Corcoran Gallery of Art
The Corcoran Gallery of Art was an art museum in Washington, D. C., now the location of the Corcoran School of the Arts and Design, a part of the George Washington University. The Corcoran School, founded in 1878, hosts exhibitions by its students and visiting artists and offers degrees in Fine Art, Interaction Design, Interior Architecture, etc. Prior to the Gallery's closing, it was one of the oldest supported cultural institutions in the United States. Starting in 1890, a museum school known as the Corcoran College of Art + Design, co-existed with the gallery; the museum's main focus was American art. In 2014, after decades of financial problems and mismanagement, the Corcoran was dissolved by court order. A new non-profit was established and the Corcoran's $2 billion, 17,000 piece art collection was given away for free to the National Gallery of Art. What works the NGA did not accession were donated to cultural institutions throughout Washington, D. C. and across the country. The Corcoran School of Art and Design was given to George Washington University along with the $200 million historic 17th street building along with $50 million.
When the gallery was founded in 1869 by William Wilson Corcoran, the co-founder of Riggs Bank, it was one of the first fine art galleries in the country. Corcoran established the gallery, supported with an endowment, "for the perpetual establishment and encouragement of the Fine Arts." While an independent institution, the Corcoran was the oldest and largest non-federal art museum in the District of Columbia. Its mission was "dedicated to art and used for the purpose of encouraging the American genius." The Corcoran Gallery of Art was located at 17th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, in the building that now houses the Renwick Gallery. Construction of that building started before the Civil War; the building, near completion, was used by the government as a warehouse during the Civil War. It was completed in 1874 and the gallery opened to the public. By 1897, the Corcoran Gallery collection outgrew the space of its original building. A new building was designed by Ernest Flagg in a Beaux-Arts style.
The 135,000 square feet building was built to house an expanded Corcoran collection in addition to the nascent school, formally founded in 1890. The new building features a pair of the Canova Lions, at its entrance; these lions were purchased at auction by the Corcoran Galley in 1888 and placed in front of the museum at its original location. The iconic bronze castings were moved to their current location in 1897 when the museum moved to its current building at 17th Street and New York Avenue. In 1928, the art collection of former Senator William A. Clark joined the Corcoran in a new wing designed by Charles Adam Platt, inaugurated by President Calvin Coolidge. For decades, the Corcoran examined the possibility of adding on a final wing which would complete the campus footprint; these plans abruptly ended in 2005 after a Frank O. Gehry -designed wing was scrapped due to lack of funding, the remainder of the available property was sold to a private developer. Throughout the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, the gallery continued to display its main collection from Corcoran, a few select major donors.
At its peak, the museum owned a significant collection including work from Rembrandt Peale, Eugène Delacroix, Edgar Degas, Thomas Gainsborough, John Singer Sargent, Claude Monet, Mariano Fortuny, Pablo Picasso, Edward Hopper, Willem de Kooning, Joan Mitchell, Gene Davis, many others. Space was always a challenge - only a small percentage of the gallery's permanent collection was able to be displayed in the confines of the 17th street gallery, which shared its 140,000 square feet with the art school. In 1989, the Corcoran Gallery of Art had agreed to host a traveling solo exhibit of Robert Mapplethorpe's works. Mapplethorpe decided to show a new series that he had explored shortly before his death, Robert Mapplethorpe: The Perfect Moment curated by Janet Kardon of the Institute of Contemporary Art. Several Trustees of the Corcoran and U. S. Representatives Dick Armey and Jesse Helms were horrified when the works were revealed to them, the museum director, Christina Orr-Cahall succumbed to pressure and cancelled the exhibit, announced to its members through an exhibition preview invitation.
The Coalition of Washington Artists organized a demonstration to protest the Corcoran Gallery's cancellation of the exhibit. An estimated 700 people attended the demonstration. In June 1989, pop artist Lowell Blair Nesbitt became involved in the controversy over Mapplethorpe's work, it was at this time that Nesbitt, a long-time friend of Mapplethorpe, revealed that he had a $1.5 million bequest to the museum in his will. Nesbitt publicly promised that if the museum refused to host the exhibition he would revoke his bequest; the Corcoran refused and Nesbitt bequeathed the money to the Phillips Collection instead. After the Corcoran cancelled the Mapplethorpe exhibition, the underwriters of the exhibition went to the nonprofit Washington Project for the Arts, which showed the controversial images in its own space from July 21 to August 13, 1989, to large crowds; the 1990 NEA Appropriations Bill included language against "obscene" work. As a result of the controversy, more than a dozen artists canceled exhibitions while the director, Christina Orr-Cahall and moved to the Norton Museum of Art.
In its final years, the museum and its affiliated art and design college Corcoran School of the Arts and Design together had a staff of about 140 and an operating budget of about $24 million. Revenue came from grants and contributions, admissions fees, membership dues, gift shop and
Whitney Museum of American Art
The Whitney Museum of American Art, known informally as the "Whitney", is an art museum in Manhattan. It was founded in 1930 by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, a wealthy and prominent American socialite and art patron after whom it is named; the Whitney focuses on 20th- and 21st-century American art. Its permanent collection comprises more than 23,000 paintings, drawings, photographs, films and artifacts of new media by more than 3,400 artists, it places particular emphasis on exhibiting the work of living artists as well as maintaining an extensive permanent collection of important pieces from the first half of the last century. The museum's Annual and Biennial exhibitions have long been a venue for younger and lesser-known artists whose work is showcased there. From 1966 to 2014, the Whitney was at 945 Madison Avenue on Manhattan's Upper East Side; the museum closed in October 2014 to relocate to a new building designed by Renzo Piano at 99 Gansevoort Street in the West Village/Meatpacking District neighborhoods of Lower Manhattan.
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, the museum's namesake and founder, was a well-regarded sculptor as well as a serious art collector. As a patron of the arts, she had achieved some success with the Whitney Studio Club, a New York–based exhibition space she created in 1918 to promote the works of avant-garde and unrecognized American artists. Whitney favored the radical art of the American artists of the Ashcan School such as John French Sloan, George Luks and Everett Shinn, as well as others such as Edward Hopper, Stuart Davis, Charles Demuth, Charles Sheeler, Max Weber. With the aid of her assistant, Juliana R. Force, Whitney collected nearly 700 works of American art. In 1929, she offered to donate over 500 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, but the museum declined the gift. This, along with the apparent preference for European modernism at the opened Museum of Modern Art, led Whitney to start her own museum for American art, in 1929. Whitney Library archives from 1928 reveal that during this time the Studio Club used the gallery space of Wilhelmina Weber Furlong of the Art Students League to exhibit traveling shows featuring modernist work.
In 1931, architect Noel L. Miller converted three row houses on West 8th Street in Greenwich Village—one of which, 8 West 8th Street had been the location of the Studio Club—to be the museum's home as well as a residence for Whitney. Force became the museum's first director, under her guidance it concentrated on displaying the works of new and contemporary American artists. In 1954, the museum left its original location and moved to a small structure on 54th Street connected to and behind the Museum of Modern Art on 53rd Street. On April 15, 1958, a fire on MOMA's second floor that killed one person forced the evacuation of paintings and staff on MOMA's upper floors to the Whitney. Among the paintings evacuated was A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, on loan from the Art Institute of Chicago. In 1961, the Whitney began seeking a site for a larger building. In 1966 it settled at the southeast corner of Madison Avenue and 75th Street on Manhattan's Upper East Side; the building and built 1963–1966 by Marcel Breuer and Hamilton P. Smith in a distinctively modern style, is distinguished from the neighboring townhouses by its staircase façade made of granite stones and its external upside-down windows.
In 1967, Mauricio Lasansky showed The Nazi Drawings. The exhibition traveled to the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, where it appeared with shows by Louise Nevelson and Andrew Wyeth as the first exhibits in the new museum; the institution grappled with space problems for decades. From 1973 to 1983 the Whitney operated its first branch at 55 Water Street, a building owned by Harold Uris, who gave the museum a lease for $1 a year. In 1983 Philip Morris International installed a Whitney branch in the lobby of its Park Avenue headquarters. In 1981 the museum opened an exhibition space in Stamford, housed at Champion International. In the late 1980s, the Whitney entered into arrangements with Park Tower Realty, I. B. M. and The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States, setting up satellite museums with rotating exhibitions in their buildings' lobbies. Each museum had its own director, with all plans approved by a Whitney committee; the institution attempted to expand its landmark building in 1978, commissioning UK architects Derek Walker and Norman Foster to design a tall tower alongside it, the first of several proposals from leading architects.
But each time the effort was abandoned, because of either both. To secure additional space for the museum's collections, then-director Thomas N. Armstrong III developed plans for a 10-story, $37.5 million addition to the main building. The proposed addition, designed by Michael Graves and announced in 1985, drew immediate opposition. Graves had proposed demolishing the flanking brownstones down to the East 74th Street corner for a complementary addition; the project lost the support of the museum's trustees, the plans were dropped in 1989. Between 1995 and 1998, the building underwent a expansion by Richard Gluckman. In 2001, Rem Koolhaas was commissioned to submit two designs for a $200 million expansion; those plans were dropped in 2003. New York restaurateur Danny Meyer opened Untitled, a restaurant in the museum, in March 2011; the space was designed by the Rockwell Group. The Whitney developed a new main building, designed by Renzo Piano, in the West Village and Meatpacking District in lower Manhattan.
The new museum, at the intersection of Gansevoort and Washington Streets, was bu
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Artforum is an international monthly magazine specializing in contemporary art. The magazine is published ten times a year, September through May, along with an annual summer issue. Distinguished by its 10½ inch square format, with each cover devoted to the work of a single artist, the magazine is acknowledged as a decisive voice in its field; the magazine features in-depth articles and reviews of contemporary art, as well as book reviews, columns on cinema and popular culture, numerous full-page advertisements from prominent galleries around the world. Artforum was founded in 1962 in San Francisco by Jr.. The next publisher/owner Charles Cowles moved the magazine to Los Angeles in 1965 before settling it in New York City in 1967, where it maintains offices today; the move to New York encompassed a shift in the style of work championed by the magazine, moving away from California style art to late modernism the leading style of art in New York City. The departure of Philip Leider as editor-in-chief in 1971 and the tenure of John Coplans as the new editor-in-chief coincided with a shift towards more fashionable trends and away from late modernism.
A focus on minimal art, conceptual art, body art, land art and performance art provided a platform for artists such as Robert Smithson, Donald Judd, Sol LeWitt and others. In 1980, after opening his own gallery in New York City, Charles Cowles divested himself of the magazine. A sister magazine, was started in 1994. In October 2017, publisher Knight Landesman resigned in the wake of allegations of sexual misconduct with nine women including a former employee who filed a lawsuit. Artforum backed Landesman, saying the allegations were "unfounded" and suggested that lawsuit was “an attempt to exploit a relationship that she herself worked hard to create and maintain.” The magazine's editor Michelle Kuo resigned in response to the publishers' handling of the allegations. Artforum staff released a statement condemning the way. A book by Amy Newman chronicling the early history of the magazine, Challenging Art: Artforum 1962–1974, was published by Soho Press in 2000. Sarah Thornton's documentary book Seven Days in the Art World contains a chapter titled "The Magazine", set in the offices of Artforum.
In it, Thornton says, "Artforum is to art what Vogue is to fashion and Rolling Stone was to rock and roll. It’s a trade magazine with crossover cachet and an institution with controversial clout." David Velasco Michelle Kuo Tim Griffin Jack Bankowsky Ida Panicelli Ingrid Sischy Joseph Masheck In February 1977 Nancy Foote operated as the managing editor without a head editor John Coplans Philip Leider Artforum website
Minimalism (visual arts)
Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design visual art and music, where the work is set out to expose the essence, essentials or identity of a subject through eliminating all non-essential forms, features or concepts. As a specific movement in the arts it is identified with developments in post–World War II Western Art, most with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with this movement include Ad Reinhardt, Tony Smith, Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Larry Bell, Anne Truitt, Yves Klein and Frank Stella. Artists themselves have sometimes reacted against the label due to the negative implication of the work being simplistic. Minimalism is interpreted as a reaction against Abstract expressionism and a bridge to Postminimal art practices. Minimalism in visual art referred to as "minimal art", literalist art and ABC Art emerged in New York in the early 1960s. Minimal art appeared in New York in the 60s as new and older artists moved toward geometric abstraction.
Judd's sculpture was showcased in 1964 at the Green Gallery in Manhattan as were Flavin's first fluorescent light works, while other leading Manhattan galleries like the Leo Castelli Gallery and the Pace Gallery began to showcase artists focused on geometric abstraction. In addition there were two seminal and influential museum exhibitions: Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculpture' shown from April 27 - June 12, 1966 at the Jewish Museum in New York, organized by the museum's Curator of Painting and Sculpture, Kynaston McShine and Systemic Painting, at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum curated by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 that showcased Geometric abstraction in the American art world via Shaped canvas, Color Field, Hard-edge painting. In the wake of those exhibitions and a few others the art movement called. Jean Metzinger, following the Succès de scandale created from the Cubist showing at the 1911 Salon des Indépendants, in an interview with Cyril Berger published in Paris-Journal 29 May 1911, stated: We cubists have only done our duty by creating a new rhythm for the benefit of humanity.
Others will come after us. What will they find? That is the tremendous secret of the future. Who knows if someday, a great painter, looking with scorn on the brutal game of supposed colorists and taking the seven colors back to the primordial white unity that encompasses them all, will not exhibit white canvases, with nothing nothing on them. Metzinger's audacious prediction that artists would take abstraction to its logical conclusion by vacating representational subject matter and returning to what Metzinger calls the "primordial white unity", a "completely white canvas" would be realized two years later; the writer of a satirical manifesto Francis Picabia, in a publication entitled Evolution de l'art: Vers l'amorphisme, in Les Hommes du Jour, may have had Metzinger's vision in mind when the author justified amorphism's blank canvases by claiming'light is enough for us'. With perspective, writes art historian Jeffery S. Weiss, "Vers Amorphisme may be gibberish, but it was enough of a foundational language to anticipate the extreme reductivist implications of non-objectivity".
Monochrome painting was initiated at the first Incoherent arts' exhibition in 1882 in Paris, with a black painting by poet Paul Bilhaud entitled "Combat de Nègres dans un tunnel". In the subsequent exhibitions of the Incoherent arts the writer Alphonse Allais proposed seven other monochrome paintings, such as "Première communion de jeunes filles chlorotiques par un temps de neige", or "Récolte de la tomate par des cardinaux apoplectiques au bord de la Mer Rouge". However, this kind of activity bears more similarity to 20th century Dada, or Neo-Dada, the works of the Fluxus group of the 1960s, than to 20th century monochrome painting since Malevich. In a broad and general sense, one finds European roots of minimalism in the geometric abstractions of painters associated with the Bauhaus, in the works of Kazimir Malevich, Piet Mondrian and other artists associated with the De Stijl movement, the Russian Constructivist movement, in the work of the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. Minimal art is inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi, others.
Minimalism was a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism, dominant in the New York School during the 1940s and 1950s. The wide range of possibilities of interpretation of monochrome paintings is arguably why the monochrome is so engaging to so many artists and writers. Although the monochrome has never become dominant and few artists have committed themselves to it, it has never gone away, it reappears as though a spectre haunting high modernism, or as a symbol of it, appearing during times of aesthetic and sociopolitical upheavals. In France between 1947 and 1948, Yves Klein conceived his Monotone Symphony that consisted of a single 20-minute sustained chord follo
Donald Judd was an American artist associated with minimalism. In his work, Judd sought autonomy and clarity for the constructed object and the space created by it achieving a rigorously democratic presentation without compositional hierarchy, it created an outpouring of effervescent works that defied the term "minimalism". He is considered the leading international exponent of "minimalism," and its most important theoretician through such seminal writings as "Specific Objects". Judd voices his unorthodox perception of minimalism in Arts Yearbook 8, where he asserts; the common aspects are too general and too little common to define a movement. The differences are greater than the similarities" Through his work Judd shines light on the profound effect on new three dimensional by specificity and generality. Judd was born in Missouri, he served in the Army from 1946 to 1947 as an engineer and in 1948 began his studies in philosophy at the College of William and Mary transferring to Columbia University School of General Studies.
At Columbia, he earned a degree in philosophy and worked towards a master's in art history under Rudolf Wittkower and Meyer Schapiro. At this time he attended night classes at the Art Students League of New York, he supported himself by writing art criticism for major American art magazines between 1959 and 1965. In 1968 Judd bought a five-story cast-iron building, designed by Nicholas Whyte in 1870, at 101 Spring Street for under $70,000, serving as his New York residence and studio. Over the next 25 years, Judd renovated the building floor by floor, sometimes installing works he purchased or commissioned from other artists. Judd died of Lymphoma in New York City on February 12, 1994. In the late 1940s, Donald Judd began to practice as a painter, his first solo exhibition, of expressionist paintings, opened in New York in 1957. From the mid-1950s to 1961, as he explored the medium of the woodcut, Judd progressively moved from figurative to abstract imagery, first carving organic rounded shapes moving on to the painstaking craftsmanship of straight lines and angles.
His artistic style soon moved away from illusory media and embraced constructions in which materiality was central to the work. He would not have another one person show until the Green Gallery in 1963, an exhibition of works that he thought worthy of showing. By 1963 Judd had established an essential vocabulary of forms — ‘stacks’, ‘boxes’ and ‘progressions’ — which preoccupied him for the next thirty years. Most of his output was in freestanding "specific objects", that used simple repeated forms to explore space and the use of space. Humble materials such as metals, industrial plywood and color-impregnated Plexiglas became staples of his career. Judd's first floor box structure was made in 1964, his first floor box using Plexiglas followed one year later. By 1964, he began work on wall-mounted sculptures, first developed the curved progression format of these works in 1964 as a development from his work on an untitled floor piece that set a hollow pipe into a solid wooden block. While Judd executed early works himself, in 1964 he began delegating fabrication to professional artisans and manufacturers based on his drawings.
In 1965, Judd created his first stack, an arrangement of identical iron units stretching from floor to ceiling. As he abandoned painting for sculpture in the early 1960s, he wrote the manifesto-like essay “Specific Objects” in 1964. In his essay, Judd found a starting point for a new territory for American art, a simultaneous rejection of residual inherited European artistic values, these values being illusion and represented space, as opposed to real space, he pointed to evidence of this development in the works of an array of artists active in New York at the time, including H. C. Westermann, Lucas Samaras, John Chamberlain, Jasper Johns, Dan Flavin, George Earl Ortman and Lee Bontecou; the works that Judd had fabricated inhabited a space not comfortably classifiable as either painting or sculpture and in fact he refused to call them sculpture, pointing out that they were not sculpted but made by small fabricators using industrial processes. That the categorical identity of such objects was itself in question, that they avoided easy association with well-worn and over-familiar conventions, was a part of their value for Judd.
He displayed two pieces in the seminal 1966 exhibit, "Primary Structures" at the Jewish Museum in New York where, during a panel discussion of the work, he challenged Mark di Suvero's assertion that real artists make their own art. He replied. In 1968, the Whitney Museum of American Art staged a retrospective of his work which included none of his early paintings. In 1968, Judd bought a five-story building in New York that allowed him to start placing his work in a more permanent manner than was possible in gallery or museum shows; this would lead him to push for permanent installations for his work and that of others, as he believed that temporary exhibitions, being designed by curators for the public, placed the art itself in the background degrading it due to incompetency or incomprehension. This would become a major preoccupation as the idea of permanent installation grew in importance and his distaste for the art wor
An art critic is a person, specialized in analyzing and evaluating art. Their written critiques or reviews contribute to art criticism and they are published in newspapers, books, exhibition brochures and catalogues and on web sites; some of today's art critics use art blogs and other online platforms in order to connect with a wider audience and expand debate about art. Differently from art history, there is not an institutionalized training for art critics. Professional art critics are expected to have a keen eye for art and a thorough knowledge of art history; the art critic views art at exhibitions, museums or artists' studios and they can be members of the International Association of Art Critics which has national sections. Art critics earn their living from writing criticism; the opinions of art critics have the potential to stir debate on art related topics. Due to this the viewpoints of art critics writing for art publications and newspapers adds to public discourse concerning art and culture.
Art collectors and patrons rely on the advice of such critics as a way to enhance their appreciation of the art they are viewing. Many now famous and celebrated artists were not recognized by the art critics of their time because their art was in a style not yet understood or favored. Conversely, some critics, have become important helping to explain and promote new art movements — Roger Fry with the Post-Impressionist movement, Lawrence Alloway with Pop Art as examples. According to James Elkins there is a distinction between art criticism and art history based on institutional and commercial criteria. An experience-related article is Agnieszka Gratza. Always according to James Elkins in smaller and developing countries, newspaper art criticism serves as art history. James Elkins's perspective portraits his personal link to art history and art historians and in What happened to art criticism he furthermore highlights the gap between art historians and art critics by suggesting that the first cite the second as a source and that the second miss an academic discipline to refer to.
Art criticism History of art criticism List of art critics Media related to Art critics at Wikimedia Commons Good audio version of symposium on contemporary art criticism entitled "Empathy and Criticality," sponsored by the Frieze Foundation