Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel; the statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886. The Statue of Liberty is a figure of a robed Roman liberty goddess, she holds a torch above her head with her right hand, in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed in Roman numerals with "JULY IV MDCCLXXVI", the date of the U. S. Declaration of Independence. A broken chain lies at her feet; the statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, a national park tourism destination. It is a welcoming sight to immigrants arriving from abroad. Bartholdi was inspired by a French law professor and politician, Édouard René de Laboulaye, said to have commented in 1865 that any monument raised to U. S. independence would properly be a joint project of the French and U.
S. peoples. Because of the post-war instability in France, work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the U. S. build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was designed, these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions; the torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, in Madison Square Park in Manhattan from 1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult for the Americans, by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened by lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer, of the New York World, started a drive for donations to finish the project and attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar; the statue was built in France, shipped overseas in crates, assembled on the completed pedestal on what was called Bedloe's Island. The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland.
The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and by the Department of War. Public access to the balcony around the torch has been barred since 1916. According to the National Park Service, the idea of a monument presented by the French people to the United States was first proposed by Édouard René de Laboulaye, president of the French Anti-Slavery Society and a prominent and important political thinker of his time; the project is traced to a mid-1865 conversation between de Laboulaye, a staunch abolitionist, Frédéric Bartholdi, a sculptor. In after-dinner conversation at his home near Versailles, Laboulaye, an ardent supporter of the Union in the American Civil War, is supposed to have said: "If a monument should rise in the United States, as a memorial to their independence, I should think it only natural if it were built by united effort—a common work of both our nations." The National Park Service, in a 2000 report, deemed this a legend traced to an 1885 fundraising pamphlet, that the statue was most conceived in 1870.
In another essay on their website, the Park Service suggested that Laboulaye was minded to honor the Union victory and its consequences, "With the abolition of slavery and the Union's victory in the Civil War in 1865, Laboulaye's wishes of freedom and democracy were turning into a reality in the United States. In order to honor these achievements, Laboulaye proposed that a gift be built for the United States on behalf of France. Laboulaye hoped that by calling attention to the recent achievements of the United States, the French people would be inspired to call for their own democracy in the face of a repressive monarchy." According to sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, who recounted the story, Laboulaye's alleged comment was not intended as a proposal, but it inspired Bartholdi. Given the repressive nature of the regime of Napoleon III, Bartholdi took no immediate action on the idea except to discuss it with Laboulaye. Bartholdi was in any event busy with other possible projects. Sketches and models were made of the proposed work.
There was a classical precedent for the Suez proposal, the Colossus of Rhodes: an ancient bronze statue of the Greek god of the sun, Helios. This statue is believed to have been over 100 feet high, it stood at a harbor entrance and carried a light to guide ships. Both the khedive and Lesseps declined the proposed statue from Bartholdi; the Port Said Lighthouse was built instead, by François Coignet in 1869. Any large project was further delayed by the Franco-Prussian War, in which Bartholdi served as a major of militia. In the war, Napoleon III was deposed. Bartholdi's home province of Alsace was lost to the Prussians, a more liberal republic was installed in France; as Bartholdi had been planning a trip to the United States, he and Laboulaye decided the time was right to discuss the idea with influential Americans. In June 1871, Bartholdi crossed the Atlantic, with letters of introduction signed by Laboulaye. Arriving at New York Harbor, Bartholdi focused on Bedloe's Island as a site for the statu
Hamilton Grange National Memorial
Hamilton Grange National Memorial known as The Grange or the Hamilton Grange Mansion, is a National Park Service site in St. Nicholas Park, New York City, that preserves the relocated home of U. S. Founding Father Alexander Hamilton; the mansion holds a restoration of the interior rooms and an interactive exhibit on the newly constructed ground floor for visitors. The Hamilton Heights subsection of Harlem derived its name from Hamilton's 32-acre estate there. Alexander Hamilton was born and raised in the West Indies and came to New York in 1772 at age 17 to study at King's College. During his career, Hamilton was a military officer, member of the United States Constitutional Convention, American political philosopher, war hero and author of the majority of the pivotal and influential The Federalist Papers, the first United States Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton commissioned architect John McComb Jr. to design a country home on Hamilton's 32 acres estate in upper Manhattan. The two-story frame Federal style house was completed in 1802, just two years before Hamilton's death resulting from his duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804.
The house was named "The Grange" after Hamilton's grandfather's estate in Scotland. The Grange was the only home Hamilton owned, he traveled there by stagecoach from his law office several times a week, fussed over the landscaping, including a circle of thirteen sweet gum trees symbolizing the thirteen original states; the house remained in his family for 30 years after his death. The Grange might have been Hamilton's rivalrous answer to Jefferson's Monticello. By 1889, much of the congregation of St. Luke's Episcopal Church in Greenwich Village had moved uptown; the Grange was in foreclosure and had been condemned for destruction in order to allow for the implementation of the Manhattan street grid just reaching that area of Harlem. The church acquired the house and moved it a half-block east and about two blocks south, conforming to the new street pattern, to what became 287 Convent Avenue; the original porches and other features were removed for the move. The interior staircase was reoriented and retrofitted to accommodate a makeshift entrance on the side of the house that faced the street, the original grand Federal-style entrance was boarded up.
St. Luke's used the house for services and subsequently between 1892 and 1895 erected a Richardsonian Romanesque building on the site that wrapped around the house slightly; the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society bought the Grange in 1924 and turned it into a public museum in 1933. Furniture and decorative objects associated with the Hamilton family were displayed; the Grange was designated a National Historic Landmark in December 1960. The private National Park Foundation purchased the house and property and transferred it to the National Park Service. Congress authorized the National Memorial on April 27, 1962, requiring that it be relocated and the house restored to appear as Hamilton knew it in 1802–1804, considered its period of historic significance, it was at the time determined that the claustrophobic Convent Avenue setting was inappropriate and that the country house should be viewed as a freestanding building. However, the house was not relocated earlier because of overwhelming local opposition to options offered that required moving it out of the neighborhood.
The Grange was administratively listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. On May 9, 2006, the Hamilton Grange Memorial was closed to the public to allow for extensive architectural and structural investigations as part of a long term plan to move the house to nearby St. Nicholas Park; the park location was judged a more appropriate setting for display that would permit restoration of features lost in the 1889 move. The new location would keep the house in the neighborhood and within the boundary of Hamilton's original 32-acre estate. Work in St. Nicholas Park for tree removal and foundation construction began in February 2008; the actual move of the Grange began with elevation of the building in one piece over the loggia of St. Luke's Church and onto Convent Avenue; these stilts were slowly disassembled to leave the house resting on dollies, where it received interior bracing and was wrapped in two miles of chains. On June 7, 2008, it completed its journey by being rolled one block south on Convent Avenue and one block east on 141st Street to the new St. Nicholas Park location.
The New York Times's David W. Dunlap calculated its speed over the 500 feet at.04 mph. The six-hour event was a popular neighborhood attraction covered extensively in the press; the house was secured to its new foundation, original porches were rebuilt and the original main entrance doorway and main staircase within the entry foyer were restored using original materials. Landscaping around the Grange's new home includes among the tree plantings 13 sweet gum trees as in Hamilton's original garden, a stone wall, a circular garden planted in front to Hamilton's own specifications, paths; the Grange re-opened to the general public on September 17, 2011. A ceremony was held with Hamilton descendants in attendan
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain and Latin America, respectively. More it includes all Americans who speak the Spanish language natively, who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Honduran, Panamanian, Bolivian, Spanish American, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Venezuelan. Brazilian Americans, other Portuguese-speaking Latino groups, non-Spanish speaking Latino groups in the United States are defined as "Latino" by some U. S. government agencies. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably."Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States.
People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two designated categories of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Guatemalan or Colombian origin; the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies in different locations across the country. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida.
Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states. A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry; the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, culture and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.
In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both Native American ancestry. Others are predominantly of European ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well; the difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. The U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest; the 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.
The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. One definition of Latino is "a Latin male in the United States"; this is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas. Under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino; this definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use Latino interchangeably. A definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term "Latino-Americano", the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. However, an immigrant from Spain would be classified as European or White by American sta
Kate Mullany House
The Kate Mullany House was the home of Kate Mullany, an early female labor leader who started the all-women Collar Laundry Union in Troy, New York in February 1864. It was one of the first women's unions; the house was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1998. It is now a National Historic Site, it is located at 350 8th Street in Troy, just off NY 7 one empty lot east of the Collar City Bridge. First Lady Hillary Clinton toured the house in 2000, named it as a "treasure". Senator Daniel P. Moynihan had introduced a bill to designate the home as a National Historic Site, but the bill had languished in the United States Senate. Senator Clinton took up the bill in January 2001 when Moynhian retired, she advocated for the home. There were hearings on the bill, the Congressional Budget Office undertook an official budget analysis for the United States Congress; the bill was co-sponsored by Senator Clinton and Representative Mike McNulty, supported by organized labor, passed both houses of Congress.
The Kate Mullany House is recognized by a number of government agencies and charities as an important historic site. Both the house, Kate Mullany's grave, are preserved as historic sites by an affiliate of the Federal government. Wiawaka, a women's camp in Lake George, New York, has memorialized the house; the New York State Senate honored the house and its most famous resident for Women's History Month in March 2007. The house is on the New York Women's Heritage Trail. Places Where Women Made History: the Kate Mullany House, at National Park Service
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
An esplanade or promenade is a long, level area next to a river or large body of water, where people may walk. The historical definition of esplanade was a large, level area outside fortress or city walls to provide clear fields of fire for the fortress's guns. In modern usage the space allows people to pave the area as a pedestrian walk. Esplanades became popular in Victorian times. A promenade abbreviated to' prom', was an area where people – couples and families – would go to walk for a while in order to'be seen' and be considered part of'society'. In the United States of America, esplanade has another meaning, being a median dividing a roadway or boulevard. Sometimes they are just strips of grass; some roadway esplanades may be used as parks with benches. Esplanade and promenade are sometimes used interchangeably; the derivation of "promenade" indicates a place intended for walking, though many modern promenades and esplanades allow bicycles and other nonmotorized transport. Some esplanades include large boulevards or avenues where cars are permitted.
A similar term with the same meaning in the eastern coastal region of Spain is rambla, but it is more referred to as paseo marítimo, paseo or explanada in the rest of the Hispanic world. Esplanade known as the Central Business District in Kolkata Kamarajar Salai, Chennai in Chennai, India Marine Drive, Kochi in Kochi, India Marine Drive in Mumbai Bandstand Promenade in Mumbai Promenade Beach in Pondicherry Esplanade One Bhubaneswar, One of the Biggest Shopping Mall in India located at Rasulgad Bhubaneswar Esplanade, George Town, Penang Gurney Drive, George Town, Penang Karpal Singh Drive, George Town, Penang Baywalk, Manila Dipolog Boulevard, Dipolog City Rizal Boulevard Promenade, Dumaguete City Iloilo River Esplanade, Iloilo City Bai Walk, Cotabato City Paseo del Mar, Zamboanga City Tsim Sha Tsui East, Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong Tel Aviv Promenade, Tel Aviv, Israel Corniche Beirut, Lebanon The Esplanade, Singapore Galle Face Green, Sri Lanka Breakwater Corniche or Al-Kasr in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Doha Corniche, Qatar The Camelback Esplanade, Arizona The Charles River Esplanade, Massachusetts The Esplanade, Redondo Beach, California The Esplanade, Rio del Mar, California Third Street Promenade, Santa Monica, Los Angeles County, Eastbank Esplanade, Oregon Calçadão de Copacabana and Calçadão de Ipanema Malecón, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico Malecón, Cuba Rambla de Montevideo, Uruguay Terrasse Dufferin, Quebec City, Canada Esplanade, England Esplanade, England Esplanade, Scotland Esplanaden, Denmark La Promenade des Anglais, in Nice, France Usedom Beach Promenade, Western Pomerania, Germany Riga, Latvia Świnoujście, by the Baltic Sea, Poland Trzebież, by the Szczecin Lagoon, Poland The Esplanade, in Weymouth, England The Promenade, at Portobello, in Edinburgh, Scotland Esplanadi, in Helsinki, Finland Valletta Waterfront, in Floriana, Malta Esplanade, Corfu town, Greece Salthill Promenade, in Galway, Ireland St. Clair Esplanade in Dunedin, New Zealand Marine Parade, in Napier, New Zealand The Golden Mile, South Africa Sea Point, Cape Town, South Africa Esplanade of the European Parliament, in Brussels, Belgium Ministries Esplanade, in Brasília, Brazil Thames Embankment, in London, England Brühl's Terrace, Germany The Danube Promenade in Budapest, Hungary Esplanade, in Calcutta, India Iloilo River Esplanade in Iloilo City, Philippines Błonia, Kraków, Poland L'Enfant Plaza in Washington, D.
C. United States Charles River Reservation, in Boston, United States The Eastbank Esplanade, in Portland, United States Boardwalk Foreshoreway Malecón Oceanway Processional walkway Similar areas inland: Boulevard, mall
Gateway National Recreation Area
Gateway National Recreation Area is a 26,607-acre U. S. National Recreation Area in New York City and Monmouth County, New Jersey, it provides recreational opportunities that are rare in a dense urban environment, including ocean swimming, bird watching, boating and camping. Ten million people visit Gateway annually. Gateway was created by the U. S. Congress in 1972 to preserve and protect scarce or unique natural and recreational resources with convenient access by a high percentage of the nation's population, it is owned by the federal government and managed by the National Park Service. In 1969, the Regional Plan Association proposed a new national seashore in the New York metropolitan area, to be administered by the United States Department of the Interior. U. S. President Richard Nixon put his support behind a similar proposal in 1970, with one significant change: instead of being designated a "seashore", the protected area would be a national park. In May of that year, the president started the process of getting Congressional approval for this move.
The United States House of Representatives approved the creation of Gateway National Recreation Area in September 1972, most of the land was transferred to the National Park Service for inclusion in Gateway National Recreation Area. In the same vote, the House denied the state's provision to create a housing development at Floyd Bennett Field, to be part of the Gateway Area. Gateway National Recreation Area was created on October 27, 1972, along with Golden Gate National Recreation Area in San Francisco. Gateway included over 26,000 acres of land; this excluded some of the land proposed by the RPA, including the Coney Island shore. The recreation area comprises three units and eleven park sites in all: Jamaica Bay Unit, in Brooklyn and Queens, includes much of the shoreline and water below the Shore Parkway beginning at Plum Beach and ending at John F. Kennedy International Airport, along with several dozen islands in Jamaica Bay, a tidal estuary, it includes most of the western part of the Rockaway Peninsula, which separates Jamaica Bay from the Atlantic Ocean.
Among the sites in this unit are: Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge is a prime location for viewing birds and bird migrations, diamondback turtle egg-laying and horseshoe crab mating and egg laying. Its 9,155 acres are open water, but includes upland shoreline and islands with salt marsh, brackish ponds and fields, it is the only "wildlife refuge" in the National Park System. Created and managed by New York City as a "wildlife refuge", the term was retained by Gateway when the site was transferred. All other federally managed areas titled "wildlife refuge" are managed by the U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service under their own specific criteria and standards. Floyd Bennett Field, a decommissioned airfield with a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places hosts the Historic Aircraft Restoration Project in Hangar B where volunteers are working to preserve the park's collection of historic aircraft. Hangar B is open to the public at selected times during the week. Exhibits and programs on the airfield's history are available in the former control tower and terminal, since converted into the Ryan Visitor Center, named for William Fitts Ryan, the congressman who championed Gateway's creation.
The former airfield accommodates public camping, with 46 campsites. As of August 2013, Floyd Bennett Field campground provides hot showers and clean modern bathrooms. There is a camp store. No electricity provided. Still, it is the only public campground maintained by the National Park Service, within the limits of an American city, the only legal campground in New York City; the grasslands of Floyd Bennett Field are a good place for viewing falcons and kestrels. Floyd Bennett Field includes concession recreational facilities including a sports arena and ice skating rinks in adaptively re-used hangars. Within this unit, but still nearby, are Dead Horse Bay, which includes a marina concession, an adjacent golf driving range concession. Bergen Beach, on the north shore of Jamaica Bay, is nearby and within the unit's boundary, supporting a horse riding academy concession. Canarsie Pier is the latest in a series of recreational piers near this location, remains popular as a picnic area and fishing spot on the north shore of the bay.
Fort Tilden, between Jacob Riis Park and Breezy Point on the Rockaway peninsula, has some of the city's most pristine and secluded ocean beaches, a successional maritime forest, a coastal dune system, a freshwater pond. Between 1917 and 1974, Fort Tilden served as part of the harbor's system of defenses, once housed Nike antiaircraft missiles. Today an observatory deck on one of the old batteries has views of Jamaica Bay, New York Harbor and the Manhattan skyline. Fort Tilden is one of the best places on New York Harbor to observe hawks during the fall migration. Breezy Point Tip occupies the westernmost part of the Rockaway peninsula, forming one side of the outer "gateway" to New York Harbor, its 200 acres contain oceanfront beach, bay shoreline, dunes and coastal grasslands. Breezy Point Tip is a nesting area for the threatened piping plover. Jacob Riis Park is an ocean beach with a boardwalk and historic bathhouse with art deco elements, it was built by powerful New York planner and administrator Robert Moses, was named after journalist and reformer Jacob Riis.
Staten Island Unit is located on the southeastern shore of Staten Island facing Lower New York Bay. It includes Hoffman and Swinburne Islands, both off limits to visitation and managed for the benefit of avian species; the unit includes the following three