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Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury

Robert de Bellême, seigneur de Bellême, seigneur de Montgomery, viscount of the Hiémois, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury and Count of Ponthieu, was an Anglo-Norman nobleman, one of the most prominent figures in the competition for the succession to England and Normandy between the sons of William the Conqueror. He was a member of the powerful House of Bellême. Robert became notorious for his alleged cruelty; the chronicler Orderic Vitalis calls him "Grasping and cruel, an implacable persecutor of the Church of God and the poor... unequalled for his iniquity in the whole Christian era." The stories of his brutality may have inspired the legend of Robert the Devil. Robert was the oldest surviving son of Roger of Montgomery, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Mabel de Bellême, born between 1052 and 1056. In 1070 after the death of his great-uncle Yves Bishop of Sées his parents brought him to Bellême, which at that time became his mother's inheritance, as the oldest surviving son it would be his. In 1073 when the Conqueror invaded Maine, Robert was knighted by William at the siege of Fresnai castle.

By now of age and independent of his father he took part in the 1077 revolt of the young Robert Curthose against Duke William. When Robert's mother, was killed c. 1079, Robert inherited her vast estates. But at this point Duke William took the added precaution of garrisoning the Bellême castles with his own soldiers, his ducal right. On hearing the news of William the Conqueror's death in 1087, Robert's first act was to expel the ducal garrisons from all his castles. At the end of 1087 Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy was told of a plot to place him on the throne of England in his brother William II's place, a plot that Duke Robert enthusiastically approved and supported. Robert de Bellême, his brother Hugh de Montgomery and a third brother, either Roger or Arnulf, participated in this rebellion; the main conspirators, were Odo of Bayeux, Eustace III, Count of Boulogne, Robert de Mowbray, Geoffrey de Montbray, Earl Roger de Montgomery and other disaffected Magnates. The next year in the Rebellion of 1088, beginning at Easter the rebels burned and wasted the king's properties and those of his followers.

At some point Roger of Montgomery detached himself from supporting Robert Curthose through negotiations with the king. Robert de Bellême was among the rebels who found themselves defending Rochester Castle; when William Rufus blockaded the town and built two counter-castles, the garrison began negotiating for surrender under honourable terms, being allowed to keep their lands and serve the king. This Rufus refused. Roger of Montgomery and other great barons interceded with the King, Earl Roger on behalf of his sons, until in July a semi-honorable surrender was negotiated between the king and the rebels. Rufus, albeit reluctantly, gave them safe conduct. Coincidentally Robert sailed back to Normandy in the company of Count Henry, who had not been part of the conspiracy against his brother William Rufus; however well they got along on the voyage, they were destined to become bitter enemies. One thing more they shared in common was the extreme resentment by Odo, Bishop of Bayeux who, banished from England, had returned to Normandy ahead of Henry and Robert.

Henry at just 20 years of age was now Odo's overlord, which Odo resented, Robert de Bellême was a powerful and dangerous disruptive force in Normandy now free to do as he would. Odo, who held great sway over Duke Robert, convinced him that both Henry and his travel companion Robert de Bellême were now conspiring with William Rufus against the duke. Both Henry and Robert were seized as they disembarked and, both placed in the Bishop's custody, were imprisoned. On hearing his son was imprisoned Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury went to Normandy and put all his castles in a state of readiness against the duke. At this point the Montgomery family was in a state of rebellion against Robert Curthose. Bishop Odo now instigated Duke Robert to take all the castles of Robert de Bellême by force and the duke gathered an army and proceeded against them. Duke Robert first attacked Ballon and after losses on both sides, the castle surrendered. Moving on to the castle of Saint-Céneri where the family of Robert de Bellême was residing, Robert Quarrel had been told by Earl Roger to resist the duke at all costs and this was done until the provisions failed.

Duke Robert was so enraged at such resistance he blinded Robert Quarrel and mutilated the castle defenders. At this point the duke lost interest in attempting to capture any more of Robert de Bellême's castles, he dissolved the forces and returned to Rouen. Earl Roger sent peace envoys to the duke and convinced him to release his son Robert which the fickle duke did; the price of his son's release, was the castle of Saint-Céneri which Duke Robert gave to Robert Giroie as castellan. The Giroies had long held the castle until, as punishment for their rebellion in the 1060s, William the Conqueror gave this castle and other Giroie lands to Roger de Montgomery, who as a member of the Bellême family was considered their nemesis. By 1090 Robert was back in Robert Curthose's good graces, Orderic Vitalis calling him a "principal councilor" to duke Robert, he supported Curthose in putting down a revolt by the citizens of Rouen, in 1090, took considerable numbers of the citizens captive throwing them into dungeons.

According to Robert of Torigni in 1092 the inhabitants of Domfront, long a Bell

Redgrave Pinsent Rowing Lake

The Redgrave Pinsent Rowing Lake is a rowing lake in the United Kingdom, named after the Olympic rowers Sir Steve Redgrave and Sir Matthew Pinsent. The lake and its boathouse are designed for training use, provide training and scientific facities for the GB rowing squad, for Oxford University in preparation for the Boat Race; the lake is used by crews from University College and Oxford Brookes University. The lake is situated in the South Oxfordshire parish of Eye & Dunsden between the Reading suburb of Caversham and the village of Sonning Eye, it was created by the selective dredging and reclamation of part of the Caversham Lakes adjoining the River Thames and which had resulted from gravel extraction by Sonning Works. The £13 million project was the work of David Sherriff and a partnership of the Caversham Lakes Trust, Sport England, the Amateur Rowing Association and the Thames and Kennet Marina; the lake was opened in April 2006 by the two men after which it is named. "Land & Water: Redgrave Pinsent Rowing Lake".

Visit by Steve Redgrave Information from the Amateur Rowing Association Map sources for Redgrave Pinsent Rowing Lake Redgrave Pinsent Rowing Lake to Promote Talent at Caversham, SportFocus, 12/11/01, including an aerial view

Mam (film)

Mam is a 2010 British short film by writer Vivienne Harvey and director Hugo Speer. Produced by Vigo Films in association with South Yorkshire Filmmakers Network, it has a running time of 15 minutes. When Mam won’t get out of bed, 12-year-old Danny must fend for his brothers and sisters - whilst trying to protect a secret that threatens to break up the family forever. Josie Lawrence as Reenie Paul Barber as The Chemist Ronan Carter as Danny Tisha Merry as Charlie Karren Winchester as The Neighbour Charlie Street as Jimmy Katie Gannon as Lauren Patrick Downes as Tommy Sylvie Caswell as Kyla Elly May Taylor as Debs Jodie McEnery as Gang Member James Varley as Gang Member Dwayne Scantlebury as Gang Member Danny Gregory as Gang Member Paul Tomblin as Gang Member Best Foreign Film - Williamsburg Independent Film Festival, Brooklyn, USA Best Yorkshire Short - Hull International Short Film Festival, UK Best Community Short - Rob Knox Film Festival, UK Mam on IMDb BFI British Film Council Screen Yorkshire The Moving Arts Journal - Review

Massimiliano Scaglia

Massimiliano Scaglia is a former Italian defender. Scaglia started his professional football career as an 18-year-old with Salernitana. Failing to break into the first team, he joined U. S. Alessandria Calcio 1912, spending seven seasons with them before moving to Serie B side A. C. Ancona, he had limited game time with Ancona, so returned to Serie C1 with ACF Fiorentina in January 2003, helping them to promotion that season. He joined A. S. Bari as part of Jaime Valdés's deal. Scaglia moved to Treviso in the summer of 2007, he joined Gallipoli in August 2009 on a free transfer. Scaglia represented Padania at the 2008 Viva World Cup. In July 2010 he was signed by Verona. Massimiliano is the brother of Valentina Scaglia, a professional ballet dancer based in the Netherlands. Http:// Profile at La Gazzetta dello Sport

Barrington Reynolds

Admiral Sir Barrington Reynolds was a senior and long-serving officer of the British Royal Navy who went to sea with his father aged only nine during the French Revolutionary Wars and was captured by the French aged eleven. Returning to service on his release soon afterwards, Reynolds experienced the successive deaths of his elder brother and his father on active service during the Napoleonic Wars as well as severe bouts of ill-health himself. Leaving the service at the end of the war, Reynolds returned to the Navy in the 1840s after an absence of thirty years and played a major role in the final destruction of the illegal trade in African slaves to Brazil. Reynolds was honoured for this service and retired again to his family seat in Cornwall, where he died aged 75. Barrington Reynolds was the second son of Rear-Admiral Robert Carthew Reynolds, a successful and long-serving Royal Navy officer who had once served under Samuel Barrington, the origin of Barrington's Christian name. Like his elder brother, Barrington Reynolds had been born at the family seat in Penair, near Truro, but aged only nine he was brought onto his father's ship the frigate HMS Amazon for service as a captain's servant.

Britain was engaged at this time in the French Revolutionary Wars and Amazon was attached to the squadron under Sir Edward Pellew which harassed French shipping along the Biscay Coast. In February 1797, Amazon and Pellew's ship HMS Indefatigable engaged the much larger French ship of the line Droits de l'Homme in a storm off Brest. During the engagement, skilful manoeuvering by the British drove the French ship onto rocks with the loss of hundreds of lives. Amazon too was wrecked, but Captain Reynolds succeeded in beaching her rather than running her onto rocks and as result, all but six of her crew survived to become prisoners of war. Barrington Reynolds was released with his father a year and returned to service on HMS Pomone, before transferring to Indefatigable as a midshipman, his first commission away from his father; when Pellew moved to HMS Impetueux he took the young Reynolds with him and the midshipman gained combat experience in several raiding operations on the French coast under the command of Lieutenant John Pilfold.

Late in 1800 Reynolds rejoined his father in HMS Orion before being promoted lieutenant on HMS Courageux he soon moved to HMS Hussar and transferred again, to the frigate HMS Niobe in which he remained for the next five years until 1808. In 1804 his elder brother, Lieutenant Robert Reynolds, was killed in action off Martinique. In 1808, Reynolds moved to HMS Russell but less than a year was given his first command, the hulk HMS Arrogant. In February 1811 he became a commander and took over the sloop HMS Hesper in which he participated in the attack on Java and was promoted to post captain as a reward, taking over HMS Sir Francis Drake; the Admiralty confirmed his promotion in 1812, in recognition of the services of his father, who had died in the wreck of HMS St George on Christmas Eve 1811. He returned to Britain in August 1812 in command of HMS Bucephalus and remained in her for a year before entering semi-retirement due to ill-health. Following the end of the war in 1815, Reynolds was offered continued service as a frigate captain in the reduced Navy, but was forced to turn the post down due to a protracted bout of ill-health.

Reynolds settled into an early retirement for his convalescence, marrying Eliza Anne Dick and living either in London or at his family estate at Penair, Cornwall. In 1838, Reynolds health had sufficiently recovered that he could return to sea, taking command of the ship of the line HMS Ganges in the Mediterranean and being made a Companion of the Order of the Bath. In Ganges, Reynolds participated in the bombardment of Acre during operations against Egyptian forces. Reynolds was promoted to rear-admiral in 1848, given command at the Cape of Good Hope Station, with instructions to clamp down on the illegal slave traders who operated from West Africa. Reynolds was so successful off Africa, that at Admiralty dispatched him to cruise off the Brazilian coast on the same service. Over the next three years and his squadron captured dozens of slave ships and captured more at anchor on the Brazilian coast and, despite loud protests from the Brazilian government, raided Brazilian harbours along the coast, burning the empty slave ships which sheltered in them.

In reply to the protests, Reynolds wrote to the Admiralty that "Nothing can be done with the Brazilian government on this matter except by compulsion". The actions of the forces under Reynolds' command have been credited with destroying the Brazilian slave trade by 1851. Promoted to vice-admiral in 1855, he became Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth in 1857 and was promoted to full admiral on retirement in 1860, he was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. He was buried in St Clement's Churchyard near Truro, he was survived by his wife. O'Byrne, William Richard. "Reynolds, Barrington". A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray – via Wikisource. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Reynolds, Barrington". Dictionary of National Biography. 48. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Kashmir cat

The Kashmir type of cat is not recognized as its own breed by many cat fancier and breeder organizations, being more of a label of a coat type: semi-long-haired to long-haired, grey or brown. The variety is a solid-colored Himalayan, has been the subject of much disagreement, they were born in litters of Himalayans and have been bred to each other to create pure coats with rich lilac to chocolate colors. Some organizations feel that all Himalayans must have point coloration, thus disqualify Kashmirs; the British consider the Himalayan a form of the Persian, so Kashmirs are considered Persians in the UK, when recognized at all. Organizations that do not recognize the variety as valid under any conformation rules may consider it a colour-point domestic long-haired cat. Siegal, Mordecai. Guide to Cats. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671491709. Pictures on Flickr