as Richard Oram, Dauvit Broun and Alex Woolf, it has been suggested that Máel Coluim may have been a son of Owain Foel, British king of Strathclyde by a daughter of Malcolm II, King of Scotland. In 1057 various chroniclers report the death of Macbeth at Malcolm's hand, on 15 August 1057 at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach, crowned at Scone on 8 September 1057. Lulach was killed by Malcolm, "by treachery", near Huntly on 23 April 1058. After this, Malcolm became king being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only John of Fordun reports this. If Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Malcolm's earliest actions as king was to travel to the court of Edward the Confessor in 1059 to arrange a marriage with Edward's kinswoman Margaret, who had arrived in England two years before from Hungary.
If a marriage agreement was made in 1059, it was not kept, this may explain the Scots invasion of Northumbria in 1061 when Lindisfarne was plundered. Malcolm's raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed "Kingdom of the Cumbrians", reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054, under Malcolm's control by 1070; the Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg, a daughter of Finn Arnesson. Although Ingibiorg is assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is possible that she died much earlier, around 1058; the Orkneyinga Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son, Duncan II, king. Some Medieval commentators, following William of Malmesbury, claimed that Duncan was illegitimate, but this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's descendants, the Meic Uilleim. Malcolm's son Domnall, whose death is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Sa
Roman Catholic Diocese of Coutances
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Coutances is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in France. Its mother church is the Cathedral of Coutance in the commune of Coutances in France; the diocese comprises the entire department of Manche. It was enlarged in 1802 by the addition of the former Diocese of Avranches and of two archdeaconries from the Diocese of Bayeux. Since 1854 its bishops have held the title of Bishop of Coutances; the Bishop of Coutances exercised ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Channel Islands in Alderney where the Bishop held partial authority over the Leader of Alderney, until the Reformation, despite the secular division of Normandy in 1204. The final rupture occurred definitively in 1569 when Queen Elizabeth I demanded that the Bishops hand the island over to the Bishop of Winchester. In 1757 the city of Coutances had a population of about 12,000 Catholics; the Cathedral was dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Its Chapter was composed of twenty-five Canons. There were six Choral Vicars, forty-two chaplains, fourteen choristers and six boy singers, a body of musicians.
The Cantor has existed from the 11th century. The four archdeacons were: Coutances, Val-de-Vire and Cotentin. In the city were two parishes, two houses of male religious, two monasteries of monks; the entire diocese had some 500 parishes. The diocese contained seven houses of Benedictine monks: Saint-Sever, Saint-Sauveur le Vicomte, Hambie, Notre-Dame de Protection, Notre-Dame des Anges. There was a house of Premonstratensians at Blanchelande. All were abolished by will of the Constituent Assembly in 1790, their properties confiscated and sold. Monastic vows were forbidden. On 12 April 1791 the priests of the seminary were expelled for refusing to take the Oath to the Constitution. On 15 January 1793 the turn came of the houses of women to be closed and confiscated, their inhabitants forcefully ejected; the Cathedral of Avranches, situated in a town of some 2500 inhabitants in 1764, was dedicated to Saint Andrew on 17 September 1211. The Chapter of the Cathedral had eighteen Canons; the archdeacons were named Archidiaconus Abricensis and Archidiaconus Vallis Moretonii.
The town contained one community of male religious and one monastery of monks. The entire diocese contained 170 parishes; the Diocese of Avranches was abolished during the French Revolution by the Legislative Assembly, under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Its territory was subsumed into the new diocese, called'Manche', with its seat at Coutances, part of the Metropolitanate called the'Côtes de la Manche', with its seat at Rouen; when the Concordat of 1801 was struck between Pope Pius VII and First Consul Bonaparte, the Diocese of Avranches was not revived. Nicolas de Briroy, 1589–1620, consecrated in 1597 Guillaume Le Blanc, 1621, died before his consecration Jacques de Carbonnel, 1621, never consecrated Nicolas Bourgoin, 1622–1625 Léonor I Goyon de Matignon, 1627–1646, became bishop of Lisieux Claude Auvry, 1646–1658 Eustache Le Clerc de Lesseville, 1658–1665 Charles–François de Loménie de Brienne, 1666–1720 Léonor II Goyon de Matignon, 1721–1757 Jacques Le Febvre du Quesnoy, 1757–1764 Ange–François de Talaru de Chalmazel, 1764–1798François Bécherel, 1791–1801 Claude-Louis Rousseau 14 Apr 1802 – 3 Aug 1807 Pierre Dupont de Poursat 3 Aug 1807 – 17 Sep 1835.
Louis-Jean-Julien Robiou de la Tréhonnais 1 Feb 1836 – 7 Dec 1852 Jacques-Louis Daniel, 1854–1862 Jean-Pierre Bravard, 1862–1875 Abel-Anastase Germain, 1876–1897 Joseph Guérard, 1899–1924 Théophile-Marie Louvard, 1924–1950 Jean Guyot, 1950–1966. Joseph Wicquart, 1966–1988 Jacques Fihey, 1989–2006 Stanislas Lalanne, 2007–2012. Tomus undecimus. Paris: ex Typographia regia. 1759. Pp. 865–949, Instrumenta, pp. 218–338. Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Round, John Horace. Calendar of documents preserved in France: illustrative of the history of Great Britain and Ireland. A. D. 918-1206. Vol. 1
Normandy is one of the 18 regions of France referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Normandy is divided into five administrative departments: Calvados, Manche and Seine-Maritime, it covers 30,627 square kilometres, comprising 5% of the territory of metropolitan France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France. The inhabitants of Normandy are known as Normans, the region is the historic homeland of the Norman language; the historical region of Normandy comprised the present-day region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. The Channel Islands are historically part of Normandy. Normandy's name comes from the settlement of the territory by Danish and Norwegian Vikings from the 9th century, confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III of France and the Viking jarl Rollo. For a century and a half following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.
Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC; when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads and a policy of urbanisation. Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy. In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates. Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east; as early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis. Vikings started to raid the Seine valley during the middle of the 9th century; as early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom. After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagne's empire to take northern France.
The fiefdom of Normandy was created for Rollo. Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo gained the territory which he and his Viking allies had conquered; the name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking origins. To this day, in Norwegian language the word nordmann denotes a Norwegian person; the descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's native Gallo-Roman inhabitants. They became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Norsemen and indigenous Franks and Romans. Rollo's descendant William became king of England in 1066 after defeating Harold Godwinson, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings, at the Battle of Hastings, while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. Besides the conquest of England and the subsequent subjugation of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas.
Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the conquest of southern Italy and the Crusades. The Drengot lineage, de Hauteville's sons William Iron Arm and Humphrey, Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count progressively claimed territories in southern Italy until founding the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130, they carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor and the Holy Land. The 14th-century explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands in 1404, he received the title King of the Canary Islands from Pope Innocent VII but recognized Henry III of Castile as his overlord, who had provided him aid during the conquest. In 1204, during the reign of John Lackland, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under King Philip II. Insular Normandy remained however under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris.
His successors, however fought to regain control of their ancient fiefdom. The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of France in 1315 – like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450. Normandy lost three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterward prosperity returned to Normandy until the Wars of Religion; when many Norman towns joined the Protestant Reformation, battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War. Samuel de Champlain founded Acadia. Four years
Robert Curthose, sometimes called Robert II, succeeded his father, William the Conqueror as Duke of Normandy in 1087 and reigned until 1106. Robert was an unsuccessful claimant to the throne of the Kingdom of England; the epithet "Curthose" had its origins in the Norman French word courtheuse "short stockings" and was derived from a nickname given to Robert by his father. The eldest son of William the Conqueror, Robert's reign as duke is noted for the discord with his brothers William II and Henry I in England. Robert mortgaged his duchy to finance his participation in the First Crusade, where he was an important crusader commander, his disagreements with Henry I led to his death in captivity and the absorption of Normandy as a possession of England. Robert was the eldest son of William the Conqueror, the first Norman king of England, Matilda of Flanders. Estimates of Robert's birth-date range between 1051 and 1053; as a child he was betrothed to Margaret, the heiress of Maine, but she died before they could be wed, Robert did not marry until his late forties.
In his youth he was reported to be skilful in military exercises. He was, however prone to laziness and weakness of character that discontented nobles and the King of France exploited to stir discord with his father William, he was unsatisfied with the share of power allotted to him and quarrelled with his father and brothers fiercely. In 1063, his father made him the Count of Maine in view of his engagement to Margaret, Robert may have had independent rule in Maine; the county remained under Norman control until 1069 when the county revolted and reverted to Hugh V of Maine. In 1077, Robert instigated his first insurrection against his father as the result of a prank played by his younger brothers William Rufus and Henry, who had dumped a full chamber-pot over his head. Robert was enraged and, urged on by his companions, started a brawl with his brothers, only interrupted by the intercession of their father. Feeling that his dignity was wounded, Robert was further angered when King William failed to punish his brothers.
The next day Robert and his followers attempted to seize the castle of Rouen. The siege failed, when King William ordered their arrest and his companions took refuge with Hugh of Chateauneuf-en-Thymerais, they were forced to flee again. Robert fled to Flanders to the court of his uncle Robert I, Count of Flanders, before plundering the county of the Vexin and causing such mayhem that his father King William allied himself with King Philip I of France to stop his rebellious son. Relations were not helped when King William discovered that his wife, Robert's mother Queen Matilda, was secretly sending her son Robert money. At a battle in January 1079, Robert unhorsed King William in combat and succeeded in wounding him, stopping his attack only when he recognised his father's voice. Humiliated, King William cursed his son. King William raised the siege and returned to Rouen. At Easter 1080, father and son were reunited by the efforts of Queen Matilda, a truce lasted until she died in 1083. Robert seems to have left court soon after the death of his mother and spent several years travelling throughout France and Flanders.
He was unsuccessful. During this period as a wandering knight Robert sired several illegitimate children, his bastard son Richard seems to have spent much of his life at the royal court of his uncle William Rufus. This Richard was killed in a hunting accident in the New Forest in 1099 as was his uncle, King William Rufus, the next year. An illegitimate daughter was married to Helias of Saint-Saens. In 1087, the elder William died of wounds suffered from a riding accident during a siege of Mantes. At his death he wanted to disinherit his eldest son but was persuaded to divide the Norman dominions between his two eldest sons. To Robert he granted the Duchy of Normandy and to William Rufus he granted the Kingdom of England; the youngest son Henry was given money to buy land. Of the two elder sons Robert was considered to be much the weaker and was preferred by the nobles who held lands on both sides of the English Channel since they could more circumvent his authority. At the time of their father's death the two brothers made an agreement to be each other's heir.
However this peace lasted less than a year when barons joined with Robert to displace Rufus in the Rebellion of 1088. It was not a success, in part. Robert took as his close adviser Ranulf Flambard, a close adviser to his father. Flambard became an astute but much-disliked financial adviser to William Rufus until the latter's death in 1100. In 1096, Robert left for the Holy Land on the First Crusade. At the time of his departure he was so poor that he had to stay in bed for lack of clothes. To raise money for the crusade he mortgaged his duchy to his brother William for the sum of 10,000 marks; when William II died on 2 August 1100, Robert was on his return journey from the Crusade and was about to marry a wealthy young bride to raise funds to buy back his duchy. As a result of Robert's absence, his brother Henry was able to seize the crown of England for himself. Upon his return, Robert – urged by Flambard and several Anglo-Norman barons – claimed the English crown, on the basis of the short-lived agreement of 1087, in 1101 led an invasion to oust his brother Henry.
Pope Paschal II
Pope Paschal II, born Ranierius, was Pope from 13 August 1099 to his death in 1118. A monk of the Cluniac order, he created the Cardinal-Priest of San Clemente by Pope Gregory VII in 1073, he was consecrated as pope in succession to Pope Urban II on 19 August 1099. His reign of twenty years was exceptionally long for a pope of the Middle Ages, he was born near Forlì, Romagna. During the long struggle of the papacy with the Holy Roman Emperors over investiture, he zealously carried on the Hildebrandine policy in favor of papal privilege, but with only partial success; the future Emperor Henry V took advantage of his father's excommunication to rebel to the point of seeking out Paschal II for absolution for associating with his father, Henry IV. But, Henry V was more persistent in maintaining the right of investiture than Emperor Henry IV had been before his death in 1106; the imperial Diet at Mainz invited Paschal II to visit Germany and settle the trouble in January 1106, but the Pope in the Council of Guastalla renewed the prohibition of investiture.
In the same year he brought to an end the investiture struggle in England, in which Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, had been engaged with Henry I of England, by retaining to himself exclusive right to invest with the ring and crozier, but recognizing the royal nomination to vacate benefices and the oath of fealty for temporal domains. Paschal went to France at the close of 1106 to seek the mediation of Philip I of France and Prince Louis in the imperial struggle, but he returned to Italy in September 1107, his negotiations remaining without result; when Henry V advanced with an army into Italy in order to be crowned, the Pope agreed to a compact in February 1111 which stipulated that before receiving the imperial crown, Henry was to abjure all claims to investitures, whilst the pope undertook to compel the prelates and abbots of the empire to restore all the temporal rights and privileges which they held from the crown. Preparations were made for the coronation on 12 February 1111, but the Romans rose in revolt against Henry, the German king retired, taking the Pope and Curia with him.
After 61 days of harsh imprisonment, during which Prince Robert I of Capua's Norman army was repulsed on its rescue mission, Paschal II yielded and guaranteed investiture to the Emperor. Henry V was crowned in St. Peter's on 13 April 1111, after exacting a promise that no revenge would be taken for what had happened, withdrew beyond the Alps; the Hildebrandine party was aroused to action, however. Towards the end of his pontificate trouble began anew in England. Matilda of Tuscany was said to have bequeathed all her allodial lands to the Church upon her death in 1115, but the donation was neither publicly acknowledged in Rome nor is any documentary record of the donation preserved. Emperor Henry V at once laid claim to Matilda's lands as imperial fiefs and forced the Pope to flee from Rome. Paschal II returned after the Emperor's withdrawal at the beginning of 1118, but died within a few days, on 21 January 1118. Pope Paschal II ordered the building of the basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati on the ashes of the one burned during the Norman sack of Rome in 1084.
During Paschal's trip to France in 1106–1107, he consecrated the Cluniac church of Notre Dame at La Charité-sur-Loire, the second largest church in Europe at the time. In 1116, Paschal II, at the behest of Count Ramon Berenguer III, issued a crusade for the capture of Tarragona. During Paschal's papacy some efforts were made by the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I to bridge the schism between the Orthodox and the Catholic Church, but these failed, as he pressed the demand that the Patriarch of Constantinople recognise the Pope's primacy over "all the churches of God throughout the world" in late 1112; this was something the patriarch could not do in face of opposition from the majority of clergy, the monastic world, the laity. The first bishop of America was appointed during Paschal II's reign, nearly four centuries before Columbus' first voyage across the Atlantic. Erik Gnupsson was given the province of Greenland and Vinland, the latter believed to refer to what is now Newfoundland. Pope Paschal II issued the bull "Pie Postulatio Voluntatis" on 15 February 1113.
It brought under Papal protection and confirmed as a religious order the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem known as the Knights Hospitaller and today known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. It confirmed the order's acquisitions and donations in Europe and Asia and exempted it from all authority save that of the Pope. First Council of the Lateran Concordat of Worms Cardinals created by Paschal II This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Paschal". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. Cambridge University Press. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Paschal II". Catholic Encyclopedia. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company
Bamburgh Castle is a castle on the northeast coast of England, by the village of Bamburgh in Northumberland. It is a Grade I listed building; the site was the location of a Celtic Brittonic fort known as Din Guarie and may have been the capital of the kingdom of Bernicia from its foundation in c. 420 to 547. After passing between the Britons and the Anglo-Saxons three times, the fort came under Anglo-Saxon control in 590; the fort was destroyed by Vikings in 993, the Normans built a new castle on the site, which forms the core of the present one. After a revolt in 1095 supported by the castle's owner, it became the property of the English monarch. In the 17th century, financial difficulties led to the castle deteriorating, but it was restored by various owners during the 18th and 19th centuries, it was bought by the Victorian era industrialist William Armstrong, who completed its restoration. The castle still is open to the public. Built on a dolerite outcrop, the location was home to a fort of the indigenous Celtic Britons known as Din Guarie and may have been the capital of the kingdom of Bernicia, the realm of the Gododdin people, from the realm's foundation in c. 420 until 547, the year of the first written reference to the castle.
In that year the citadel was captured by the Anglo-Saxon ruler Ida of Bernicia and became Ida's seat. The castle was retaken by the Britons from his son Hussa during the war of 590 before being relieved the same year. In c. 600, Hussa's successor Æthelfrith passed it on to his wife Bebba, from whom the early name Bebbanburh was derived. The Vikings destroyed the original fortification in 993; the Normans built a new castle on the site. William II unsuccessfully besieged it in 1095 during a revolt supported by its owner, Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria. After Robert was captured, his wife continued the defence until coerced to surrender by the king's threat to blind her husband. Bamburgh became the property of the reigning English monarch. Henry II built the keep as it was complete by 1164. Following the Siege of Acre in 1191, as a reward for his service, King Richard I appointed Sir John Forster the first Governor of Bamburgh Castle. Following the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, King David II was held prisoner at Bamburgh Castle.
During the civil wars at the end of King John's reign, the castle was under the control of Philip of Oldcoates. In 1464 during the Wars of the Roses, it became the first castle in England to be defeated by artillery, at the end of a nine-month siege by Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the "Kingmaker", on behalf of the Yorkists; the Forster family of Northumberland continued to provide the Crown with successive governors of the castle until the Crown granted ownership of the castle to another Sir John Forster in around 1600. The family retained ownership until Sir William Forster was posthumously declared bankrupt, his estates, including the castle, were sold to Lord Crew, Bishop of Durham under an Act of Parliament to settle the debts in 1704. Crewe placed the castle in the hands of a board of trustees chaired by Thomas Sharp, the Archdeacon of Northumberland. Following the death of Thomas Sharp, leadership of the board of trustees passed to John Sharp who refurbished the castle keep and court rooms and established a hospital on the site.
In 1894, the castle was bought by the Victorian industrialist William Armstrong, who completed the restoration. During the Second World War, pillboxes were established in the sand dunes to protect the castle and surrounding area from German invasion and, in 1944, a Royal Navy corvette was named HMS Bamborough Castle after the castle; the castle still remains in the ownership of the Armstrong family. About 9 miles to the south on a point of coastal land is the ancient fortress of Dunstanburgh Castle and about 5 miles to the north is Lindisfarne Castle on Holy Island. Inland about 16 miles to the south is Alnwick Castle, the home of the Duke of Northumberland. Air quality levels at Bamburgh Castle are excellent due to the absence of industrial sources in the region. Sound levels near the north-south road passing by Bamburgh Castle are in the range of 59 to 63 dBA in the daytime. Nearby are breeding colonies of Arctic and common terns on the inner Farne Islands, of Atlantic puffin and razorbill on Staple Island.
Archaeological excavations were started in the 1960s by Brian Hope-Taylor, who discovered the gold plaque known as the Bamburgh Beast as well as the Bamburgh Sword. Since 1996, the Bamburgh Research Project has been investigating the archaeology and history of the Castle and Bamburgh area; the project has concentrated on the fortress site and the early medieval burial ground at the Bowl Hole, to the south of the castle. The castle's laundry rooms feature the Armstrong and Aviation Artefacts Museum, with exhibits about Victorian industrialist William Armstrong and Armstrong Whitworth, the manufacturing company he founded. Displays include engines and weaponry, aviation artefacts from two world wars; the castle features in the ballad The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh written in circa 1270. Late medieval British author Thomas Malory identified Bamburgh Castle with Joyous Gard, the mythical castle home of Sir Launcelot in Arthurian legend. In literature, under its Saxon name Bebbanburg, is the home of Uhtred, the main character in Bernard Cornwell's The Saxon Stories.
It features either as a significant location or as the inspiration for the protagonist in all books in the series, starting with The Last K
Edward Augustus Freeman
Edward Augustus Freeman was an English historian, architectural artist, Liberal politician during the late-19th-century heyday of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom William Gladstone, as well as a one-time candidate for Parliament. He held the position of Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford. After the marriage of his daughter Margaret to Evans, he and Evans collaborated on the fourth volume of his History of Sicily, he was a prolific writer. One of his best known is The History of the Norman Conquest of England. Both he and Margaret died before Evans purchased the land from which he would excavate the Palace of Knossos. Freeman was born at Metchley Abbey in Warwickshire, his parents, John Freeman and Mary Ann, used the Latin name of the month in which he was born as his middle name. They were a family of modest means. On his death, his will was disputed, lawyers' fees consumed the bulk of the estate. Edward's father, the oldest son, his two paternal uncles and Joseph, received little to sustain them.
Edward's mother, Mary Anne, née Carless, had noble ancestry, descending through her father, William residing near Birmingham, from the same Colonel William Carless who had assisted the future Charles II as he hid from his enemies in the branches of the Royal Oak after the Battle of Worcester, 1651, the last of the English Civil War. Mary Anne's family still displayed the coat-of-arms given to them; the family was never in good health. They delayed hoping to avoid public exposure to contagious diseases; the family was struck by tragedy in November 1824, when the father died of unknown disease, the mother died four days of tuberculosis, the oldest daughter, Mary Anne age 14, died of unknown disease the same day, 25 November. Edward's paternal grandmother, Emmete Freeman took charge of the three survivors and his two sisters and Emma, aged 13 and 10 bringing them to her home at Weston-super-Mare. Emma died in 1826. Freeman was educated by a private tutor; as a boy, he was interested in religious matters and foreign politics.
He won a scholarship to Trinity College, a second class in the degree examination, was elected fellow of his college. While at Oxford he was much influenced by the High Church movement, thought of taking orders, but abandoned the idea, he married Eleanor Gutch daughter of his former tutor, the Reverend Robert Gutch, on 13 April 1847 at Seagrave and entered on a life of study. He lived in Cardiff, in the mid 19th century. Freeman bought a house called "Somerleaze", near Wells and settled there in 1860. From 1886 Freeman was forced by ill health to spend much of his time abroad. In February 1892 he visited Spain in company with two younger daughters, he fell ill at Valencia on 7 March, but on the 9th went on to Alicante, where his illness proved to be smallpox. He died at Alicante on 16 March, was buried in the Protestant cemetery there, he left four daughters. The inscription on his gravestone was written by Sir Arthur Evans. Freeman was made D. C. L. of Oxford and LL. D. of Cambridge honoris causa, when he visited the United States on a lecture tour was well received at various institutions of learning.
In 1884 he was appointed Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford, was, for a time, a non-resident professor at Cornell University. Whilst at Oxford, he presided over the Stubbs Society, an exclusive group of high-achieving historians, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1885. He advanced the study of history in England in two directions: by insistence on the unity of history, by teaching the importance and right use of primary sources. Politics was at the core, for he said, "History is past politics and politics present history."He urged that history not be divided "by a middle wall of partition" into ancient and modern, nor broken into fragments as though the history of each nation stood apart. He declared it more than a collection of narratives, deeming it a science, "the science of man in his political character." Freeman asserted that the historical student should view all history as within his range, have his own special range within which he masters every detail.
Freeman's range included Greek and the earlier part of English history, together with some portions of foreign medieval history, he had a scholarly though general knowledge of the rest of the history of the European world. Freeman regarded Rome as "the central truth of European history," the bond of its unity, he undertook his History of Sicily to illustrate this unity, he believed that all historical study is valueless unless based on a knowledge of original authorities, explained how they should be weighed and used. He did not use manuscript authorities and maintained he had no need to do so for most of his work, as the authorities he needed were in print, his reputation as a historian rests chiefly on his six-volume History of the Norman Conquest, his longest completed work. In common with his works generally